A good story usually has a high level of suspense . It aims to arouse the curiosity of the reader . Lelakone The Man lan ( LSM ) is one that has a Java fiction suspense superior levels . The set Cerkak Lelakone lan Suparto Brata Man 's work is important to study because there is a lot of suspense in it that makes the reader want to know the continuation of the story . Issues discussed in this paper are ( 1 ) How do the authors present a collection of suspense on cerkak Lelakone The Man lan Brata Suparto work ? ( 2 ) What are the ingredients used in the present suspense author on the set of Man lan cerkak Lelakone The Brata Suparto work ? This study aims to uncover the ways and means of presenting author in suspense on the work of NGOs cerkak collection Suparto Brata . Theoretical benefits of this research are expected to enrich the knowledge through literature as supporting science education , while this study is practically useful for ( a) the author , which can spur to make literature more interesting for the readers interest with respect to suspension , ( b ) Students majoring Java language , which adds to the knowledge in the development of literature , especially that dealing with suspense ( voltage ) . The theory used in this study is a theoretical plot and suspense .
ry, there is an external relation with the community’s belief about Dewi Lanjar, the ruling spirit of Java’s northern sea, as a savior goddess. In Jejibahan kang Nge-‐ wuhake, in the success of mobilizing the people to fight against the Dutch, there is an external relation with the myth of Ratu Adil (messianic leader) who is be-‐ lieved by Javanese people to be able to liberate them from sorrow caused by foreign colonization. The figure of such messianic leader is Sultan Agung Hanyakrakusuma. In Randha Calon Arang, in the story of Calon Arong, a powerful woman for having a high level black magic, who was killed while fight-‐ ing a holy character Empu Baradha, there is an external relation with the Ja-‐ vanese philosophy of life that “sura dira jayaningrat lebur dening pangastuti” misused bravery, power, and authority will be destroyed by good deeds. In Ki Ageng Tembayat, by the sufic way of life Ki Ageng Pandhanarang has taken, by turning into Ki Ageng Tembayat in the story, there is an external relation with the wisdom of Javanese life which is “lengser keprabon madek pandhita” (leave the kingship and assume the posi-‐ tion of a sage) referring to the story of Begawan Abiyasa.
Abstract: This paper aims to introduce Javanese letters to make it more widely-known and as the result it will be able to attract more people to know and learn Javanese letters. Words are an indicator reflecting that a country has gone through its advanced state of civilization entered to historical era. Javanese script is a pride for Javanese and also a sign of the beginning of their historical era. Javanese script has not been widely known. Even by the Javanese themselves, these characters are becoming obsolete, and just to witness the history of the nation. Though Javaneseliterature that amounts to 19.000 manuscripts and now scattered in 125 institutions in 22 countries were written in Javanese script. Of course, by studying Javanese script, a lot of historical facts that had been stored in the ancient manuscripts will be revealed. Therefore, this paper will try to emphasize all about Javanese letters in order to spread wider knowledge on Javanese letters towards international academic community. This paper will (1) discuss the origin of the Javanese script both scientifically and also from the tales that developed in the community, (2) introduce the forms and ways of writing Javanese letters, (3) discuss the symbolic philosophical values contained in Javanese letters. Javanese character do have symbolic values, among them as a symbol of human origin, symbol of devotion to God, giving instructions on how to capitalize on a prosperous life in this world, afterlife, and many more that will be explained in more detail in this paper. This paper also provides an overview of the condition and ways of learning Javanese characters in Elementary Schools, Junior High Schools and High Schools in Java. In addition, this paper will also elaborate the use of technology and the use of Javanese letter in public sector such as in writing the name of roads, and the use of Javanese letters in the convection industry, as the basis of motif design. Through this paper, it is expected that Javanese letters will be more widely-known and as a result it will be able to attract more people to know and learn Javanese letters.
The purpose of this research is to describe 1) the styles of nominal address, 2) the domains of kinship, 3) the relationship between kinship relation and social stratification toward the address terms and kinship system, and 4) the shift of address terms and kinship system in the district of Yogyakarta Palace. This research was based on a field survey and employed a descriptive-qualitative method from structural, semantic, and sociolinguistic perspective. The data were words and phrases related to the address terms and kinship system which were collected from oral and written sources. The trustworthiness of data analysis was carried out through triangulation, peer checking and comparing with some related previous studies. The result shows four important points. First, there are three kinds of nominal address; high, mid, and low style. Second, the kinship domains found in the district of Yogyakarta Palace are (1) sultanate, (2) aristocracy, (3) palace kinship, (4) familial relationship, (5) social status, (6) social stratification, (7) neighborhood, (8) the power in the palace. Third, kinship relation and social stratification influence the choice of nominal address. The choice of address terms are generally based on some considerations, namely, the desire to show respect, and kinship relationship (Javanese: awu). Finally, the shift of address terms and kindship system was represented through (1) shortening nominal address, (2) increasing the sense of democracy, (3) broadening function, (4) upgrading social forms to have a social admiration and 5) decreasing social stratification.
A much-debated question in narratology is the minimal demand for a narrative, as distinct from a reflection, a description or an argument. Most critics agree that causality and temporality are the indispensable elements. Causality is usually stronger in children’s literature, since authors apparently believe that young readers need clear relations between cause and effect, although there is no empirical research to prove this. The same is true of the idea that children prefer stories told in chronological order. In actual texts, there are always deviations from this strict chronological order in the form of temporal switches, interplay of different temporal levels, and so on. In contemporary children’s novels, temporal patterns can be extremely complicated; it has almost become a convention in itself, the paradigm set by such works as Dance on My Grave by Aidan Chambers, Johnny My Friend by Peter Pohl, or Walk Two Moons by Sharon Creech. Narrative theory not only helps critics to unravel the intricate temporal structures, but to put questions about their purpose and effect. A frequent temporal device is a flashback, or analepsis, a temporal switch to a time preceding the primary narrative. In children’s literature, there are certain limitations to the use of this device. For instance, with a first-person child narrator, that can be attractive for the author as it occasionally allows more self-reflection, the flashback cannot reach beyond the character’s age if the illusion of first-hand access to information is to be maintained. The temporal switch to the time following the primary narrative, flashforward, or prolepsis, is considered by narratologists to be less frequent (Genette 1980: 67). In children’s literature, didactic prolepses are on the contrary quite common, both in impersonal narration (‘She would remember for the rest of her life …’) and in personal narration (‘As I realised many years later …’), emphasising the distance between the narrator’s time and the narrative time. Fantasy novels for children presuppose another temporal pattern either ignored by narratologists or presented as exceptional: paralepsis, implying that time in the primary plot freezes while characters are transported into secondary worlds. The various patterns of narrative order, described by narratologists (Genette 1980: 33–85; Rimmon-Kenan 1983: 43–58; Bal 1997: 80–98), thus function rather differently in children’s texts.
Sociology can be defined as the science or systematic knowledge about the life of human group in relation to other human beings is generally called society. Sociology of literature is an approach that starts with an orientation to the author. Abrams (1981: 178) says, sociology literature imposed on the writings of literary critics and historians is primarily directed at the author of the ways a person is affected by the status of its class, the ideology of society, the economic circumstances associated with his work, and the type of the intended readers. All these aspects are summarized in the building of a copyright literary, one aspect of the build integrity of a story relates to disposition is always related to the author and the environment in which he lives. Likewise, regarding the type of person or character. Usually in any story there are always a few characters, in this case the role of sociology of knowledge to reveal the contents of a literary work.
Abstract. At the heart of a global financial crisis triggered since 2008, Islamic finance has been seen as an alternative less affected by the global crisis to cover the financing and investment needs and bringing a new vision that involves sharing of losses and gains and thus prohibit the notion of the interest rate. With the emergence of the concept of Islamic finance a new market has emerged known as sukuk market where its last ones play the role of bonds. These financial instruments have been able, like conventional bonds, to constitute a reliable investment alternative for both companies and governments that want to conduct their business within a framework that respects the precepts of the Sharia. The purpose of this article is to understand the concept and the mechanism of these obligations and to present a review of the literature on sukuks.
Learning the appreciation of literature in college will not be done in the classical style but in a practical way by providing a set of guiding questions that have been prepared based on reader response theory and visual symbols. Learners no longer need treatment to be given learning model; students can immediately appreciate the literary works with guides that questions. Beach and Marshall (1991:28) put forward the reader response strategy consists of seven strategies are: to engage, describe, explain, conceive, interpret, connect, and judge. The seven reader responses contain elements that can sharpen cognition (describe, explain, conceive, and interpret) and affection (engage, connect, judge). To further leads to the formation of learners’ character, reader response theory is collaborated with the responses of visual symbols, psycholiterature theory, and pillars of the nation's character. The response consists of a visual symbol dimensional graphs: sociogram, story maps, graphs, diagrams, and cartoons; dimensional illustration: posters, drawings, photographs, collation; dimensions of film / video: the story script, animation, special effects, and film; and dimensions of art performances: tableau, dance, mime, and music presented by Purves, et al. (1990). Meanwhile, the theory of psycholiterature consists of basic operations proposed by Strickland (1977) in Tarigan (1995:39) consists of observing, comparing, classifying, hypothesising, organizing, summarizing, applying, and criticizing. While the pillars of the nation's character is quoted from Megawangi (2004) consists of: 1) honesty, 2) respect and courtesy, 3) affection, caring, and cooperation, 4) self-confident, creative, hard work, and never give up, 5 ) justice and leadership, 6) good and humble, 7) love god and the universe and its contents, 8) responsibility, discipline, and independence, and 9) tolerance, love of peace, and unity.
The second acculturation was happened in accordance with the ar- rival of Islamic traders in Javanese island. During their trading, these people also disseminated their religion. Initially, this religious dissemina- tion was proposed to common people, and then this activity was intended to members of the royal family. This activity was conducted during the conf lict emerged in the Majapahit kingdom; at that time there were many Javanese scholars converted to Islam. There were many underpin- ning reasons why this group of people changed to be Muslim such as they are inf luenced by the Islamic teaching, or they look for their safety. 2 The
Krama inggil vocabulary is used to show respect to someone. Most of phonemic shapes of this level are different from its krama and noun. They are usually taken from sankrit language or from ancient Javanese language lexicon. There are also some vocabularies taken from Persian and Arabic language. But there is no vocabulary adopted from Chinese, Dutch, Portuguese, English, or France Language that precisely have relation with Javanese language for long time.