Abstract – The soil quality (SQ) on forest land is a prerequisite for services which are considered beneficial to society such as carbonsequestration, biodiversity, wood production and water for drinking water production. It is essential to manage the forests in a sustainable way to secure the SQ in a long-term perspective. In this paper, we identify and propose methods to quantify the impact of forest management on SQ in the temperate and boreal region. We have looked at several indicators to assess the impact of forest management on SQ, such as nutrient pools and fluxes (input-output budgets), pH, bulk density, porosity, soil formation rate and sediment yield as well as total carbon (C). Our analysis is based on meta analyses, reviews and scientific reports. We identified harvesting of biomass to cause a significant decrease in the soil content of almost all nutrients and an increase in soil acidification depending on the weathering capacity of the soil minerals and the kind and intensity of biomass removal. Especially, input-output budgets were appropriate indicators for SQ in relation to the impact of harvesting operations. A change in tree species might also accelerate the negative nutrient balance and acidification both due to increase in biomass harvesting and increased deposition of air pollution compounds. Today’s modern intensive forestry includes heavy machine trafficking with great influence on SQ. A macropore volume <10% has been observed to restrict root growth. This critical value for macro-pore volume seems to be a valuable indicator across a wide range of soils, whereas the use of bulk density as an indicator is more difficult since the it varies widely even within site. Many monitoring networks are available worldwide which can be used in future work on the establishment of further critical indicator values. This work will increase our understanding of how human disturbances impacts SQ and how to react to such changes in the forest ecosystem, ultimately leading to more sustainable use of the forest soil resource.
Tropical forests are one among the rich and complex terrestrial ecosystems store approximately 50% of the worlds living terrestrial carbonand also harbor variety of life forms. They are important both ecologically and economically, and have direct bearing on regulating the biosphere climate and also meeting the diverse needs of biomass. However, during last few decades increased anthropogenic perturbations, over grazing and alarming rates of land transformation caused severe environmental degradation and affected the biogeochemical cycle, biological diversity, productivity and consequently altered the global ecology (King et al., 1997). The quantitative as well as qualitative information on land use pattern and vegetation status are necessary for formulating useful policies for timber harvesting, conserving biodiversity, carbonsequestration, combating environmental hazards and sustainable management of the resources. The data on biomass and forest productivity are scarce in many important tropical forests.
Abstract: The long-term effects of reforestation versus maintained grassland on microbial community structure and nutrient cycling provide a valuable perspective on ecosystem health andcarbonsequestration potential of tropical soils in the heavily deforested Northern Zone of Costa Rica. The soil from the secondary forests in this area had greater levels of phosphate, inorganic nitrogen, organic carbon, respiratory activity, abundance and diversity of Basidomycete rDNA, abundance of fungal rDNA, and lower abundance but greater diversity of Rhizobium rDNA, and less abundance of nifH gene DNA than soils from adjacent grasslands of the same age. Critical correlations were observed between the abundance of Basidiomycete rDNA and laccase gene with the levels of phosphate, microbial biomass, organic carbon use efficiency, and percent water saturation. These data suggest a trend towards the secondary forest soils becoming more fungal-dominant, with greater microbial activity, greater nitrogen mineralization activity and more efficient use of carbon. This project provides some of the first evidence that the management strategy of regeneration of secondary forests results in more complex soil ecosystems, with greater potential for carbonsequestration than the maintained grasslands.
Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle. Forests sequester carbon by conducting photosynthesis, which is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of sugar. Carbonsequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of GHG's and climate change. The present investigation was carried out to determine carbonsequestration potential of hybrid Eucalyptus. This study was conducted primarily to develop a prediction model of carbon storage capacity for plantation forest of hybrid Eucalyptus in Aek Nauli, Simalungun District, North Sumatera. Models were tested and assessed for statistical
In Thailand, reforms are being pressed for through extensive mobilisation by indigenous peoples’ organisations, community based movements and NGOs with support from other sectors like academia. Progress has been frustrated by opposing NGOs and the failure of the popular movement to secure enough support in the legislature. In Nepal, community forestry reforms are now being pushed by a mass movement of communities with much NGO and CSO support and continuing support from the donor community. Likewise the important role of donors and international agencies in piloting policy reforms was highlighted for Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. In Cambodia, NGOs are beginning to consolidate their work often linked their efforts to intentional NGOs and UN agencies but admit they lack capacity, skills and knowledge. In Vietnam, the government accepts a multi- stakeholder approach within limits and is responsive to evidence from successful pilot schemes and donor influence. A new law now allows civil society networks which, however, have yet to be activated to explore this new political space. In the Lao PDR, political space continues to be more limited and reform efforts are being pursued largely within the confines of government departments, with some encouragement from multi-lateral and bi-lateral donors and the few international NGOs active in the sector.
Where new plantations are proposed, APP will respect the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, including recognition of customary land rights. APP has committed to independent HCV assessments as part of this commitment and will, in consultation with stakeholders, develop further measures to implement FPIC.
This approach to mitigating climate change has long been undervalued. Although governments claim ownership over most of the world’s forests, the real stewards of much of these areas are Indig- enous Peoples and local communities with deep historical and cultural connections to the land. Around the world, millions of communities depend on forests for basic needs and livelihoods. These Indigenous Peoples and local communities can help avoid the destruction of the forestsand associated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and instead main- tain their forests as carbon sinks, absorbing harm- ful CO 2 from the atmosphere.
By analyzing the above results, it can be found that forest area and tree cover percentage are the major factors reflecting regional carbonsequestration capacity. Usually, the larger the area and the higher the tree cover percentage, and the carbonsequestration capacity will also be stronger. In addition, the structure of forest land (a combination of trees at different age) is also an important factor influencing forest carbonsequestration. Therefore, in order to promote the forest carbonsequestration capacity and improve the regional ecological environment, we need to select the forest types with carbonsequestration advantage, and make good planning and management of forest land when enlarging the forest area and increasing the tree cover percentage. Last but not least strictly following the national policy of returning farmland to forest can also effectively help us improve the regional carbonsequestration capacity.
REDD+ development in Lao PDR is moving rapidly. The country has been receiving support from many development agencies to start REDD+ pilot activities, including the recently received US$3.6 million from the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) of the World Bank to be used between 2014 and 2017 for supporting REDD+ readiness. The Department of Forestry (DoF) has been selected as the focal agency for utilizing the FCPF money, specifically to kick-start consultations with a range of REDD+ readiness stakeholders. The consultations began in mid- February and the program is currently focused in two provinces: Huoaphan and Champasak. The key planned activities include: i) developing national REDD+ strategies; ii) developing reference emission levels; iii) designing measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) systems; and iv) setting up REDD+ national management arrangements with the proper safeguards included. This REDD+ initiative could prove a big step forward for Lao PDR in strengthening and speeding up REDD+ development in the country.
Biomass distribution of oil palm in each sample plant and plant plots (Figure 3) shows a high diversity. Biomass plant will increase with the increasing age of the plant. Growth of plants in the nursery is very dependent on the applied fertilizer treatment. On the other hand the growth of plant in the field is dependent on fertilizer treatment and also soil characteristics. So, the growth of plants in the field are moslty to be better in response to the land.
W e commit to actively promoting and supporting the responsible resolution of any conlicts involving GAR operations with legitimate parties concerned at the time the underlying events occurred. This will include working with relevant stakeholders to ensure that a balanced, accountable, mutually agreed and documented conlict resolution system is accessible to smallholders, indigenous peoples, rural communities and other afected parties in order to deal with complaints, grievances and resolve conlicts to the mutual satisfaction of the parties based on respect for their legal and customary rights, including to lands and resources and their right to give or withhold their
There is a widespread belief that shifting cultivation, logging and clearing of upland catchments is a major cause of downstream flooding, with the argument revolving round the loss of the “sponge effect” of the forest (Hamilton, with King, 1983; Enters, 1992; The Nation, 2012). Certainly, if heavy rain occurs following a lengthy period of dry weather, then some of the rain will go towards satisfying the soil water deficit that has built up. As previously pointed out, forests are heavy users of water, compared with most other vegetation types; so there may be a greater soil water deficit built up under forests than under other vegetation types, at least on deep soils. When this occurs, the amount of water available to flow into streams in forested catchments will be less than that in non-forested catchments during the first rains of the wet season. For example, catchment water-balance studies in a heavy rainfall environment in northern Australia indicated that, at the end of the dry season, a forested catchment required 291 mm of rain to satisfy the soil water deficit, whereas an adjacent recently cleared catchment required only 94 mm – a difference of 197 mm (Gilmour, 1975). In that situation, the first 197 mm of rain at the beginning of the wet season would have gone into bringing the forested catchment to the same soil water status as the cleared catchment. However, once soils (under all vegetation types) are saturated, there is no further capacity to absorb water. Additional rain will quickly find its way into stream channels. This is particularly relevant in humid tropical regions, such as those affected by the Asian monsoon, which are subject to extended heavy wet seasons.
As John O. Niles, the director of the Tropical Forest Group, put it, “REDD is the frontrunner in the twisting race to reach political agreement on climate change.” Projects to test how REDD+ might work on the ground have sprung up in Bolivia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Madagascar, and many other countries. REDD+ is being advanced in a number of international fora, as well as by NGOs and communities around the world. REDD+ has already generated billions of dollars of financial commitments from rich country governments and the private sector, although the vast majority of this is dependent on future results, i.e. carbon stored in forests, and has yet to be paid out. It is also only a fraction of the long-term investment required to make the system work.
suggests either that the treatment used does not include compounds toxic for this activity, or that the increase due to microbial growth and/or the addition of microbial cells or enzymes with the amendment counteract any inhibitory eect due to toxic com- pounds. Garcia et al. (1994) studied the in¯uence of some toxic compounds (for example, heavy metals), contained in organic amendments such as municipal solid wastes on soil microbial activity in semiarid zones; the positive eect of the organic matter on bio- logical soil quality counteracted the negative eect pro- duced by these toxic compounds. The highest activities of these two enzymes involved in the N cycle were found when organic soil amendment was used along with direct mycorrhizal inoculation. As shown by Table 3, these two factors (organic amendment and direct mycorrhizal inoculation) signi®cantly stimulated the activities of these N cycle enzymes.
tropical montane rain forest diﬀ er markedly from those in temperate forests. A marked diﬀ erence between the studied tropical forest and the temperate forest studied by Scheu and Schaefer (1998) and Maraun et al. (2001) is soil pH. Low soil pH at the studied tropical rain forest likely favoured the dominance of fungi over bacteria (Bååth and Anderson 2003, Krashevska et al. 2008). As discussed above, increased microbial biomass by the addition of C likely was due to increased fungal biomass, with bacteria even suﬀ ering from additional C due to suppression by saprotrophic fungi. Since testate amoebae predominantly feed on bacteria detrimental eﬀ ects of the addition of C likely resulted from increased dominance of fungi, with fungi being low quality or unavail- able prey; predator–prey relationships may even be reversed with fungi preying on testate amoebae (Pussard et al. 1994). According to Pussard et al. (1994) gram negative bacteria are more palatable to protozoa than gram positive bacte- ria, mycobacteria and actinomycetes. Our data support this assumption as the density of testate amoebae correlated with PLFA markers of gram negative bacteria.
Carbonsequestration in soils has become an ac- tive research area of international scope because of concern about human influence on the carbon cycle, pursuit of the ‘missing carbon sink’, and restoration of degraded soils. It is generally acknowledged that con- version of native vegetation to agriculture has resulted in an enormous net transfer of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere. The substantially less-clear, sci- entific, economic, and political issues concerning the implementation of strategies to reverse these losses and offset future fossil fuel emission are the subject of this book.
A panel comprising Dr. Phouang Parisak Pravongviengkham (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Lao People’s Democratic Republic), Prof. Benchapun Ekasingh (Chiang Mai University, Thailand), Ms. Sandra Moniaga (HuMA or Association for Community and Ecologically-based Law Reform, Indonesia), Mr. John Samuel (Action Aid Regional Office, Bangkok) and Mr. Ghan Shyam Pandey (Federation of Community Forest Users, Nepal, FECOFUN) set the stage for the Conference discussions. They presented the main opportunities and constraints for forestry to contribute to poverty reduction from their perspectives. They highlighted the need to address policy constraints to recognition of the rights of the poor as well as the need to adopt a cross-sectoral approach to addressing rural poverty.