Metroxylon sago

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Chemical and Physical Quality of Sago (Metroxylon sago Rottb.) Waste Based Wafer Complete Ration for Aceh Beef Cattle

Chemical and Physical Quality of Sago (Metroxylon sago Rottb.) Waste Based Wafer Complete Ration for Aceh Beef Cattle

Sago (Metroxylon sago Rottb.) waste up till now had not been exploited in optimal and only partly small are applied as component of feed, especially for ruminant. The potential of sago as animal feed is quite large and will increase in value when processed into wafer complete ration. This experiment was conducted to study chemical and physical quality of sago waste based wafer complete ration which were preserved in various different periods. Determination of chemical and physical variables of wafer complete ration were color, texture, smell, water content, specific density, water activity, and storage capacity. Data were analyzed by analysis to completely randomized factorial design with two factors (A: the levels of sago waste used in wafer complete ration 10.20, 30, and 40%, B: storage time of 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks). The results indicated that the wafer complete ration with various different formulations did not affect specific density and water activity. A significant different (P<0.05) was observed in water content with the highest water value in ration containing 40% sago waste. The period of preservation effect was significant (P<0.05) on water content, density and specific density, but did not influence water activity texture and smell. The preserved wafer complete ration for six weeks were still in good condition, but after eight weeks the wafer started to change in physical texture. It is concluded that sago waste based wafer complete ration has high quality in terms of physical and has storage capacity to keep in good condition for six weeks.
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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF METROXYLON SAGO FIBER TREATED BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF METROXYLON SAGO FIBER TREATED BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE.

In the present study, natural fibers located in thick outer woody rinds of the metroxylon sago (MS) tree were investigated. The investigation focused on measuring the mechanical properties and observing the microstructures of MS fibers before and after treatment with 5% sodium hydroxide. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the microstructure of MS fiber, and the results showed that there was a decrease in fiber diameter after mercerization. A porous structure in the cross-section area of untreated fibers was clearly seen, and it was highly compressed after mercerization. The strength of MS fiber increased significantly after it was treated by 5% NaOH solution for two hours. The average ultimate strength of untreated MS fiber was recorded as 46 MPa; treatment with sodium hydroxide resulted in a significant increase in average ultimate strength to 163 MPa. Additionally, the elastic modulus of treated fiber was greater than that of untreated fiber.
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Hydrolysis of Sago ( Metroxylon Sago Rottb.) Starch by β-Amylase for Making Dextrin

Hydrolysis of Sago ( Metroxylon Sago Rottb.) Starch by β-Amylase for Making Dextrin

Sago (Metroxylon sago Rottb.) is a plant native to Southeast Asia and the largest sago production is in Papua, but the consumption only about 4-5% of the total production. Sago strarch can be processed to produce dextrin which much more applicable in food applications. Dextrin is partially hydrolysis of starch obtained by acid or enzyme hydrolisis. In this study dextrin produced by using the enzyme β -amylase and using completely randomized design (CRD). The first factor were the concentration of enzyme 0.06%, 0.08% and 0.10% (w / w) and incubation time 5,10 and 15 (hours). The best treatment was obtained from the treatment of β -amylase enzyme concentration of 0:10% and incubation time for 15 hours. The best treatment gave dextrin with characteristics as follows: ash content 0.18%, reducing sugar 0.49%, dextrose equivalent 2.16, dry solid 22.69%, hot viscosity 110 cps and cold viscosity of 103.3 cps.
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The Effect of Heat Moisture Treatment of Sago (Metroxylon sago sp) and Arenga (Arenga pinnataa mer) Starches Noodles Quality

The Effect of Heat Moisture Treatment of Sago (Metroxylon sago sp) and Arenga (Arenga pinnataa mer) Starches Noodles Quality

Abstract. Sago (Metroxylon sago sp) and arenga (arenga piñataa merr) starches were commonly used to make starch noodles in Indonesia. In native forms, starch does not always have the appropriate physical and chemical properties for certain types of processing in noodles manufacturing. Physical modification such as heat moisture treatment is applied in order to improve starch physical properties. It is expected to make the starch more suitable for starch noodles manufacturing. This study aims to analyze starch noodles made from sago and arenga starches in their native, HMT, and composite (ratio 1:1) forms based on the quality parameter measured (cooking quality and textural quality) and also to compare which starch noodles that has better qualities. Heat moisture treatment was conducted with autoclaving the starch (20% moisture content) for 60 min for sago starch and 90 min for arenga starch at the temperature of 120 o C. Starch noodles were made by kneading, extruding, boiling, cooling and drying. Based on cooking quality, HMT had significantly lowered the cooking quality where the HMT sago and arenga starch noodles had higher cooking loss (19.26% & 19.34%) and longer cooking time (7min & 8min) compare to starch noodles made from native sago and arenga starches. On their textural properties, HMT sago and arenga starch noodles had lower extension modulus but less sticky (lower adhesiveness value) compare to starch noodles made from native sago and arenga starches.
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Pemanfaatan Limbah Serat Sagu (Metroxylon sago) Sebagai Adsorben Iodin Utilization of Sago Fiber Waste (Metroxylon sago) As Iodin Adsorbent

Pemanfaatan Limbah Serat Sagu (Metroxylon sago) Sebagai Adsorben Iodin Utilization of Sago Fiber Waste (Metroxylon sago) As Iodin Adsorbent

/g. This study used 0.05 gram adsorbent mass variation; 0.1 gram; 0.3 gram; 0.5 gram; and 0.8 gram with adsorption time for 15 minutes and contact time variation of 0 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 50 minutes, and 60 minutes. The result showed that the optimum mass was achieved at 0.1 gram adsorbent weight with the absorption capacity of iodine 301.459 mg/g and the optimum time 30 min with absorbance to iodine 333.192 mg/g. It was concluded that activated carbon from sago fiber waste was able to absorb significant iodine substances and the activation process mechanism of activated carbon of sago fiber waste on iodine substance tended to follow both Langmuir and Freundlich linear equations.
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HYDROLYSIS OF SAGO (METROXYLON SAGO ROTTB.) PITH POWDER BY SULFURIC ACID AND ENZYME AND FERMENTATION OF ITS HYDROLYZATE BY PICHIA STIPITIS CBS 5773, SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE D1/P3GI, AND ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS FNCC 0056 INTO BIOETHANOL.

HYDROLYSIS OF SAGO (METROXYLON SAGO ROTTB.) PITH POWDER BY SULFURIC ACID AND ENZYME AND FERMENTATION OF ITS HYDROLYZATE BY PICHIA STIPITIS CBS 5773, SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE D1/P3GI, AND ZYMOMONAS MOBILIS FNCC 0056 INTO BIOETHANOL.

In this study uses S ago ( S ago M etroxylon Rottb.) obtained from K ibin, Banten. S ago is processed (self - preparative) sago flour. Based on proximate test, the pith of sago contain of starch about 77.50%,and fiber 12 :56%, water 1 0. 12 %. Total amount of sugar contained in the pith flour equal to the amount of carbohydrate. Total sugars of pith flour in size 50 mesh is equal to 60.47% (w / w), it meansthat every 1 g of the pith flour contained 0.604 g of carbohydrates. W hile the total sugar contained in the pith flour 1 00 mesh size is equal to 77.76% (w / w) means that in every 1 g of the pith of flour contained 0.77 8 g of carbohydrates. W ith high carbohydrate content means sago is very potential as a major source of sugar for ethanol fermentation.
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Pengaruh Pemberian Mulsa Organik Dalam Menurunkan Kecepatan Pertumbuhan Anakan Terpangkas Di Rumpun Sagu (Metroxylon sago Rottb.)

Pengaruh Pemberian Mulsa Organik Dalam Menurunkan Kecepatan Pertumbuhan Anakan Terpangkas Di Rumpun Sagu (Metroxylon sago Rottb.)

Kondisi tanaman sagu di perkebunan PT. National Sago Prima tumbuh de- ngan baik di kebun, walaupun terdapat tanaman yang terserang penyakit, hama se- rangga, monyet, dan babi hutan. Serangan hama kumbang Rynchophorus ferregi- neus Oliver menyebabkan bakal tunas mati dan tanaman yang sudah dipangkas ti- dak dapat tumbuh kembali. Menurut Bintoro et al(2010), apabila serangan hama tersebut terjadi, anak daun tanaman sagu habis sampai hanya tinggal lidinya saja bahkan dapat menyebabkan kematian tanaman. Hama tersebut menggerek batang sehingga menimbulkanlubang sampai lebih dari 1 cm. Gambar 6. (a) menunjuk- kan serangga Rynchophorus ferregineus Oliver yang berhasil didapat dan Gam- bar 6. (b) menunjukkan titik tumbuh tanaman sagu yang habis di serang oleh Ryn- chophorus ferregineus Oliver.
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Pengembangan Papan Komposit dari Limbah Perkebunan Sagu ( Metroxylon sago Rottb.) (Development of Composite Board made from Sago ( Metroxylon sago Rottb.) Plantation Waste)

Pengembangan Papan Komposit dari Limbah Perkebunan Sagu ( Metroxylon sago Rottb.) (Development of Composite Board made from Sago ( Metroxylon sago Rottb.) Plantation Waste)

Plantation waste has gained increasing attention as an alternative raw material for use in the manufacture of composite boards, i.e. waste of sago plantation. Medium density composite boards were made from zephyr of sago midrib to evaluate the effects of resin and adhesive content levels. The boards were fabricated using polyurethane (PU) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin with three levels of adhesive content i.e. 10%, 12%, and 14%. Physical (moisture content, density, water absorption, and thickness swelling) and mechanical (Modulus of Rupture, Modulus of Elastisity, Screw Holding, and Internal Bonding) properties of composite board were evaluated according to JIS A 5908-2003 standard. Research result showed that properties of composite board made from sago frond with 14% content level of polyurethane adhesive better than other composite board. Based on composite board properties, the board was suitable as building raw material and furniture i.e. partition, cupboard, table, and roof.
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Pengelolaan Perkebunan Sagu (Metroxylon Sago Rottb.) Di PT. National Sago Prima, Selat Panjang, Riau Dengan Aspek Khusus Pengambilan Sampel Pelepah

Pengelolaan Perkebunan Sagu (Metroxylon Sago Rottb.) Di PT. National Sago Prima, Selat Panjang, Riau Dengan Aspek Khusus Pengambilan Sampel Pelepah

PT. National Sago Prima dahulu merupakan salah satu bagian dari kelom- pok usaha Siak Raya Group dengan nama PT. National Timber and Forest Pro- duct yang didirikan pada tanggal 4 September 1970 dengan akta notaris nomor 2 yang dibuat dihadapan Moehammad Ali Asjoedjir, wakil notaris yang bertempat di Pekan Baru dan mendapat pengesahan dari Menteri Kehakiman dengan kepu- tusan nomor J.A.S/4/1971 pada tanggal 7 Januari 1971. Pada tanggal 24 Desem- ber 1970 nama PT. National Timber diubah menjadi PT. National Timber and Fo- rest Product dengan akta notaris nomor 153 yang dibuat dihadapan Muhamad Said Tadjoedin, notaris di Jakarta. PT. National Timber and Forest Product meru- pakan salah satu pemegang Hak Pengusahaan Hutan (HPH) berdasarkan surat ke- putusan Menteri Pertanian nomor 135/KPTS/ UM/3/ 1974 tanggal 14 Maret 1974 di Propinsi Riau dengan luas areal konsesi 100 000 ha yang telah beroperasi sela- ma lebih dari 21 tahun.
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PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN FILLER TEPUNG SAGU (Metroxylon sago Rottb.) YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP KUALITAS FISIK, KIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK BAKSO ITIK.

PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN FILLER TEPUNG SAGU (Metroxylon sago Rottb.) YANG BERBEDA TERHADAP KUALITAS FISIK, KIMIA DAN ORGANOLEPTIK BAKSO ITIK.

This research was aimed to find out the effect ofusing sago flour on physical, chemical and organoleptic qualities of duck meatball and also to determine the proportion of sago flour as filler which would yield the best quality. This research was conducted from February to April 2014. The materials used in this research were female culled ‘Mojosari’ duck aged of 58 weeks and sago flour. The design of this research was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with sago flour concentration of (0, 5, 10 dan 15%). The quality test of culled duck meatballincluded physical test (pH, water holding capacity and tenderness), chemical test (protein and fat levels), and organoleptic properties test (scent, taste, texture and acceptance). The result of this research showed that the addition of sago flour affected significantly physical test except pH and so did chemical test but did not affect organoleptic test except texture. The best level that resulted the best quality was the addition of sago flour at level 15% on physical quality and organoleptic quality and also the additionof sago flour at level 5% on chemical quality.
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Sendok Edibel dari Pati Sagu (Metroxylon Spp.) yang Aman dan Ramah Lingkungan

Sendok Edibel dari Pati Sagu (Metroxylon Spp.) yang Aman dan Ramah Lingkungan

Sagu adalah butiran atau tepung yang diperoleh dari teras batang pohon sagu atau rumbia (Metroxylon sago Rottb.).Tepung sagu memiliki ciri fisik yang mirip dengan tepung tapioka (wikipedia.com).Sagu merupakan tanaman penghasil karbohidrat yang paling produktif.Potensi produksi sagu di Indonesia diperkirakan sekitar 5 juta ton pati kering per tahun.Konsumsi pati sagu dalam negeri hanya sekitar 210 ton atau baru 4-5% dari potensi produksi.Areal sagu terluas terdapat di Papua (1,2 juta ha) dan Papua Nugini (1,0 juta ha) yang merupakan 90% dari total areal sagu dunia (Flach, 1996). Hutan Sagu alam yang luas terdapat di sepanjang dataran rendah pantai dan muara sungai di Irian Jaya, Seram, Halmahera dan Riau. Didaerah lain hutan sagu yang ada sekarang kebanyakan merupakan kebun sagu yang mekiar menjadi hutan karena tidak ada pemeliharaan (Heyne, 1950).
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Manajemen Pengelolaan Gulma di Perkebunan Sagu (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) di PT. National Sago Prima, Kepulauan Meranti, Riau.

Manajemen Pengelolaan Gulma di Perkebunan Sagu (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) di PT. National Sago Prima, Kepulauan Meranti, Riau.

Tanaman sagu (Metroxylon sago Rottb.) merupakan salah satu tanaman penghasil karbohidrat yang sangat potensial dalam mendukung program ke- tahanan pangan nasional (Tarigans, 2001). Pati sagu telah digunakan sejak dahulu sebagai bahan pangan pokok bagi sebagian besar penduduk Indonesia bagian ti- mur yaitu di Maluku dan Papua. Pati sagu dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku in- dustri seperti untuk mie, roti, biskuit, sirup berkadar fluktosa tinggi, plastik ter- urai hayati, pakan ternak, perekat, bio etanol, dan produk turunan lainnya (Flach, 1997).
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Pengelolaan sagu (Metroxylon spp.) Di PT National sago Prima, selat panjang Kab. Kepulauan Meranti, Riau, dengan aspek khusus pertumbuhan bibit di lapang

Pengelolaan sagu (Metroxylon spp.) Di PT National sago Prima, selat panjang Kab. Kepulauan Meranti, Riau, dengan aspek khusus pertumbuhan bibit di lapang

PT National Sago Prima saat ini membutuhkan jumlah bibit yang besar untuk menanami areal kebun. Dalam memenuhi kebutuhan bibit yang tinggi PT National Sago Prima bekerjasama dengan PT Primakelola dan Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT). PT Primakelola menggunakan sistem per- semaian kanal, sedangkan BPPT menggunakan sistem persemaian dengan polibag. Tahun 2011 PT National Sago Prima membentuk divisi baru, yaitu Divisi Pembibitan yang bertujuan untuk mengatur, mengontrol dan mengawasi semua kegiatan yang ada pada kegiatan pembibitan. Kegiatan seleksi bibit dilaksanakan oleh Divisi Pembibitan untuk tujuan mendapatkan bibit yang lebih berkualitas. Namun, bibit yang disemai belum seluruhnya sesuai dengan SOP yang telah ditetapkan, seperti bibit yang masih muda dan bobot kurang dari yang ditetapkan dalam SOP. Hingga saat ini kebutuhan bibit untuk penanaman maupun penyu- laman juga masih belum terpenuhi seluruhnya. Terutama pada tahun ini PT Na- tional Sago Prima telah membuka lahan baru yaitu Divisi 5 dan 7.
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Formulation and Characterization of Analogue Rice made of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas), Sago Starch (Metroxylon sp), and Maize Flour (Zea mays)

Formulation and Characterization of Analogue Rice made of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas), Sago Starch (Metroxylon sp), and Maize Flour (Zea mays)

Analogue rice made of sweet potato, sago starch, and maize flour has been formulated and characterized using hedonic test and physicochemical analysis. This analogue rice excellences are using low-processed sweet potato roots as one of the main ingredient, which consume less energy and consequently lower production cost, and high in thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, K, P, Fe, and Ca 2-3 times than polished rice from the combination of sweet potato, sago starch, and maize flour. The formulation as follows sweet potato pulp: sago starch: maize flour with weight ratio 3: 1.5: 2.5. Using cooking and twin screw extruder at , the analogue rice would contain 82.61% of carbohydrate, 0.83 ± 0.01% of fat, 4.60 ± 0.16% of protein, 10.26 ± 0.76% of moisture, and 0.83 ± 0.02% of ash. Addition of 0.1% gelling agent hydrocolloid improve the analogue rice texture quality, with carrageenan 0.1% decreased the hardness (184.1) also konjac 0.1% increased the stickiness (-11), however did not improve the hydration properties of analogue rice.
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Karakteristik Pati Sagu yang Dimodifikasi dengan Perlakuan Gelatinisasi dan Retrogradasi Berulang Characteristics of Modified Sago (Metroxylon sagu) Starch by Gelatinization and Retrogradation Cycling

Karakteristik Pati Sagu yang Dimodifikasi dengan Perlakuan Gelatinisasi dan Retrogradasi Berulang Characteristics of Modified Sago (Metroxylon sagu) Starch by Gelatinization and Retrogradation Cycling

Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Departemen Ilmu dan Teknologi Pangan Institut Pertanian Bogor, pada bulan Agustus 2012 sampai April 2013. Bahan utama yang digunakan adalah pati sagu hasil ekstraksi batang tanaman sagu ( Metroxylon sagu ) yang diperoleh dari petani sagu di daerah Ciluwer, Bogor. Bahan yang digunakan untuk analisis adalah enzim amiloglukosidase A-9913 (Sigma-Aldrich Pte Ltd), enzim α-amilase tahan panas dari Bacillus licheniformis (Termamil 120L), enzim protease dari Aspergillus niger aktivitas 89 U/mL, enzim α-amilase (E Merck), pati murni (E Merck), buffer fosfat pH 7, asam dimetilsalisilat (DNS). Alat utama yang digunakan pada proses gelatinisasi
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PRODUCTION BY LINTNERIZATION-AUTOCLAVING AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RESISTANT STARCH TYPE III FROM SAGO PALM (Metroxylon sagu rottb)

PRODUCTION BY LINTNERIZATION-AUTOCLAVING AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RESISTANT STARCH TYPE III FROM SAGO PALM (Metroxylon sagu rottb)

• Nasrin et al., 2014 : “ oil in water emulsions prepared by mixture of culled banana pulp resistant starch and soy protein isolate SPI” Showed the most stable than mixture of Hylon [r]

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Karakter Morfologi dan Potensi Produksi Beberapa Aksesi Sagu (Metroxylon spp.) di Kabupaten Sorong Selatan, Papua Barat Morphological Characteristics and Yield Potential of Sago Palm (Metroxylon spp.) Accessions in South Sorong District, West Papua

Karakter Morfologi dan Potensi Produksi Beberapa Aksesi Sagu (Metroxylon spp.) di Kabupaten Sorong Selatan, Papua Barat Morphological Characteristics and Yield Potential of Sago Palm (Metroxylon spp.) Accessions in South Sorong District, West Papua

Sago palm is a carbohydrate source which has the highest carbohydrate content compared to the other crops. It can produce about 200-400 kg per trunk of sago dry starch. More than 50% sago palm population in the world are grown in Indonesia and 90% sago palm in Indonesia is found in Papua. This research was aimed to characterize several sago palm accessions in South Sorong District, West Papua. There were 12 accessions observed, i.e. Fasai, Fasampe, Falia, Fanomik, Fasongka, Fafion, Fakattao, Fanke, Fablen, Failik, Fakreit and Fasinan. Among these accessions, there were many differences based on morphological characteristics such as shoots color, crown shape, trunk height, number of leaf, existence of spine, starch content, also pith and starch color. Fablen was the only non-spiny type. Most of sago accessions were high yielding accessions with the potential yield more than 200 kg per trunk of sago dry starch. Fanomik had the highest potential yield. Sago palm productivity in the natural forest of Saifi Subdistrict, South Sorong District, West Papua was estimated to reach approximately 34.59 ton ha -1 per year of sago dry starch.
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Index of /ProdukHukum/kehutanan Sumbar 07 H Reg

Index of /ProdukHukum/kehutanan Sumbar 07 H Reg

1 Merapi GB. No. 23, 07/01/1916 - 9.670 - - - 2 Singgalang - Tandikat GB. No. 35, 31/01/1917 - 9.658 - - - 3 Sulasih (Talang) GB. No. 51, 25/01/1917 4.300 - 1.850 - - 4 G. Sago, Malintang, Karas GB. No. 42, 11/09/1918 - 5.486 - - - 5 Sijunjung GB. No. 88, 18/02/1919 25.292 - - - - 6 Barisan GB. No. 3, 05/01/1920 28.100 46.961 - - - 7 Maninjau Utara - Selatan GB. No. 5, 05/01/1920 - 20.788 - 1.320 - 8 Sumpur Lisun GB. No. 47, 30/10/1919 41.976 - 6.160 2.180 7.330 9 Sumpur I GB. No. 47, 30/10/1919 15.503 - - - - 10 Arau Hilir GB. No. 38, 30/10/1919 1.700 3.267 - - - 11 Sinamar Hilir GB. No. 2, 28/11/1919 14.111 - - - - 12 Air Tarusan Utara - Selatan GB. No. 4, 05/01/1920 5.422 19.335 - - - 13 Air Putih GB. No. 29, 15/04/1920 - 23.467 - - - 14 Sumpur II GB. No. 32, 31/01/1921 51.457 - - - - 15 Masang Sianok GB. No. 34, 31/01/1921 8.687 - - 3.198 - 16 Alahan Panjang GB. No. 33, 31/01/1921 - 21.114 - 1.250 - 17 Sumpur III
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Pengelolaan sagu (Metroxylon spp.) Di PT. National Sago Prima, Selat Panjang, Riau dengan aspek khusus pengaruh bobot bibit dan penggunaan pupuk organik cair terhadap pertumbuhan bibit sistem polibag di pembibitan

Pengelolaan sagu (Metroxylon spp.) Di PT. National Sago Prima, Selat Panjang, Riau dengan aspek khusus pengaruh bobot bibit dan penggunaan pupuk organik cair terhadap pertumbuhan bibit sistem polibag di pembibitan

Pengadaan bahan tanaman yang berkualitas pada awal penanaman akan memberikan banyak manfaat. Pembibitan merupakan awal dari kegiatan budidaya tanaman yang memberikan pengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan tanaman. Pembibitan bertujuan untuk menyeragamkan tingkat pertumbuhan bibit dan meningkatkan persentase hidup tanaman setelah penanaman di lapang. Asmara (2005) menyatakan bahwa pembibitan yang digunakan di PT. National Timber and Forest Product (sekarang menjadi PT. National Sago Prima) yaitu sistem rakit yang hanya mungkin diterapkan jika kanal atau sungai tersedia. Pembibitan sistem rakit mempunyai kelemahan yaitu tingkat kematian bibit setelah dipindahtanamkan ke lapang tergolong tinggi. Menurut Bintoro (2008), selain menggunakan rakit/kanal, pembibitan juga dapat dilakukan di tanah atau dalam polibag yang diisi tanah. Namun, Wibisono (2011) mengatakan bahwa pembibitan sistem polibag mempunyai tingkat kematian lebih tinggi daripada sistem rakit.
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