The psychovisual threshold represents the human visual system ’s sensitivity on the **image** intensity in term of **image** **compression**. The contribution of each frequency coefficient to the error reconstruction will be a primitive pyschovisual error. The psychovisual threshold appears in the value of the quantization table to assign the value of each frequency coefficient. This paper proposes a new technique to generate quantization tables based on psychovisual error threshold. This approach has been tested on TMT **image** **compression**. The new TMT quantization tables based on psychovisual threshold produces better quality **image** reconstruction at lower average bit length of Huffman code of the **image** **compression** than previously TMT quantization tables. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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More visual sensor means better view or scenery re- construction, but limitation of energy, computation, and bandwidth become issues to be addressed. Thus, an **image** **compression** technique is required to save those resources. A visual sensor selection method is also needed to genera- te virtual **image** with the lowest size of data transmission. In wireless network, energy required to transmit infor- mation is larger than energy to process data [3]. To save energy, there are some issues to be considered in this paper: 1) selecting images to be transmitted which has differences of the information from predefine **image** of each visual sensor, 2) Applying distributed **compression** to the captured images, 3) Reducing number of images or visual sensors as basic **image** to generate **image** on certain FoV

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Based on the discussion of the above studies, the main contribution of this research is to give solution for energy saving in distributed processing. The distributed processing by means of **image** **compression** and **image** selection which have different information to the infor- mation already stored in each visual sensor node. The use of energy on each process is measured. The quality of virtual view **image** is improved and compared to the result in [10]. WVSN platform XScale PXA 271 processor, visual sensor SOC OV 7670, and sensor board with Linux Embedded OS [11]–[13] are used in this research. This paper is organized as follows. Section II describes proposed scheme and system design. Section III presents testing, measurement and analysis of the system. Finally, section IV concludes the research.

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TMT does not involve any numerical approximation unlike most popular continues transform. The Tchebichef moment consists of rational numbers only which makes it simpler with lower computational complexity. An additional advantage, Tchebichef moment requires the evaluation of algebraic expression only. TMT has been widely used in many **image** processing applications such as **image** analysis [3], texture segmentation, multispectral texture, template matching, pose estimation, **image** reconstruction [4], **image** dithering [5][6], **image** projection [7] and **image** **compression** [8]-[10].

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Networks, Self-Organizing Feature Maps, Learning Vector Quantizer Network, have been applied to **Image** **Compression**. These networks contain at least one hidden layer, with fewer units than the input and output layers. The Neural Network is then trained to recreate the input data. Its bottleneck architecture forces the network to project the original data onto a lower dimensional manifold from which the original data should be predicted. The Back Propagation Neural Network Algorithm performs a gradient-descent in the parameter space minimizing an appropriate error function. The weight update equations minimize this error. The general parameters deciding the performance of Back Propagation Neural Network Algorithm includes the mode of learning, information content, activation function, target values, input normalization, initialization, learning rate and momentum factors. [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. The Back-propagation Neural Network while used for **compression** of various types of images namely standard test images, natural images, medical images, satellite images etc, takes longer time to converge. The **compression** ratio achieved is also not high. To overcome these drawbacks a new approach using Cumulative Distribution Function is proposed in this paper.

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JPEG standard transforms an 8×8 **image** pixel into a frequency domain. The discontinuities of the intensity **image** between adjacent **image** blocks cause the visual artifacts due to inter-block correlations in **image** reconstruction. The blocking artifacts appear by the pixel intensity value discontinuities which occur along block boundaries. This research proposes the psychovisual threshold on large Tchebichef moment to minimize the blocking artifacts. The psychovisual threshold is practically the best measure for the optimal amount of frequency **image** signals in the **image** coding. The psychovisual threshold is a basic element prior to generating quantization tables in **image** **compression**. The psychovisual threshold on the large Tchebichef moments has given significant improvements in the quality of **image** output. The experimental results show that the smooth psychovisual threshold on the large discrete Tchebichef moment produces high quality **image** output and largely free of any visual artifacts.

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This study proposes a novel adaptive psychovisual error threshold for TMT basis function. These thresholds are used to generate the custom quantization tables for adaptive TMT **image** **compression**. The experimental results show an adaptive TMT **image** **compression** based on psychovisual model performs better than JPEG **compression** in term of **image** visual quality and **compression** bit rate. The adaptive psychovisual threshold can be adopted to generate custom quantization table for TMT **image** **compression** based on user preference. Unlike adaptive JPEG **compression**, the adaptive TMT **image** **compression** does not visually introduce clear artifacts. The proposed psychovisual threshold functions can also be utilized in various digital **image** processing application such as super-resolution, watermarking and graphical animations.

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This paper proposes the use of a 2x2 forward discrete Tchebichef moments transform instead of **image** **compression**. The Tchebichef Moments Transform (TMT) is a method based on discrete Tchebichef polynomials [4]. Originally, the discrete Tchebichef moment does not involve any numerical approximations and the discrete basis set is orthogonal in the integer domain of the **image** coordinate. Unlike continuous moments, the discrete Tchebichef orthogonal moments have a unit weight and algebraic recursive relation that is ideally suted for square **image** of size NxN pixels.

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However, they are energized by small and irreplaceable batteries. Under such energy constraint condition, sensor nodes can only transmit a finite number of bits in their lifetime. Consequently, energy consumption and data transmission are always considered together in WSNs. Therefore, approaches to optimize data transmission are a critical issue. For **image**- based applications, one uses a wireless sensor network whereby the nodes are camera- equipped [2]. Since, heterogeneous sensor nodes are battery-powered; the **image** transfer in WSNs presents major challenge which raises issues related to its representation, its storage and its transmission [3]. In this context, **image** transmission optimization through WSNs is mainly done by the implementation of distributed **image** **compression** algorithm embedded in order to reduce the number of transmitted bits, thus reducing the energy consumption. The use of the distributed **image** **compression** in resource-constrained networks is essential. Even if the necessary total energy for the whole system is increased, the energy needed for every node is reduced, which prolongs the network lifetime. This technique is based on the fact that an individual node does not have sufficient computational power to completely compress a large volume of data to meet the application requirements; this is not possible unless the node distributes the computational task among other nodes. In this case, a distributed method to share the processing task is necessary.

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Firstly, need to have a clearly view on **image** **compression**. **Image** **compression** is reducing the size of amount of data used to represent an **image** by reduce the redundant data, so that the **image** can be stored in a given total of memory space (Padmaja & Nirupama, 2012). The compressed **image** files can be done in several ways. TIFF is a file format for storing images; hot between the graphic artists, the publishing industry, and both amateur and skilled photographers in general (Tagged **Image** File Format, 1992) .

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Data **compression** is the process of converting an input data into other data which has a smaller size. The data can be a file on a computer or a buffer in the computer’s memory. **Compression** is useful because it helps reduce the consumption of resources such as data space or transmission capacity. The use of singular value decomposition (SVD) in **image** **compression** has been widely studied. If the **image**, when considered as a matrix, has low rank, or can be approximated sufficiently well by a matrix of low rank, then SVD can be used to find this approximation. That is, by not include some elements of the **image**, the approximation has been able to represents the original **image**. This thesis presents a variation for SVD **image** **compression** technique proposed by Ranade et al. called SSVD. This variation can be viewed as a preprocessing step in which the input **image** is permuted by independent data permutation after it is fed to the standard SVD algorithm. Likewise, this decompression algorithm can be viewed as the standard SVD algorithm followed by a postprocessing step which applies the inverse permutation. On experimenting with some standard images, SSVD performs substantially better than SVD. This thesis also presents experiment evidence with other simulated images, which appears that SSVD isn’t better than SVD.

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he DCT coeicients from a large **image** block have been greatly discounted by quantization tables in **image** **compression**. An optimal amount of DCT coeicients is investigated by reconstruction error and average bit length of Hufman code. he efect of incrementing DCT coeicient has been explored from this experiment. he average recon- struction error from incrementing DCT coeicients is mainly concentrated in the low frequency order of the **image** signals. he new 256 × 256 quantization table from the psychovi- sual threshold produces a lower average bit length of Hufman code in **image** **compression** as shown in Table 4. At the same time, the compressed output images produce a better quality **image** reconstruction than the regular 8 × 8 default JPEG quantization tables as listed in Table 5. he new design on quantization tables from psychovisual threshold performs better by producing higher quality in **image** reconstruction at lower average bit length of Hufman code.

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Abstract —The visual quality **image** output of JPEG **compression** is determined by quantization process. The popular quality factor in the extended JPEG **image** **compression** has been widely used to scale up the quantization tables. The scaling quantization table using quality factor is used to determine the quality **image** output. The scaling up on the quantization tables increases their values uniformly thus produces higher **compression** performance. However, the effects of the scaling up on the human visual system have not been taken into consideration. This paper examines the quantization table design based on adaptive psychovisual threshold and numerical analysis of the **compression** performance in terms of quality **image** reconstruction and average bit length of Huffman code. The comparison between extended JPEG **image** **compression** using the typical quality factor and quality scale of psychovisual threshold has been done. The experimental results of adaptive quantization tables based on psychovisual threshold show an improvement on the quality of **image** reconstruction at the lower average bit length of Huffman's code.

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All three of these standards employ a basic technique known as the discrete cosine transform (DCT). Developed by Ahmed, Natarajan, and Rao [1974], the DCT is a close relative of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Its application to **image** **compression** was pioneered by Chen and Pratt [1984]. In this article, I will develop some simple functions to compute the DCT and show how it is used for **image** **compression**. We have used these functions in our laboratory to explore methods of optimizing **image** **compression** for the human viewer, using information about the human visual system [Watson 1993]. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the use of Mathematica in **image** processing and to provide the reader with the basic tools for further exploration of this subject.

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This paper presents a quantitative experimental impact on **image** **compression** based on the concept of psychovisual threshold. The 80 images (24-bit RGB with 512×512 pixels) are chosen for this quantitative experiment. The 80 images are classified into two categories which are 40 real **image** and 40 graphic images. First, the RGB color components are converted into luminance and chrominance. Next, the images are divided into the 8×8 size blocks and each block of the **image** data is transformed by a 2-dimensional DCT. The resulting DCT coefficients are incremented one by one up to a maximum order quantization table value. The effects of an increment on DCT coefficients are measured by the **image** reconstruction error.

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The psychovisual threshold represents the human visual system’s sensitivity to the **image** intensity in terms of **image** **compression**. These threshold functions represent the contribution of the moment coefficients to reconstruct the **image**. The level of contribution of each frequency coefficient to the reconstruction error will be a primitive pyschovisual error. Psychovisual threshold is used to determine the amount of moment coefficients to represent the visual details of **image** information. A psychovisual threshold can provide an optimal compact **image** representation at the least quantity of moments. The psychovisual threshold appears as the value of the quantization table to assign the frequency coefficient value of each moment order. This paper proposes a new technique to generate quantization tables based on psychovisual error threshold for TMT **image** **compression**. The new TMT quantization tables based on psychovisual threshold produces better quality **image** reconstruction at lower average bit length of Huffman's code of the **image** **compression**.

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F. Ernawan, N.A. Abu and N. Suryana, (2013). TMT Quantization Table Generation Based on Psychovisual Threshold for **Image** **Compression**. International Conference of Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT 2013), 20-22 March 2013, Bandung, Indonesia, pp. 202-207.

Common **image** **compression** standards are usually based on fre- quency transform such as Discrete Cosine Transform. We present a different approach for lossless **image** **compression**, which is based on a combinatorial transform. The main transform is Burrows Wheeler Transform (BWT) which tends to reorder symbols according to their following context. It becomes one of promising **compression** approach based on context modeling. BWT was initially applied for text com- pression software such as BZIP2 ; nevertheless it has been recently ap- plied to the **image** **compression** field. **Compression** schemes based on the Burrows Wheeler Transform have been usually lossless; therefore we implement this algorithm in medical imaging in order to recon- struct every bit. Many variants of the three stages which form the original **compression** scheme can be found in the literature. We pro- pose an analysis of the latest methods and the impact of their associa- tion and present an alternative **compression** scheme with a significant improvement over the current standards such as JPEG and JPEG2000 .

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