Community need to adopt and implement an ecological approach to human settlement planning is to ensure explicit embodiment of environmental concerns in planning process and thus promote sustainability. It is one of four actions toward sustainable urban development (Munro, DA, 1991). Thoughtful planning and an integrated approach to design can create buildings that are not only elegant but are also sensitive to their physical setting, economical to build, energy efficient and which will have a long useful life. The fundamental issues that affect the environment both in and around a building which need to be considered in the development toward sustainable are: site planning, orientation, the characteristic of material, building envelope, design of the skin of the building (Stuart Johnson, 1993).
R apid growth of population, especially for low-income people lead to control of land for housing illegally. Appearance the slum settlements and illegal (squatters) caused by the growing number of people faster than the government ability in setting up housingand services. Unbalance condition between growth and number of populated with development of a properness residents are increasing amount of slum residents.
In the thrird chapter discusses communication strategy through media education: an efort to achieve harmony andsustainability in Indonesia- Malaysia relations - concludes a guidance should be provided to the public so that they can be more critical and wise in dealing with any negative news. A critical community is a community who is able to diferentiate the written and hidden message of writing. A wise community is the one who is not provoked by provocative and negative news. Indonesian and Malaysian should be aware that each of them has had a signiicant contribution one to another. A good example can be seen through the assistant of Malaysian people in the disaster recovery process in Indonesia and the existence of Indonesia migrant workers in the Malaysia’s economic development. However, Indonesia-Malaysia rela-tions is always changing and tend to lead to conlict situations. he role of media and media educationis importantas a communication strategy to implement the problem solving modelin understanding the global situation and the public policies who are based theory of cultural conlict and acculturation. Chapter fourth, the author emphasized Indonesian Culture Heritages in the 21 St Century.
This discussion opened with the observation that geography has not capitalised on its opportunities to provide strong intellectual leadership with regard to understanding urban development. Instead, it has joined the crowd with ‘critical’ rejections of the contemporary urban experience, a standpoint that offers no succour to residents of a planet with a population that is growing and which must (literally) accommodate 2 billion more urban residents. These families cannot be housed in versions of Portland, sustained by a lifestyle of heightened gentility. Nor, obviously enough, should they be crammed into a twenty-first-century version of Bijlmermeer (the vast and notorious housing development in Amsterdam), or the Lea Valley in the UK (see Pacione, 2013), or any one of the thousands of brutalist slums offered up by architects and planners in former decades.
a burst main, is to inform residents when their water services will be shut off, particularly if it will be for more than one day. When interviewing residents from the African informal settlement of Joe Slovo, in the township of Langa (Cape Town municipality), about why their water was cut off, the majority of respondents replied that their water was cut off due to repairs and that they were notified in advance so as to be able to make alternative arrangements for accessing water. When I interviewed residents in Monwabisi Park, an African informal settlement in the township of Khayelitsha (Tygerberg administration), service users complained that they were never informed when their water was cut off for repairs, even when the duration was more than a full day. Considering the relative isolation of this community from other sources of water supply, this situation forced people living in the settlement to walk up to an hour to a nearby cemetery in an adjacent municipality to gain access to water. The brunt of the effects of contractors’ efforts to cut costs by sidestepping standard customer protocols falls on the poorest in the city. If the intent of decentralizing service delivery to non-state actors is to empower local entrepreneurs, care must be taken in monitoring how accountability to the public is upheld as partnerships become disassociated from existing institutions (Newman and Verpraet 1999). A second problem related to the unbundling of services is the inability of local authorities to properly monitor and coordinate between the different contractors of services that have been outsourced. For instance, the Cape Town approach to dealing with illegal water connections is to cut off people by removing their water meter and a portion of the pipe that is connected to it. The water cutoffs and the removal of the meter from the ground are contracted out to two separate companies. An interview with a widow living in a formal settlement within the coloured township of Mitchells Plain, who had just had her water cut off for the third time, stated that she had just gathered sufficient resources to pay the fee for the reconnection. Yet after three days of waiting she still did not have her water service reconnected. The explanation she was given by the local authorities was that the contracted company who removed the meter out of her front yard had not yet been informed by the billing department and had to first reinstall the meter before the city could reconnect the water supply. It should be noted that these outcomes are not unique to the process of corporatization, but are the result of decentralizing service delivery with cost recovery imperatives driving the initiative, rather than placing social rights to water first.
• The seventh-largest economy in the world by 2030 with 135 million members of consuming class; 71% of urban population producing 86% of GDP; 113 million skill workers needed; and $1.8 trillion market opportunity in agriculture and fisheries, consumer services, resources, and education.
• It is unavoidable that Kampong has its own problem as it might, due to sanitation, epidemic centers of contagious diseases; its densely populated condition cause easy widespread of fire, if any; and it is easy to be blamed as hiding places of narcotic dealers.
• A planned capacity to accommodate a 20-year forecast of housing needs and employment growth, if the area affected by the boundary i ludes ultiple jurisdi tio s a spe ial ur a pla i g age a e reated the state or regional to manage the boundary (a guide to zoning and land use decision)
The dominating private sector control more than 30.000 ha housingland but between 1985 to 2010 these new towns are able to provide housing only for 800.000 person. In the same time the population of Greater Jakarta was increasing from 12 to 25 Mio.
Green Technology can be defined as the application and evolution of products, equipment and systems that used to protect the natural environment and resources, which minimize and lower the negative impact of human activities (Kettha, 2013). From the definitions before, it shows that the main purpose of developing the Green Technology is to preserve environment on the earth from being harm. Asian and Pacific Centre for Agricultural Engineering and Machinery (APCAEM) did a study entitled A Feasibility Study on the Application of Green Technology for Sustainable Agriculture Development. In this study, the term green technology is a wide way term for more environmentally friendly solutions (pravinsankalp, 2014) and the Green Technology application is focused at the linking of agriculture with the environment-friendly technology in which it will contribute to both poverty reduction and sustainable agriculture development. The findings of this study
Another of the aspects to be considered in the city planning must be the vulnerability before the risks generated in the city or the global ones that affect it, avoiding future social and environmental disasters. In Mexico, a fifth part of the population live in high zones in danger of floods and in the centre zone of the country is concentrated a large part of the human settlements and the economic activities. Mexico City's periphery is a zone of high social and environmental vulnerability, it presents problems associated to the climatic variations such as landslides, floods or shortage of water supply, many of these urban areas are above aquiferous mantles, with a pollution potentiality; but also there is an interrelation with the rural zones. All these factors must be included in the territorial, urban and urban planning with an integrated perspective, and not through three different and not coordinated planning. It is a reality that the soil policy is not far from the environmental policies.
The study of succession planning activities discovers how succession planning affects the business sustainability. This is because a smart planning will gives a beneficial effect to the business in a long term. Most of the researchers study about how to sustain the business but very few researchers who study about the succession planning towards business sustainability. This is because succession planning is one of the factors that can give effect to the business sustainability. Nowadays, we can see that businesses that have been established in 5 years and above will usually start having a problem in terms of management of the business operation. This is proven by Reiss (2006) that said some statistics suggest that the failure rate of small businesses in their first five years is more than 50%. It shows that the earlier growth of the business, the possibility for them to face a failure is high. This is because many of the business owners did not have a good plan on how to build their next successor. Let say the owner of the business never thinks about the next successor, high probability their business to be closed is high. So SMEs must realize about this matter quickly.
Source: Sarosa (forthcoming), Memahami Kota dan Urbanisasi: Menuju Transformasi Perkotaan yang Menyejahterakan, Jakarta: Expose [data were processed from United Nation-Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA). (2016). The 2014 Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/ (accessed 29/8/2016) and World Bank. (2016). World Bank Open Data. http://data.worldbank.org (accessed 29/8/2016)]
This is understandable, as in the economic recession, banks would be reluctant to grant housing loans to the developers and house buyer as they are many bankruptcy in the country. This may cause the party difficulties in getting bank loan as the bank may set the higher qualify and requirement for grant housing loan to protect its interest as the show business couples with high gearing ratio of borrowing and less generating profit by banks, traders and business entitle. The small and medium size developers may face difficulties to obtain the bridging funds from the bank and finally will cause them weaker financial capability. Furthermore, this phenomena keeps on recurring especially during the economic downturn and the inflation rate are high where it may cause the financial institutions not to approve any loans or even loans are approved. The charges of interest rate will certainly go up drastically and high to the developers and when the interest rate increases, it will cause the management of company operation cost to increase and this will reduce the developer's profit. Meanwhile, the problem may rise up as the bank simply approve the claims and without conduct further due diligence investigations and verifications of the truth of the certificates issued by the project architects and presented by the developers in the Sell-Off-The-Plan system
The majority of housing in the North America is made of wood, which in fact is very suitable for factory-built systems. Traditionally just like in other part of the world, stick-built (conventional) housing construction has been strong in the North America. This is partly due to some societal perceptions of a house as a unique and distinct creation that cannot be highly customized in a factory set-up [US Congress OTA]. Recently, however, many of the distinctions between stick-built and factory-built systems have been disappearing. This has been accelerated by the fact that the North American construction industry has been experiencing a severe shortage of skilled construction labour [Holdridge]. In addition to this, demand for affordable and high quality housing continues to grow both in the US and Canada, with the US Department of Housingand Urban Development and Canada Mortgage Housing Corporation reporting over more than 1.5 millions housing starts needed every year [CMHC]. Factory-built system certainly is favourable use for the North American industry to overcome this problem. In the US alone, modular, pre- cut and panellised housing are forecast to increase 1.7 percent annually through 2007 to 285,000 units, valued at US$11.8 billion [Fredonia Group].
Kampung as low income housing cannot be developed in isolation but should closely linked as integral part of the city or town for its lifeline in term of social, economic as well as physical and environmental aspects to include bio diversity and urban farming.
Desertification * expansion of the desert * is a grave problem that affects not only those countries in the direct path of the encroaching arid lands, but also has implications for the rest of the world. To give some idea of the scale of the problem, the last 50 years have seen the Sahara desert spread southwards to cover an extra 65 million hectares, and on a global scale, the area of useful land lost each year exceeds 6 million hectares