As one of industrial scale, Small and MediumIndustry (hereafter “SMI’s”) create a significant local pollution and other environmental problems due to the nature of these industries with their inefficient use of energy and other resources. Implementation of few options at little or no cost in the industrial sector could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 10–30% of GHG emissions, while if improved technologies and financing mechanisms such as Clean Development Mechanism introduced by the Kyoto Protocol are adopted, further reduction may be achieved . More than half of the total electricity energy used in industry consumed by motor driven systems . Thus, industrial motors account for a major segment of electricity energy used in industry. Several energy saving strategies commonly available may or may not be fit with respect to several factors associated to the industry scale and their inherent characteristics.
Abstract— Although the development of the downstream industry based on the local commodities has been a government agenda, particularly in Indonesia, few studies address the development of the industry at Small and MediumIndustry (SMI) level. These papers examine the role of Government and SMI in partnership to develop the downstream cocoa industry. The six participant that represent government, academia, and the industry have been interviewed to explore the current partnership in the development of the downstream cocoa industry. Findings show the stakeholders that related to the downstream cocoa industry. The collaboration between the stakeholders lead by the government can affect the partnership in the development of the downstream cocoa industry. The study findings imply the importance of government initiatives, sustainable program, database creation, market creation, research partnership, and entrepreneurial spirit as a factor that must be enhanced to increase the partnership. The empirical findings of this study can be used as a basic knowledge to improve the development of the downstream cocoa industry at SMI level.
This thesis content is about the line balancing and the method to solving the problem. The scope of this thesis focuses on optimizing the production line of a SME company using Witness simulation software. The implementation of this thesis will be done at the small mediumindustry located at Shah Alam. There are three alternatives solutions in order to manage bottleneck and optimize the production line. The first alternative simulate about eliminate the workstation for reducing the idle time. Assembly 1, assemble 2 and meter potting is the three processes that reduce the workstation. Next the second alternative is about adding the new workstation at the critical processes. There are three processes that add with new workstation to improve the production line. Programming, FOS passivation and final assembly processes is the process that add with new workstation. This alternative is suitable for use to produce extra capacity in production. Lastly, the third alternative is about reducing the cycle time to optimize the product output. All of the alternative will analyze and compare with the current production line. The best alternative selected to improve the production line. To improve this thesis, further research about simulation needing for improve the simulation result and can give more than three alternative for optimize the production line.
acknowledged as a cultural heritage of South Kalimantan by the central industrial department in 1986 through the P2W-IK project (Improvement of the Role of Women Small Industry) UNDP. The current existence of SMEs continues to receive solemn attention from the local government as a competitive advantage owned by South Kalimantan Province; on the other hand Sasirangan also has contributed a multiplier effect for both on the Small and MediumIndustry itself or at the company level. To support this creative industry sector, the local government has declared Sasirangan as South Kalimantan’s official attire through the governor regulation number 91 of 2009 and with the existence of the regulation, the government and private institutions require their employees to wear Sasirangan on certain days or events as a form of pride and awareness to maintain and develop Sasirangan as regional pride. This is a respectable opportunity for Sasirangan SME owners to continuously strive in improving their quality’s productions and the creation of Sasirangan motifs innovation in accordance with the distinctiveness of their respective regions in Indonesia.
However, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the handicrafts, fashion, and culinary sectors still experience some problems. In this case, small and mediumindustry groups (SMEs) of Jambi province have not lead to the availability of creative human resources as they still have problems in Human Resources that are not qualified. It is proven that the marketing results of the industry, for now, can be said still around the Jambi province, which means the largest percentage of products for now only consumed by Jambi society. Only 3% of SMEs already have marketing outside Indonesia such as handicraft bags, and batik while the other 97% still survive in the domestic market, because they have not been export-oriented so that SMEs in Jambi Province have not been able to penetrate the international market (Industry, 2013, to date). Supported by a research result by Wuryandani & Meilani (2013), there is still a limitation of export- oriented SMEs because of low ability to access market information, export management competence, and export promotion that is still lacking.
Micro-small-medium-scale industries (MSMsI) based on the “Putting-out” System (POS) with home- workers (HWs) have long existed in Indonesia, but recently show significant and prominent growth that is complex and different from POS in general. The POS works through decentralisation of production, where the largest part of the production processes are taken out from factory to the HWs and their families. This strategy that MSMsI employ to enhance efficiency and competitiveness, and which – at the same time marginalises the HWs – has not been exposed. This obscured POS phenomenon is the drive of this research. Accordingly, the research includes the following characteristics: the strategies applied include case-studies in gender-perspective; the commodity is batik (not general garment); applying cluster approach; the actors are entrepreneurs and HW; and gender analyses. The analyses focus on the dialectical relationships between capitalism logic and patriarchical values as shown in three-level relational dimensions, which are entrepreneur-HW, among HWs, and HW – family. It covers a literature discourse that describes ‘invisibility’ of POS and HW- based MSMsI and uncovers it. It is argued that the HW integration to the global market has contributed to the fundamental POS transformation processes, which differentiate it from the common POS. The transformation impacts generally push HW to take strategic roles in supporting the existence of the industry, but also push aside and marginalise female HW in particular. The POS transformation happens through deconstruction and reconstruction processes which maintain the exploitative and gender-biased relationships.
approach is helped the researchers to interpret results. Concept links help in understanding the relationship between words based on the co- occurrence of words in the document. We can identify and define concepts in the text by selecting a keyword and exploring the words that are associated with this keyword using concept links (Chakraborty, Pagolu, & Garla, 2014). By selecting a keyword such as “CITY” and term “KEYWORD” the researcher can identify and define concepts in the text, and explore words that are associated with the term. This study explored two level Concept Links. The first level terms directly related to the term CITY and term KEYWORD, and the Second level is further Exploration of terms appeared in the first level. With a number of background reasons in underline this research, start from realizing the importance of tourism industry and its impact in marketing studies especially about destination images, then turn into the role of Twitter as the medium of social media networking as one of the trustworthy information resource based on the public opinion, follows up with the study by MasterCard and decided to choose the 2 of global destination cities as the object of this research and finally the last used text mining as the methodology in analyze the relation between each variable component. Overall this study illustrated of understanding the relation between destination images attributes used keywords towards a particular destination. Specifically, the study attempts to answer the following questions:
SME is defined as a company with no more than 500 employees (Oxford Dictionary, 2012). A general definition specified by the Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMIDEC) can be grouped into three categories which are Micro, Small or Medium. There are two main factors to consider whether the numbers of people a business employs or according to total sales or revenue generated by a business in a year. Table 2.1 and Table 2.2 show the SMEs definition based on two factors stated.
Medium Nutrient Agar (NA) masuk kedalam medium khusus karena dibuat sebagai tempat menumbuhkan mikroba yang sudah diketahui komposisi pembuatannya. NA di buat dengan komposisi agar – agar yang sudah dipadatkan sehingga NA juga bisa disebut dengan nutrient padat yang digunakan untuk menumbuhkan bakteri. Fungsi agar – agar hanya sebagai pengental namun bukan zat makanan pada bakteri, agar dapat mudah menjadi padat pada suhu tertentu. Medium Nutrient Agar adalah salah satu medium padat yang memiliki komposisi yaitu agar – agar yang telah di panaskan dan mencair dengan suhu 95 0 C (Dwidjoseputro, 1994).
Yoni Arts’ has been internationally recognized while the customers are coming from whole the world such Yogyakarta, many cities in Indonesia, Asia, America, Europe, and Australia. Customers may custom the orders by giving the specifications and possibly directly choose what has been displayed in gallery, so that Yoni Arts is classified as Make to Order (MTO) and Make to Stock (MTS) industry. The products’ difficulty may vary from a simple small size to a complex and huge dimension. Ironically, although Yoni Arts has been internationally recognized however the information system is manually applied while using internet such Whatsapp and e-mail only for communications.
Untuk susunan alat seperti gambar 3.1 prinsip kerja alatnya adalah sinar laser diarahkan pada kaca pembagi berkas. Digunakan laser He-Ne sebagai sumber sinar. Setelah mengenai kaca, maka sinar tersebut akan sebagian ditransmisikan (Io) dan sebagian lagi akan direfleksikan (Ip). Pengukuran intensitas awal sinar laser (Io) dilakukan dengan pengukuran Ip oleh light sensor 1. Sinar yang ditransmisikan (Io) akan diteruskan menuju medium berpartikel. Pada medium sinar laser akan ada yang diteruskan dan dihamburkan. Sinar yang diteruskan akan ditutupi oleh penghalang. Sinar laser terhambur disebabkan oleh adanya partikel dalam medium. Sinar laser yang terhambur ditangkap oleh lensa cembung. Sehingga bayangan sinar laser terhambur yang terjelas dapat diterima oleh light sensor 2. Intensitas sinar laser yang diterima oleh light sensor 2 dicatat sebagai Is. Semakin banyak partikel didalam medium, maka sinar laser yang terhambur akan semakin banyak dan nilai Is semakin besar.
The presence of law has become an absolute prerequisite that must exist in the dynamics of civil society. It is to achieve justice, certainty, and expediency, so the works of it will not be separated from such a noble mission. On the other side, the law is likely inseparable from the fields of meta- juridical, including economics. The expectations of the interference of law into economy, makes the existence of justice for the business players can be realized through the enacted product legislation. Regulations concerning investments and partnerships have the intent to build self-reliance and empowerment for small industry players so as to compete in the era of economic globalization. Laws employed as the instrument of social change to strengthen the capitalization of small industry and business empowerment through the training and development of small industries, as normatively mandated by law.
Hasil isolasi dengan menggunakan enam jenis medium tersebut menunjukkan bahwa masing-masing medium menghasilkan jenis koloni bakteri yang berbeda. Jenis koloni bakteri dari spons Callyspongia sp. dan Petrosia sp. pada medium NA yaitu 30 jenis koloni, medium SCA memiliki 12 jenis koloni, medium SWC memiliki 12 jenis koloni, medium MA memiliki 11 jenis koloni, medium YMA memiliki 14 jenis koloni, dan medium Zobel memiliki 17 jenis koloni (Gambar 3). Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa untuk mendapatkan jenis koloni bakteri yang beragam, medium yang cocok untuk mengisolasi mikrob simbion spons yaitu medium NA dan Zobel, namun medium yang umum digunakan untuk mengisolasi bakteri dari spons laut adalah medium SWC. Medium NA merupakan medium umum untuk pertumbuhan bakteri, sedangkan medium Zobel merupakan medium yang digunakan untuk kultivasi, isolasi, dan perhitungan bakteri laut yang bersifat heterotropik (Himedia, Mumbai). Menurut Magnino et al. (1999), bakteri simbion yang berasal dari bagian mesohyl umumnya memiliki populasi yang berlimpah dan sekitar 75% bakteri yang berasal dari bagian mesohyl tersebut merupakan bakteri heterotropik, sehingga berbagai jenis koloni bakteri dapat tumbuh di medium NA dan Zobel tersebut.
Jika novel dipandang sebagai medium komunikasi, maka saya hanya perlu memperhitungkan kondisi masarakat yang akan menerima kehadirannya. Dengan menyadari bahwa masarakat kita bagian terbesar masih memiliki kebudayaan komunikasi yang berpola lisan, sayapun bersiap untuk menerima kenyataan bahwa novel sesungguhnya belum menjadi pengisi kebudayaan komunikasi mereka. Di tengah-tengah masarakat yang lebih akrab dengan kaset, tontonan atau bahkan wayangan, bentuk komunikasi tertulis merupakan hal yang asing. Novel harus siap menerima keterasingan ini. Sehingga penulis novel-pun harus memulai kerjanya dengan