Natural water storage in upper catchments is reduced with serious downstream looding, damaging land and infrastructure and inshore marine ecosystems. he country is mindful of the fact that its isheries are also at particular risk of depletion, degradation and over- exploitation. In 2007, it was estimated US$36 million was being lost to the ishing industry and destruction of natural marine life in the waters of the Timor Sea by piracy. Increased protection by navy patrol vessels will enhance protection. A Natural Disaster Plan has been adopted and the National Disaster Risk Management Policy implemented at national and district levels to support and improve engagement in areas afected by natural disasters.
Indeed, gaining more in-depth information about matters relating to sexual health is crucial to our health. It should cover the areas of sexual behavior, personal care, and reproductive health. It is not only a means to understand how we can protect ourselves from harm, it is also a way to know how we can enjoy our existence and promote new life.
In general, there is a wide variation in the application of EHR. There are already using the computer but are stand alone to store the patient data. This kind of has also a variety of functions, beginning from which only includes diagnosis, to the one completed with the treatment and even some are completed with the forms of the hygiene condition and household sanitation (which ultimately never be filled out). There is also applying realtime multi-user with a local area network (LAN). Health care facilities can have an electronic patient data records with different conditions.
In the 1990s, Lippeveld et al. (2000) and others promoted the development of routine healthinformation systems in devel- oping countries, emphasizing management of the health system. The core components of the information system (Figure 1) were described as the development of indicators based on managementinformation needs, data collection, transmission, and processing and analysis, which all lead to information use. The authors assumed that if senior manage- ment provided the resources (finances, training material, reporting forms, computer equipment, etc.) and developed organizational rules (RHIS policies, data collection procedures, etc.) then the information system would be used and sustained. During that same period, international donors such as UNICEF and USAID heavily influenced healthinformation system development. Despite paying attention to management infor- mation needs, the information systems were modelled upon the epidemiological surveillance system, focusing on a single disease (e.g. diarrhoeal disease, or acute respiratory disease) or on a group of diseases (e.g. the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). This led to the creation of a series of vertical information systems and a cadre outside of the healthmanagement system to manage information systems. It also caused a dichotomy between information system professionals (data people) and health systems managers (action people) who could not understand each other’s role and responsibilities, and the need to work together (Lind and Lind 2005).
z How much infrastructure? Justifying information system applications is not an easy job due to the intangible benefits and the rapid changes in technologies that often make systems obsolete. Justifying infrastructure is even more difficult since many users and applications share the
Perangkat lunak sistem merupakan kumpulan instruksi yang digunakan untuk pengkoordinasian dan pengendalian atas penggunaan perangkat keras dan mendukung eksekusi perangkat lunak aplikasi yang digunakan oleh pemakai ( user ). Perangkat lunak sistem biasanya dibeli dari pihak ketiga karena sifatnya umum dan dibuat dengan bahasa mesin atau assembly sehingga sulit untuk dikembangkan sendiri. Yang tergolong dalam perangkat lunak sistem antara lain; sistem operasi ( operating system s), sistem manajemen basis data ( database management systems ), penterjemah bahasa pemrograman ( language translator ), program utiliti ( utility programs ) dan pengontrol komunikasi ( communications controllers ). Dua yang disebut pertama akan dijelaskan lebih detail dalam sub
• Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, an installation of integrated systems of people, materials, information, equipment, and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems.
period between waves was 7 years, not 3). For the individual target households (including splitoff households as separate) the re-contact rate was a little lower, 90.6%. Among IFLS1 dynasties, 90.3% were either interviewed in all 4 waves, or died (Tables 2.1, 2.2), some 6,523 households, of which 6,329, or 87.6% are actually interviewed in all 4 waves. These re-contact rates are as high as or higher than most longitudinal surveys in the United States and Europe. High re-interview rates were obtained in part because we were committed to tracking and interviewing individuals who had moved or split off from the origin IFLS1 households. High re-interview rates contribute significantly to data quality in a longitudinal survey because they lessen the risk of bias due to nonrandom attrition in studies using the data. Second, the multipurpose nature of IFLS instruments means that the data support analyses of interrelated issues not possible with single-purpose surveys. For example, the availability of data on household consumption together with detailed individual data on labor market outcomes, health outcomes and on health program availability and quality at the community level means that one can examine the impact of income on health outcomes, but also whether health in turn affects incomes.