Mangosteenpericarp has high polyphenol content that have disease preventive properties. The objective of this research was to utilize mangosteenpericarp from waste into added value and to evaluate stability on polyphenol content of green tea drink with mangosteenpericarp extract. Mangosteenpericarp was dried at 50ºC using tray dryer and the moisture content reached 7.43±0.10%. Dried pericarp was extracted with distilled water at 1:5 ratio (w/v). Green tea drink was added by mangosteenpericarp extract with seven different concentrations (0.1-0.7%). The extract then was infused into green tea drink which was mixed with three different concentrations of citric acid (0.06, 0.1, and 0.2%). The result showed that mangosteenpericarp extract had total phenolic compound (127.39±1.19 mg GAE/ml sample), DPPH (4491.63±67.52 µmol Trolox/ml sample), and FRAP (21,492±134.50 mM asorbic acid/ml sample). The maximum concentration of mangosteenpericarp extract in the tea drink that can be accepted by panelist was 0.4%. Tea with the highest concentration of citric acid (0.2%) had the lowest pH (2.79), the highest total phenolic compound (25.48±0.38 mg GAE/ml sample), DPPH (57862.08±1248.85 µmol Trolox/100 ml sample), and FRAP (5,681.11±33.39 mM asorbic acid/ml sample) compared with other treatments (p<0.05). Therefore, the study concluded that mangosteenpericarp extract can be applied in tea drink and provided more polyphenol content for the product. In addition, polyphenol was more stable in acid condition.
This research aimed to study long-term addition natural herbal: Mangosteenpericarp meal (MPM) and non-herbal: vitamin E (VE) in the diet on digestive organs, accessory organs, reproductive organs, and carcass of laying hens. A total of 160 laying hens of Lohman strains (24-wk-old) were used, the observation was conducted for 11 weeks. Designs were a completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications (10 birds each). The treatments consisted of R0 (control diet), R1 (R0 + 1 g MPM/kg diet), R2 (R0 + 2 g MPM/kg diet) and R3 (R0 + 200 mg VE/kg diet). The variabel observation was digestive organs (percentage of crop, gizzard, small intestine and ceca), accesory organs (percentage of heart, spleen, kidney, liver and bile), reproductive organs, body weight and carcass of laying hens. The results showed that all of treatments (RO, R1, R2, and R3) did not affect (P>0.05) digestive organs (percentage of crop, gizzard, small intestine, and ceca), accesory organs (percentage of heart, spleen, kidney, liver and bile), reproductive organs, body weight and carcass of laying hens. In conclusion, long-term addition of mangosteenpericarp meal 1-2 g/kg diet and vitamin E 200 mg/kg in the diet no adversed effect on digestive organs, accesory organs, reproductive organs, body weight and carcass of laying hens.
Mangosteenpericarp is a part of mangosteen fruit which has long been known as a medicine for diarrhea, skin infections as well as for coloring foodstuffs and textiles. The main chemical compound of mangosteenpericarp is xanthone and its derivative (Jung et al., 2006; Kondo et al., 2009; Suksamrarn et al., 2006), anthocyanin (Palapol et al., 2009), saponin and tannin. Some research- ers reported that mangosteen compound had an antioxi- dant (Jung et al., 2006; Kondo et al., 2009; Suvarnakuta et al., 2011), anti-allergic (Chae et al., 2012), anti-cancer (Mizushina et al., 2013), anti-tumor, anti-bacterial and anti-malaria properties (Akao et al., 2008; Gutierrez- orozco & Failla. 2013; Pedraza-Chaveri et al., 2008). Accordingly, a study on the supplementation of the lay- ing hens diets with mangosteenpericarp meal (MPM) and VE was carried out to determine their effects on egg physical quality, egg cholesterol, blood cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein.
Breast cancer has very complex morphological and molecular characteristic. Estrogen receptor is one of biomarker in breast cancer progression, more than 60% breast cancer overexpress estrogen receptor α (ERα). Xanthone in Garcinia mangostana was investigated whether to have anticancer activity on colorectal, prostate, lung, blood and breast cancer. This research was focused on molecular mechanism of anticancer activity of mangosteenpericarp extract (MPE) on ER-α. This study used MCF-7 cells as a model of ER-α overexpressed breast cancer cells. Cytotoxic study towards MCF-7 cells was designed by using MTT test, further apoptotic induction assay was determined by double staining method using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Extract molecular mechanism against breast cancer was assayed by immunocytochemistry. The MTT data was analyze using probit analysis to get IC 50 then apoptosis and immunocytochemistry data
Background: Peptic ulcer disease is commonly found in the community. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin is one of the predisposing factors to ulcers. According to various studies, plant extracts have been shown to produce promising results in the treatment of peptic ulcers. Xanthone, the active substance contained in the mangosteenpericarp extract has been extensively studied for its role in various diseases. The present study was undertaken to identify the effect of mangosteenpericarp extract on gastric mucosal damage.
The research is experimental research. Object studied is mangosteen rind extract (Garcinia mangostana L.) were extracted using maceration. Formula made with mevariasikan 3 concentration of the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.6% use a gelling agent carbopol 940 0.5%. Tests carried out on organoleptic gel formulation (odor, color, texture), homogeneity, pH, skin irritation, and the gel dispersive power of antioxidants.
Oxidative stress is a condition which occurs due to the unbalanced condition between the production of free radical and antioxidant defense system in the body. Nowdays, consuming herbal supplement has become a trend to keep body’s health (preventive) because it has been assumed more practical without side effects. Soursop leaves (Annona muricata L) and mangosteenpericarp (Garcinia mangostana L) are the material used for herbal supplements which are popular in the market. It was found acetogenin compound in a soursop leaves which has function to curves several diseases. And α-mangostin is a most founded compound in a mangosteenpericarp which has function to be antioxidant. A high compound of fenolik have been known having bunch of biological effect such as antioxidant activity through mechanism as reductor, free radicals scavenging, metal chelators, singlet oxygen absorber, and electron donor.
contained water. The dry mangosteenpericarp was crushed and further grinded to obtain the powder and further dissolved in water to get dye solution. The dye solution was then characterized by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to analyze the absorbance.
Mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana L.) is a sessional fruit plant originated from tropical forests in the Southeast Asia regions. Mangosteen is well known as “Queen of Fruits” due to its yummy soft pulp and exotic taste, which a combination of sweet, sour and a bit of astringent. This fruit has even better reputations as a healthy food in the other areas, particulary Taiwan, Japan, Australia and Europe (Mohamad et al ., 2006). Instead of the fruit pulp, mangosteenpericarp attracts more attention from researches around the world with regard to its pharmacological activities. Jung et al . (2006) reported that xanthone prenylated derivates contained in mangosteenpericarp exhibit antifungal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities. Later, Nainwal et al . (2010) reported that mangosteen pericrap extracts display antiulcerogenic effect by which reducing the volume of gastric acid and total acidity, and finally raised gastric pH appreciably. Therefore, mangosteen pericarps have a great potential to be developed as drugs and supplements in the pharmaceutical technology.
Few researchers reported their results of image processing application to estimate the maturity stage of mangosteen. Since the maturity estimation is based on skin surface color of mangosten, all of researchers use color processing to differentiate among the stages. Color features which are color index of red (R), green (G) and blue (B), were conventionally correlated to four stages of mangosteen maturity and then yielded 70% accuracy of maturity stage estimation (Suhandy & Ahmad 2003). Another method proposed RGB score on three maturity stages and used this score as threshold values to estimate the maturity stage of sample mangosteen (Sandra 2011). Since these two methods implemented simple classification technique, consistency of the results highly depend on the selection of data and threshold score. Selection and combination of RGB color features are important to uniquely represent the maturity stage.
`Keitt' is heterozygous (ab) in the TPI isozyme system (Table 1). Isozyme analysis of 137 selfed `Keitt' offspring obtained from caged trees showed the following genotype distribution: 31 aa, 76 ab and 27 bb. No significant relationship was found between the three TPI isozyme genotypes and the fruit's pericarp or seed weights. Hence, differences between different Tpi genotypes in the following studies were attributed to the effect of the pollen parent.
Four composition of mixture of PEG 400 and glycerin were used to enhance the solubility of xan- thones in mangosteen rind extract. Based on the α- mangosteen solubilizied content, PEG 400-glycer - in (40:40) is the best composition (Nurhidayati et al ., 2013). To investigate whether composition of cosolvent influence the antioxidant activity, in this research antioxidant activity of mangosteen rind extract oral solution with various compositions of cosolvent were examined using DPPH methods.
Mangosteen tree produced new vegetative shoots in February, and then fell into dormancy from March 18 th to April 19 th . Flowering occurred in August after the drought condition (Table 7). Fruit was growth around 13 weeks and harvested during December 2003 to January 2004. Mangosteen trees are slow to come into bearing. Trees tend to flower after vegetative growth flushes and especially after dry weather. June - July is dry seasons. The dry period required to induce flowering in mangosteen. The fruiting season in the Bogor, Indonesia is from latest July to middle August. Bud stage to anthesis takes 19 days. Fruit development takes 115-140 days from anthesis. Fruits fast growth at 2-10 weeks after anthesis. After 13 weeks the growth of fruits is stop (data not shown). Fruit should be harvested after the pericarp is light greenish yellow, with distinct irregular pink red spot over the entire fruit. Harvested period 44 days are from December 7 and latest in January 20 (Table 2). Fruits ripen over a 16-20 week period and picking is done by hand every 2-3 days. Generally, the fruits of mangosteen take 5 to 6 months to mature from fruit set. The pattern of fruit growth follows a sigmoid curve. Only the fruits that have turned purplish violet are picked. In Indonesia, mangosteen tree 25 years old, the average fruit production are 50-100 fruits per tree. The fruit production is depending from canopy size. The yield varies from tree to tree and from season to season. From observations in the field found that the fruit produced at the tip of older mature shoots can produce 3 -5 flowers in a stalk. It is known that during the mangosteen fruit is produced on a tip shoots.
Results: After 3 weeks of treatment, acne lesion counts was signiicantly reduced in both groups [from 934 to 584 lesion (37%) in treatment group, p < 0.001 and from 832 to 608 lesion (27%) in control group, p < 0.001]. Comparison between the two groups revealed a non signiicant difference (p > 0.55). The proportion of subjects whose acne lesion reduced ≥ 20% was 73% (33 of 45 subjects) in treatment group vs 66% (27 of 41 subjects) in control (p > 0.2). The level MDA was reduced from 1.16 to 1.02 nmol/mL in treatment group and from 1.32 become 1.02 nmol/mL in control (p > 0.48). Conclusion: Extract of mangosteen rind given orally for 3 weeks clinically reduced acne severity better than placebo, although statistically was not signiicant. Antioxidant effect of EMR seem to be unspeciic in reducing acne severity. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:167-72. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.586)
There are few reports about the enzymes in- volved in amino acid biosynthesis in the fruit. Glutamine synthetase (GS), which catalyzes the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate, ATP and ammonium, was detected in green and red toma- toes  and in avocado fruit . NADH-gluta- mate synthase (GOGAT; EC 184.108.40.206) and ferredoxin-GOGAT (EC 220.127.116.11), both enzymes catalyzing glutamate synthesis, were observed at low activities in the pericarp of green tomato fruits  and in intact fruit chloroplasts . Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), which catalyzes the amina- tion of 2-oxoglutarate (synthetic reaction) and the deamination of glutamate (catabolic reaction), showed an increase in the enzyme protein content during ripening of avocado fruits . Other amino acid metabolizing enzymes or transcripts for them expressed at different levels during tomato fruit ripening were reported: aspartate aminotrans- ferase, which was exclusively found in red fruits ; a putative glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 18.104.22.168)  and arginine decarboxylase (EC 22.214.171.124), whose transcripts appeared to peak at the breaker stage , and a histidine decarboxy- lase (EC 126.96.36.199) mRNA, which accumulated dur- ing early fruit ripening and then declined .
acetate fraction of methanol extract of mangosteen rind have antibacterial activity against L. mesenteroides and L. plantarum; while research on endophytic fungi mangosteen rind was done by Elfina, Martina and Roza was proven their antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli  . The antimicrobial activity of the