If the addressee is either an adult male or an adult female with a higher so- cial status you is translated using second person familiar form bapak or ibu in which they mean father, mother respectively in kinsip terms; and saudara meaning either brother or sister in kinshipterms for both sexes if the addressee has similar social status with the writer and/or if the writer is in a higher status. Kamu/Anda is either a second person singular or a second person plural into which you should be translated as required by a formal form of second person in Indonesian pronominal system but it is considered not very polite to address an adult reader or listener using kamu/anda. So, bapak, ibu, and saudara in a sec- ond person familiar form are preferably used to replace kamu/anda to show po- liteness in addressing someone. In English there is no component of meaning which distinguishes familiar from formal in the second person. So, if one is to translate into Indonesian every time the English pronoun you occurs, the transla- tor has to decide which Indonesian form s/he should use, bapak, ibu, saudara or kamu/anda in singular or bapak-bapak, ibu-ibu, saudara-saudara in plural . S/he will have to make this decision on the basis of the use in Indonesian (as the receptor language) and not on the basis of the form in English (as the source language).
With the effort of exposing M and F to same, or at least similar, addressors and settings, similar opinions and answers are brought up by addressors for every kinship term they produce. According to addressors’ point of view, there are two general things o ne might think about in the process of selecting an appropriate kinship term. First thing is the addressor’s own aspects. The reason of using of kinship term depends on the addressors themselves. Addressors tend to make use of their own comprehended info when addressing others. These info and comprehension are divided into ethnicity, settings, transactional status and function, and prior knowledge and personal preference. The next thing is the aspects of the addressee, which include physical features and visible appearance. From the analysis, addressors do not really consider whom they are talking to, as what they consider the most is themselves. What they consider is everything about themselves, especially, prior knowledge and personal preferences. Another thing strengthening the high position of addressor’s aspects over addressee’s is that addressors pay attention the place of the conversation. Chinese terms, for instance, are mostly used in Chinese-dominated places such as Pasar Atom, Petra Christian University, Galaxy Mall, while Javanese terms are used in traditional market or crowded streets. Moreover, addressors consider the common way of addressing people rather than the addressee they are speaking with. Since addressors do not have enough time to dig information about/from addressees, they just apply the common knowledge of how one should be called using what kinshipterms. According to Grunig, Grunig & Toth (2007), the emphasis of communication among Asian cultures is relationship building and maintenance. However, addressors concern about their aspects, as previously explained, in the process of choosing the most appropriate kinshipterms. This might also be due to the short meeting time between them.
The target groups are Hokkien Chinese Indonesians in Surabaya. As mentioned in the previous section (see section 1), many Hokkien Chinese traders and merchants came to Surabaya in the mid-nineteenth century. Therefore, china towns with traditional Chinese markets are the best place to distribute the questionnaire and to collect the data. There are two main traditional Chinese markets in Surabaya, that is, “Pabean” and “Kapasan” traditional markets (Airan, Wordpress 19 February 2012). The challenge was to find which stores owned by Hokkien people. The only way was to ask owners of one store to other stores. Due to time limitation, 50 questionnaires were distributed to the targeted group of the study. From the 50 Hokkien respondents, 20 people were from the first generation and 30 people were from the second generation. It was a challenge to find the respondents from the first generation because most of them are pretty old, age between 60 and 66 years old. While distributing the questionnaire, the respondents were guided to fill out the questionnaire correctly. Then, the interviews took place. For the study, there were only 12 respondents being interviewed since they had different answers in the kinshipterms. Mostly, data collection took around 10 to 15 minutes per respondent. The data were completely collected in twelve weeks, starting from October 1, 2016 to December 18, 2016.
The third difference is intimate name and others types occurrence in the shops for young mothers. Intimate name type occurred only one time with the address term Al, followed by others type (combination between kinshipterms and full name) which occurred once with the address terms Mba Uli Hutabarat and others type (combination between kinshipterms and intimate name) with the address term Mba Wul. There are some reasons to explain the occurrence of intimate name and others types. It is possibly because the seller knows the customers personally, so she called the customer directly with her first name. It supports Wardhaugh’s theory that intimate name shows equality and familiarity (2006, p.268). The same thing happens to the others type which combines the kinshipterms and intimate name / formal name. The sellers chose to address the customers by using the customer’s name maybe because they know the customers personally. As for the kinshipterms before the name, it is probably because the customers are older than the sellers so they use ‘ mba ’ in order to show their respect. Besides, another possibility is the automatic tagging in Facebook. So, when the seller writes down the customer’s name who has become her friends in Facebook, Facebook will tag the profile name.
Since Chinese kinshipterms are quite complicated, the younger generation of Chinese Indonesians often feels reluctant to keep track on their relationship with their relatives and follow the proper address terms when conversing with them. The younger generation, who have their education in Indonesia or abroad, tend to be more flexible in addressing their family members, relatives, friends, and strangers. They no longer feel the obligation to always follow the complicated Chinese address terms. The address terms they use can vary from Indonesian, Javanese, Dutch, English, Mandarin, or any local dialect of Chinese or Javanese. Hence, to their parents for instance, the address terms vary from Mama, Papa, Mami, Papi, Daddy; to their grandparents can be Emak, Engkong, Bobo, Akung, Oma, Opa, Grandma, Grandpa; to their siblings Cécé, Koko, Didi, Mémé, Sis, or just by names (which for some totok Chinese is considered impolite when they are addressed to older siblings); to their one generation older relatives the address terms may follow their local dialect or just Ayi, Shushu, Tante, Oom; while to strangers the address terms can be Mbak, Mas, Cé, Ko, or A’ik, Susu’, Tante, Oom, Bu, Pak, Mam, Sir depending on the appropriateness they think regarding their relationships. Hence, the use of Chinese kinshipterms of address is gradually abandoned by many young Chinese Indonesians.
According to Kridalaksana (1985:14-15), there are 9 types of address terms in Indonesian language, i.e.: pronoun (aku ‘I’, engkau ‘you’, kamu ‘you’, ia ‘he/she’, kami ‘we’, kita ‘we’, mereka ‘they’, beliau ‘he/she’), proper name (people’s names that are used in every single person), kinshipterms (bapak ‘father’, ibu ‘mother’, saudara ‘brother/sister’, paman ‘uncle’, adik ‘younger brother’, bibi ‘auntie’), title and rank (dokter ‘doctor’, perawat ‘nurse’, guru ‘teacher’, kolonel ‘colonel’, jendral ‘general’), pe+V (verb) forms (pembaca ‘reader’, pendengar ‘listener’, penonton ‘audience’, penumpang ‘passenger’), noun+ku (Tuhanku ‘my God’, kekasihku ‘my dear’, Miraku ‘my Mira’, bangsaku ‘my nation’), deixis or indicator terms (Sini ‘here’, situ ‘there’, ini ‘this’), noun (tuan ‘Mr’, nyonya ‘Mrs’, nona ‘Ms’, encik ‘Miss’, Yang Mulia ‘your honour’), and zero feature (Come on, Ø!). Based on the theory of reference and address, it shows that not all of the 9 types of address terms in Indonesian language that are stated by Kridalaksana belong to the address terms. Pronoun, pe+V (verb) form, noun+ku, and deixis/indicator are terms that are used to refer someone.
The thesis entitled ‘Variation Kinship Termsby Natal People in Medan: A Sociolinguistic Analysis’ is a linguistics study. This study appears because of the importancevariation of kinship termNatal family in Medan. This thesis was done to answer the curiosity of the writer about variation of kinship term by Natal people in Medan. The objective of this study is to find out the how are the variations of kinship termand why dovariations of kinship term occur by Natal people in Medan. This Natal people chosen because they have unique language use to family member included age, gender, social status, and relationship with the speaker. There is native people still use native variationof kinship term although they live in city. In order to identify and classify the variations of kinship termby Natal people in Medan, Holmes theory about variations of language variation is used. The method of the analysis is descriptive qualitative method. As the result of this research variation of kinshipterms and why do variations of kinship term occur, there are 5 clusters and there are 46 kinshipterms: 4 kinshipterms related to father; 3 kinship term related to mother; 7 kinshipterms related to uncles; 6 kinshipterms related to aunt; 4 kinshipterms related to sisters; 3 kinshipterms related to brother; 3 related kinshipterms related to father in law; 3 kinshipterms related to mother in law; 2 kinshipterms related to grandfather; 2 kinshipterms related to grandmother; 4 kinshipterms related to male cousin; 5 kinshipterms related to female cousin.
Personal pronomina is pronomina used to show the category of personal. In javanese culture, the use of “You” has similarities with kinshipterms which are quite unique, for example to (1) woman; dik, jeng, dhiajeng, mbak, nimas, niken, mbok, biyung, ibu, bulik, budhe, eyang, den ayu, Gusti Bandoro Raden Ayu, ndoro jeng, Gusti Putri, Gusti Ratu, Mbok Ratu, (2) villagers; nduk, mbokne si gendhuk, (3) man; mas, kang atau kakang, kangmas atau kakangmas, dhik (adhi), dhimas (adhimas), man (paman), wo, siwo, wak, pak, bapak, bapa, denmas atau radenmas, bandoro raden mas, Kanjeng Raden Tumenggung, Kanjeng Sinuwun, Sampeyan Dalem, Panjenengan Dalem, dan (4) peasants; thole, bapakne si thole, mbokne si thole, dan cung ( dari kacung).
Transferring funds. We may accept an instruction to transfer funds between your account and any other account belonging to you or any other person which is maintained with us or any other financial institution if we have the necessary arrangements in place. We will try to process your request to transfer funds on the day we receive your instruction or as soon as we can on the next business day or within the time provided in the country terms. You are responsible for making sure you give us the correct information (including details of the person you want to transfer the funds to) so that the transfer is successful. We do not have to check any information you give us in your instruction. We may set limits on transferring funds (for example, on the amount to be transferred or on how often you use the service).
ABSTRACT: The research order to determine of kinship 12 species in the Asteraceae familia, using descriptive methods. Samples are 12 species of Asteraceae from different genera. The parameters used are morphological stems, leaves, flowers and kind of stomata. Analysis of the data is through the calculation of Similarity Index (IS) and Disimilaritas Index (ID). Furthermore, the cluster analysis to group plants with similar characteristics among 12 species. The results showed that the more similarities seem among the 12 species examined so the closer the relationship, and unless the greater the difference, the more far is the relationship that exists. The closest kinship shown on the species and Vernonia cinerea Elephantopus scaber disimilaritas index low of 28%. Furthermore, Tridax procumbens and Zinnia elegans have disimilaritas index of 32% and Tagetes erecta Eclypta alba and disimilaritas index 35%. The most distant kinship shown by a combination of Tridax procumbens, Zinnia elegans, Widelia biflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Hellianthus annuus, Cosmos caudatus, Eclypta alba, Tagetes erecta and the combination of Elephantopos scaber, Vernonia cinerea, Emilia sanchifolia, Pluchea indica with the highest Disimilaritas Index ie 53.5%.
2.2. After the Client fills in and submits the Account Opening Application Form together with all the required identification documentation, the Company will send him a notice informing him whether he has been accepted as a customer of the Company. It is understood that the Company is not to be required (and may be unable under Applicable Regulations) to accept the Client as its customer, and hence open an account for him or accept any money from him, until all documentation it requires has been received by the Company, properly and fully completed by the Client and all internal Company checks (including without limitation anti-money laundering checks and appropriateness tests) have been duly satisfied. It is further understood that the Company reserves the right to impose additional due diligence requirements to accept Clients residing in certain countries. The Agreement will take effect and commence upon the receipt by the Client of the notice sent by the Company informing the Client that he has ee a epted as the Co pa s Clie t. ou a also add " a epti g this Agreement, the client is consenting that if he is accepted by the Company as a Client their relationship will be governed by the terms and Conditions of this Terms of Business and Account opening agreement as amended form time to time.
Incoterms An abbreviation of International Commercial Terms. Incoterms are published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). It is a set of rules for the interpretation of the most commonly used trade terms in foreign trade in which parties to a contract can agree upon to avoid misunderstandings, disputes and litigation.
Any serious student of music should own a copy of the Harvard Dictionary of Music (Belknap Press of the Harvard University Press). This book goes far beyond being just a simple glossary of terms. It is really an encyclopedia, encompassing a wide range of musical topics, and I find it interesting just to read a few articles once in a while. Beyond the dictionary entries, there are articles on important composers and important individual pieces, entries on widely varying musical styles, music theory and general music history. The information is very well‐researched and each entry more‐than‐adequately covers the major aspects of each topic. The book is available in many places and currently sells for approximately $40.00.
Pada pendekatan interpretivisme, para antropolog berusaha untuk menggambarkan makna- makna tertentu yang disematkan orang-orang ke dalam objek, perilaku, dan emosi. Alih-alih mencari logika universal yang mendasari semua budaya, interpretif berusaha untuk menemukan logika internal tertentu yang digunakan oleh orang-orang tersebut untuk menafsirkan budaya mereka sendiri (“Culture” Microsoft Encarta 2006). Secara lebih sederhana, kajian-kajian interpretif seringkali berfokus pada satu ritual atau simbol penting dalam suatu masyarakat. Para antropolog menggunakan usaha pendekatan ini untuk menunjukan bagaimana satu ritual atau simbol tersebut membentuk atau merefleksikan keseluruhan kebudayaan. Geertz, misalnya, berusaha untuk menunjukkan bagaimana kebudayaan masyarakat Bali bisa dipahami dengan membahas ritual penting masyarakat Bali dalam pementasan dan bertaruh pada sabung ayam (“Anthropology” Microsoft Encarta 2006). Pada bukunya yang berjudul Kinship in Bali (1975), Geertz menantang gagasan tentang kekerabatan sebagai suatu sistem otonom yang dapat dipahami lintas-budaya dan berpendapat agar hal tersebut dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah domain simbolik.