Chapter 2 tells about the literature review of the road linedetection upon previous research done. Based on the research, all methods that have been done can be referred well. Chapter 3 will explain about the project methodology. This chapter will show the steps and flows for problem solving technique in such a specific method. The method used will also be discussed.
In the paper ,the author used photoelectric sensor to detect the tracking line of the pathway is develops in the path detection of photoelectric intelligent track searching vehicles. The studied was carried out to get the elasticity and stability of the smart vehicle which is related to the accuracy and precision. Intelligent vehicle could be achieved through the advance process of the vehicle movement. It could move in a great condition whether in a straight or curve line if the intelligent vehicle had enough prior information of the its travelling path. The steering engine and motor can be control in order to accelerate and decelerate while turning suitably besides shortening the travelling distance.
a quadratic polynomial of image convolutions with Gaussian derivatives(Steger, 1998). Steger's method can detect centre line with subpixel precision. Similarly, Jang and Hong extracted ridge points from the distance map generated by performing Euclidean distance transform on the edge map, but distance transform is slow for a large image (Jang & Hong, 2002). Generally speaking, existing linedetection approaches either suffer from heavy computational cost or fail to obtain robust feature detection performance. Some so-called “real-time” linedetection methods often generate too many false positives while the object semantics have seldom been considered. In this paper, we have evaluated several state-of-the-art linedetection algorithms for power linedetection from aerial imagery. A new real-time power linedetection algorithm is proposed by using steerable filters as well as prior knowledge of objects surrounding the environment where the power line is.
Human palmprints contain biometric features that can be used to identify an individual. These features can be used for example in user veriﬁcation applications. This paper presents a user veriﬁcation system using palmprint identiﬁcation. The image of the palm is captured using a web camera. Then the features used for palmprint identiﬁcation is extracted using linedetection and local standard deviation. The proposed system is evaluated by asking 40 subjects to act as users (10 subject as registered users and 30 non-registered users). Our experiments show that the system can achieve accuracy rate of up to 98% with no false acceptance and 2% false rejection rate. The average time required to perform a user veriﬁcation is 340 ms.
Most linedetection approaches are based on the analysis of edge images obtained from differential operators on gray level intensities. Among the most popular edge detection approaches are those based on Sobel filters, Roberts filters, Prewitt filters, Canny edge detection scheme, difference of Gaussians, Laplacian of Gaussian, Hessian matrix, and many different combinations of filtering schemes [18–20]. These methodologies rely entirely on the intensity change across boundaries, thus, weaker edges, such as those due to texture variation, may not be detected. Another common problem with these techniques is their sensitivity to noise and uneven illumination [21,22]. Methods based on local thresholding tend to inhibit edges in low luminance regions or, conversely, tend to enhance edges in high luminance ones. In general, edge detection methods that are robust under varying contrast tend to be more affected by noise. The popular family of Hough transform approaches select defined linear and curvilinear structures [23–26] through the analysis of edge images. The success of these approaches depends on the accuracy of the edges while line thickness is not considered. Although this family of methods has been largely applied in many real contexts [27–30], its main drawback is the strict requirement of the complete specification of the target object’s exact shape to achieve precise localization, which is often difficult and not available for complex curvilinear structures in practice.
Pengujian berikut adalah pengujian terhadap perubahan nilai parameter pada LineDetection. Parameter yang diuji pada jurnal ini terdiri dari Theta Resolution dan Threshold. Parameter Theta Resolution merupakan resolusi sudut dalam satuan derajat. Pengujian terhadap pengaruh parameter Theta Resolution dapat dilihat pada Tabel 7. Parameter Theta Resolution ini berpengaruh pada increment nilai theta/angle, artinya garis akan dideteksi setiap n-derajat nilai theta/angle. Dari hasil pengujian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa semakin kecil nilai Theta Resolution, maka semakin detail garis yang dapat terdeteksi.
parkir dalam ruangan seperti pusat perbelanjaan menjadi kesulitan banyak pengemudi, terutama saat jam sibuk di kota-kota besar. Dalam makalah ini, sebuah sistem deteksi kekosongan tempat parkir dalam ruangan diusulkan, dengan menggunakan sistem kamera yang melibatkan OpenCV untuk mempercepat waktu dalam mencari tempat parkir bagi pengemudi kendaraan dengan memberi mereka informasi lokasi dan tempat parkir. Sistem ini menggunakan metode deteksi objek statis, yaitu Haar-Like Cascade Classifier yang dikombinasikan dengan Hough LineDetection untuk mengidentifikasi area parkir kosong dari gambar parkir yang diambil secara real time melalui kamera IP atau kamera USB. Sistem ini dirancang untuk disematkan dengan sistem manajemen parkir sebuah bangunan sebagai alat yang menyediakan tempat parkir untuk membantu pengemudi kendaraan memasuki area parkir.
2 OBJECT AND LINEDETECTION 2.1 Material Selection and Material Map Generation Some of the pixels in HSI consist of more than just one material, called mixed pixels. If a complete collection of materials with spectral signatures is known, then the fractions of materials can be computed for every HSI pixel. Common procedure to decom- pose each measured pixel into the constituent spectra is spectral unmixing (Keshava, 2003). If spectra of few target materials are known the unmixing does not provide reliable result. Neverthe- less, the similarity between known spectra and image spectra can be computed. Such similarity measures are for example euclidean distance or distances designed especially for HSI data, the Spec- tral Angle Mapper (SAM) (Kruse et al., 1993) and Spectral In- formation Divergence (Chang, 2000). We choose SAM similarity measure because it is nearly insensitive to illumination, however any other similarity measure or spectral unmixing result could be used. SAM is computed as
Manual assembly line technology has made a significant contribution to the development of manufacturing industry in the twentieth century. It remains an important production system throughout the world in the manufacture of automobiles, consumer appliances and other assembled products made in large quantity such as television, cameras, washing machine and audio equipments. This project is about the line balancing optimization for single model assembly line in the production line which a part of the production scheduling. The main objective is to explore the companies with suitable with the project especially use conveyor system, learn and collect data from the existing system using the time study analysis and proposed the optimum system based on parameter such as cycle time, line efficiency, idle time and balance delay. The method that were used in this project are heuristics method consist the 3 algorithm such as Largest Candidate Rule, Kilbridge and Wester Method and Ranked Positional Method. The result from this project should determine the best method from the proposed system based on the parameter states before. The performances of a given line balancing algorithm depends on the problems to be solved. Some line balancing methods works better on some problems while other method work better on other problems.
A number of cheap home security tricks can enhance your home security, or build upon the effectiveness of any professionally installed system. PIR sensor motion detection works fast, accurate and users will not worry about disconnected wire anymore. So, it is important to be aware that crime can occur in any form at any time.
A new method for accurate iris region localisation was presented. This method is a combination of Fuzzy Centre Detection (FCD) scheme and active contour Snake algorithm. FCD scheme is to locate the centre point of iris, while active contour Snake search the boundaries of iris from the located centre point. The proposed method is sensitive to bright spot bright spot that located in a region of pupil caused by reflection of light. Therefore, pre- processing is carried out which uses a threshold technique to eliminate the bright spot. The active contour Snake that applied in this method employs optimization technique in order to remedy the tendency of Snake to evolve into a point mass or straight line problem. Based on the experimental results, the FCD scheme indicates acceptable result to locate the centre of the iris and active contour Snake able to detect the boundaries of the iris. In addition,the result obtained for the whole iris location method with this approach provides better results in comparison to other two algorithms. Based on the database that is used in the experiment, the face database shown the less detection rate because of the iris is smaller.
vi I certify that a Thesis Examination Committee has met on 30 April 2015 to conduct the final examination of S.M.Warusia Mohamed Bin S.M.M Yassin on his thesis entitled "An Integrated Anomaly Intrusion Detection Scheme Using Statistical, Hybridized Classifiers and Signature Approach" in accordance with the Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 and the Constitution of the Universiti Putra Malaysia [P.U.(A) 106] 15 March 1998. The Committee recommends that the student be awarded the Doctor of Philosophy.
Some example in production line, the operator need manually take some component or semi-product at pick-up place when at their point is empty. It will take more time to move from their point to the pick-up place and can reduce the outputs. To solve this problem we have use automated line mobile robot system, where the operator only need to pressed some button then the line mobile robot will reach at their point with the component.
4. Robot Line Follower adalah suatu robot yang dirancang / dibuat menyerupai mobil, dan cara kerjanya ialah robot tersebut akan mengikuti garis hitam / putih secara otomatis dimana pengendalinya berupa sensor-sensor dan selanjutnya akan dieksekusi oleh Mikrokontroler, yaitu suatu alat elektronika digital yang mempunyai masukan atau keluaran serta kendali suatu program yang bernama Programmable (komponen yang terbuat dari bahan semikonduktor yang merupakan integrasi dari berbagai komponen elektronika didalamnya yang dapat diprogram ulang untuk tujuan suatu pengendalian robot), cara kerja mikrokontroler sebenarnya membaca atau menulis. Setelah itu proses dilanjutkan ke Aktuator, yaitu peralatan mekanis yang membuat robot bisa bekerja sebagai manamestinya.
A robust method is needed in order to analyse the object of interest, to ensure that the system can detect, recognize and classify the object of interest. Detection means to detect or estimate the object of interest in the image while recognition is to determine the similarity of object of interest to the reference object. Classification basically is to classify an object of interest to specific category or class.
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