The result showed that the householdwaste before treatment was in the quality standard of householdwaste water according to PP. 82 Tahun 2001, except that of nitrite (0.2982 mg/l), which is above the quality standard (0.06 mg/l). Lotus reduced up to 90.64% of TSS, 6.31% of pH, 59.35% of BOD, 22.77% of nitrite, and 23.43% of sulfate; wlingen reduced up to 83.04% of TSS, 13.12% of pH, 58.23% of BOD, 48.32% of nitrite, and 11.76% of sulfate; and kiapu reduced up to 89.47% of TSS, 6.19% of pH, 40.89% of BOD, 41.72% of nitrite, and 13.24% of sulfate. All plants significantly reduced TSS (p < 0,0120), pH (p = 0,000), BOD (p = 0,000), and sulfate (p < 0,007), except nitrite (p = 0,270). LSD test showed that lotus was more in reducing TSS, BOD, and sulfate compared to that of wlingen and kiapu. However, TSS of control was lower. This due to no debris of plant or other suspended source in control pot.
Volume sampah in Indonesia was 490.000 ton/ day or 178.850.000 ton/ year, Which 50% was householdwaste (Ministry of Environment of Indonesia, 2012). Anaerobic composting not as popular as aerobic composting in Indonesia. Anaerobic composting is very simple, it dont need turnig, watering etc to decompose waste. The objective of this research is to design bioreactor modification and analyze the compost quality and the effectiveness to reduce waste, so it suitable for urban communities to composting their waste. Anaerobic and aerobic bioreaktor modification was design by plastic mineral drinking water 19 litter. The row organic materials are 3 kg kithcen waste, fruits waste 1 kg (bioreaktor anaerobic 1 and aerobic 3) and 3 kg Kithcen waste, fruids waste 1 kg, added inoculation of micro-organisms as Effective Microorganism (EM4) in 1 cc/ 500 ml water (Bioreactor anaerobic 2 and aerobic 4 ). Temperature the row material at 20.2°C (Biorea ctor 1 and 3) and at 25°C (Bioreaktor 2 and 4); pH value at 4.3 (Bioreactor 1 and 3) and 5.5 (Bioreaktor 2 and 4); moisture at 86.3 (Bioreactor 1 and 3) and 80.1 (Bioreaktor 2 and 4); carbon into Nitrogen ratios (C/N) at 23.4 (Bioreactor 1 and 3) and 18.53 (Bioreaktor 2 and 4). Monitoring temperature and pH value are show at 20°C and 6.0 (Bioreaktor 3) and at 2.2 °C and 6.7 (Bioreaktor 4). Compost Quality appropriate with Indonesia compost Standart (SNI 19-7030-2004). Anaerobic bioreactor modification can reduse organic waste bigger than aerobic bioreactor modification. It is recommendation to applying to the urban community because of simple, no need turning, watering etc and effective to reduce waste.
In Regional Regulation No. 2 of 2014 on Management of HouseholdWaste and Other Similar Types of Waste in Sumedang Regency, Article 44, it is stated that no one shall be allowed to: (b) dispose of waste on environmental medium or inappropriate place; and (f) burn waste on land in the open which does not meet technical requirement of waste management. This problem is resulted from regional regulation on waste management that is not promoted evenly to public. Promotion on waste management is administered by Work Team for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation ( Kelompok Kerja Air Minum dan Penye- hatan Lingkungan or AMPL ) once every 3 months or at least twice a year. How- ever, the promotion is still limited within Sumedang City and not yet to every community in all districts in Sumedang. Promotion in the districts is still limited to representatives of community. And sanction given to people who dispose of waste improperly is still limited to warning and correctional. Sanction given is supposedly according to regional regulation enacted.
The result of this research show that there are many types of organic waste in the Gadingrejo and Panggungrejo village, and also annorganic waste in Tambaan, Ngemplakrejo and Mandaranrejo village. Most of the community research area are still not doing the sorting and processing of waste. Most of the community research area are still not doing the sorting and processing of waste. Most of the community research area already collect garbage at polling stations and transported it to the landfill, but there is a community that still burns trash, even dumps it in rivers and the sea. Most of the research area community willing to offer participation in the form of labour. Therefore referrals are given tailored to each RW in every neighborhood, including the formation of environment cadres, the trash banks, the provision of the trash sorting garbage bin, the increased of waste infrastructure, and the establishment of sanitation district as well as the associated regulations enforcement regrading garbage handling violation.
As a losing country in World War II, Japan takes a lot of time to rise from adversity, which one of them is a the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the nuclear bomb that became the end of Japanese leadership in Asia. Until the 1960s, the Japanese rose to an industrialized country which was focused on productivity and less concerned about environmental issues. One such case is water pollution with mercury-containing wastes by the chisso Minamata plant which resulted in fish contaminated and killed approximately 1.700 victims consisting of fisher and residents who consumed seafood from contaminated sea. furthermore, as a developing industrial country, environmental pollution occur much, not to mention the householdwaste problems.
One of the important things in doing waste management is sorting of waste which owned by the community. Tokyo cultivates 3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in managing good waste as did the Japanese "choinakai" movement. They are people who started the culture or habit of managing waste properly. The movement continues to grow and is supported by various layers of society in Japan. Although the movement of environmental care in the community is growing rapidly, but the Japanese government does not yet have regulations or laws governing waste processing. At that time, environmental issues have not been a priority for the Japanese government. Japan just issued a law about 20 years later. They see positive developments with great support from the rest of society. The Japanese Parliament issued the Basic Law for the Promotion of the Formation of Recycling Oriented Society. Previously, they had issued Containers and Packaging Recycle Law first in 1997. Based on these, there are at least three secrets of Japanese success in handling householdwaste. • First, the high priority of the community in the recycling program. Almost all Japanese understand the
Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi yang berguna bagi pihak-pihak yang terlibat dalam pelaksanaan proyek konstruksi dalam usaha mengurangi dampak yang ditimbulkan oleh waste dalam pelaksanaan proyek konstruksi.
Solid waste and sewage treatment B3 is a series of activities which include the collection, storage, use, transportation and processing. PT.Pelindo cooperation with PT.Nazar as waste transportation company having certifications, there are 6 terminals (pier) which produces B3 waste as well as several points of the waste in the area PT.Pelindo branch Banjarmasin.
The sampling frame used for the 2015 AfDHS is an updated version of the Household Listing Frame, prepared in 2003-04 and updated in 2009, provided by the Central Statistics Organization (CSO). The sampling frame had information on 25,974 enumeration areas (EAs). An EA is a geographic area consisting of a convenient number of dwelling units that serve as counting units for the census. The sampling frame contained information about the location (province, district, and control area), the type of residence (urban or rural), and the estimated number of residential households for each of the 25,974 EAs. Satellite maps were also available for each EA, which delimited the geographic boundaries of the area. The sampling frame excluded institutional populations such as persons in hotels, barracks, and prisons.
a householder (usually mother or one responsible for preparing food at home) makes daily record of all foods entering the household, either purchased,received as gifts, or produced for household use during a specified period, usually seven days.
Shin-Koto Inceneration Plant is the largest inceneration plant in Tokyo which built in September 1998 and plays an essential role of processing waste produced within 23 cities in Tokyo. The features of this plant such as a)National top-class waste disposal plant. As one of the biggest plant in Japan, this plant incinerates 1,800 ton waste per day and about 400,000 ton per year, b) Air pollution prevention. Plant removes most of hydrogen chloride containes in exhaust, dust, sulfur oxides, and mercury ; c) Compatible with the global and local environment.
4.15 How much did this household spend in the last month a Electricity ……………… for each type of fuel used in the household? (in Afghanis) b Gas ……………………… READ ALL QUESTIONS a-f c Fuel, oil ………………… IF HOUSEHOLD DID NOT SPEND ON A SPECIFIC d Firewood ……………… TYPE OF FUEL, WRITE '0' e Charcoal, coal ………… IF 'DON'T KNOW', WRITE '888' f Ping, straw, manure … 4.16 What main toilet facility does your household use? Open pit ………………………………… 1
Pure culture of Lactobacillus casei, Lb. delbruecki and Streptoccocus faecalis, and isolate from sago waste were used in the preliminary observation. Firstly, pure culture of Lb. casei, Lb. delbruecki and S. faecalis were cultivated into liquid media of MRSB (37 0 C for 2 days) to make stock culture. All stock cultures and sago isolate were cultivated into 10 ml MRSB and incubated at 37 0 C for 2 days, which then cultivated again into 120 ml MRSB at 37 0 C for 24 hours. The yield, called as work culture, was fresh culture ready to use for fermentation process. To determine the bacteria suitable for tapioca/sago wastes, fermentation was done using Lb. casei, Lb. delbruecki and S. faecalis bacteria. In the other hand to determine the suitable isolate, precipitation test on litmus milk and skim milk, gram coloring analyze, growth ability analyze and reducing sugar analyze were carried out. The main media used in this experiment were tapioca industrial waste and sago starch industrial waste obtained from Bogor-West Java. The organic matter of the waste such as total nitrogen, total reducing sugar, total titratable acid (TTA) and starch content were measured by proximate analyses.
2. Setelah didapatkan waste tertinggi adalah defect (produk cacat) dan ditemukan cacat warna hilang dengan prosentase yang paling banyak dan yang kedua adalah defect kain terkena noda maka dari itu di lakukan perbaikan dengan menggunakan 5R (Ringkas, Rapi, Resik, Rawat dan Rajin) dengan mengontrolnya yaitu dengan cara:
Health-care activities such as immunization, diagnostic tests, medical treatment, and laboratory examinations protect and restore health and save lives. On the other hand, unsafe management and improper disposal of the wastes and by-products of these activities pose a number of life- threatening risks. Often due to inefficient systems, these infectious and hazardous wastes are mixed with general waste and thrown in landfill sites, thereby converting them into hazardous places. To address the solid waste problems in Bir hospital, a system was designed using a zero waste programme so that the waste disposed into Kathmandu’s municipal waste stream is negligible.