Cropping system study is useful to understand the overall sustainability of agricultural system. Capturing the change dynamics of cropping systems, especially spatial and temporal aspects, is of utmost importance in overall planning and management of natural resources. This paper highlights the remote sensing based cropping systems change-dynamics assessment. Current study is aimed at use of multidate-multisensor data for deriving the seasonal cropping pattern maps and deriving the remote sensing based cropping system performance indicators during 1998-99 and 2004-05 in West- Bengal state of India. The temporal assessment of the changes of cropping systems components such as cropping pattern and indices for the study years 1998-99 and 2004-05 have been brought out. The results indicate that during the six years of time the kharif cropping pattern has almost remained the same, being a rice dominant system. A notable point is the decrease in the aus rice due to readjusting the cropping system practice to suit the two crop systems in many places was observed. Marginal variations in mustard and wheat areas during rabi season was observed. The boro (summer) rice area has almost remained constant. The rice-fallow-fallow (R-F-F) rotation reduced by about 4 percent while the rice-fallow-rice (R-F-R) increased by about 7 percent percent. The Area Diversity Index reduced by about 38 percent in 2004 which may be attributed to decrease in kharif pulses and minor crops during kharif and summer. However, diversity during rabi season continued to remain high. The increase in MultipleCropping Index was observed predominantly in the southern part of the state. Cultivated Land Utilization Index shows an increase by about 0.05.
The practice of growing crops in sequence in the same field, which is also known as sequential crop- ping, is considered as one of the major tools of soil conservation (Troeh et al., 1991; Amir, 1996). Se- quential cropping provides a crop cover during most of the year. The crop cover during rainfall events re- duces kinetic energy of the raindrops and increases the infiltration rate, which minimizes runoff and soil loss. Presbitero et al. (1995) reported as much as 25 times more soil loss from bare plots than from plots with multiplecropping of corn and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) with Leucaena leucocephala con- tour hedgerows. Hashim et al. (1995) reported about 11 times more soil loss from a bare plot compared to a plot planted with cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Malaysia. Several factors have been reported as major determinants of soil loss and runoff, especially with annual cropping systems. These include the number of days required for the development of a full canopy cover, planting distances, time of planting, fertility level, and soil management practices (Hudson, 1957; Aina et al., 1976; Lal, 1977; Paningbatan, 1994; Mid- more et al., 1996). Steepland vegetable production systems in the highlands of Southeast Asia are char- acterized by their broad range of cropping patterns, such as sole cropping (e.g. potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)-fallow), monoculture (e.g. cabbage-cabbage), and sequential cropping (e.g. tomato-corn-cabbage) (Tau- tho and Kumori, 1991; Jansen et al., 1995; Poudel, 1995; Midmore et al., 1996). Because of the multiplic- ity of possible cropping sequences, field experiments to evaluate their effects on soil loss and runoff water may be constrained by time and resources.
sebidang tanah. Bercocok tanam dengan sistem multiplecropping ini ada bermacam-macam, antara lain adalah: (1) intercropping atau tumpang sari adalah sistem bercocok tanam dengan menggunakan dua atau lebih jenis tanaman yang ditanam serentak (bersamaan) pada sebidang tanah, (2) sequential cropping atau pertanaman beruntun adalah sistem bercocok tanam dengan menggunakan dua atau lebih jenis tanaman pada sebidang tanah di mana tanaman kedua/berikutnya ditanam bersamaan dengan pemanenan tanaman pertama, (3) relay cropping atau tumpang gilir adalah sistem bercocok tanam dengan menggunakan dua atau lebih jenis tanaman pada sebidang tanah di mana tanaman kedua/berikutnya ditanam setelah tanaman pertama berbunga dan (4) alley cropping adalah sistem bercocok tanam dengan menggunakan dua atau lebih jenis tanaman pada sebidang tanah di mana salah satu jenis tanaman yang ditanam adalah tanaman legume non pangan. Tujuannya adalah untuk menyediakan bahan organik (mulsa) bagi tanah dan sekaligus meningkatkan kesuburan tanah.
The experiment aimed to evaluate the production of nutrients by different varieties of sorghum grown with high valuable indigofera legume in intercropping system and to determine the suitable variety of sorghum that produced the highest nutrient in the system. The experiment was done at Jonggol Animal Science Teaching and Research Unit (UP3J) Jonggol, from November 2014 to March 2015. This experiment was conducted using completely randomized design with 2 factors (3 x 4) and 4 replications. The first factor was sorghum varieties (PATIR 3.2 (S1), PATIR 3.7 (S2), and CTY-33 (S3)). The second factor was indigofera composition (0% indigofera (I0), 30% indigofera (I1), 40% indigofera (I2), and 50% indigofera (I3)). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and HSD test. There was no interaction among varieties of sorghum and indigofera composition. Indigofera popu- lation of up to 50% in multiplecropping system had the highest (P<0.01) dry matter content, crude protein content, ash content, total fresh weight production, total dry weight production, total crude protein production, total ash production, and carrying capacity. Sorghum variety CTY-33 planted in multiplecropping system had the highest (P<0.01) dry matter content, total dry weight production, and (P<0.05) total crude protein production. PATIR 37 sorghum variety planted in multiplecropping system had the highest (P<0.05) ash content and (P<0.01) total ash production. It is concluded that Indigofera population of up to 50% planted with different varieties of sorghum in multiplecropping system had the highest nutrient production.
sedimentasi dan banjir. Upaya konservasi ini dapat dilakukan secara sipil teknik (mekanis) dan secara vegetatip. Pengendalian erosi secara mekanis merupakan pengendalian erosi?sedimentasi yang memerlukan beberapa sarana fisik antara lain pembuatan teras, rorak, saluran pembuangan air dan terjunan air. Sedang pengendalian erosi secara vegetatif, merupakan pengendalian erosi yang didasarkan pada peranan tanaman yang ditanam atau tumbuh dan berkembang bertujuan untuk mengurangi daya pengikisan dan penghanyutan tanah oleh aliran permukaan. Dalam praktek konsevasi tanah, kedua cara diterapkan secara terpadu, seperti pembuatan teras dengan penanaman ganda, dan sangat efektif dalam menekan laju erosi.Terkait dengan peran tanaman, tanaman dapat berfungsi melindungi permukaan tanah terhadap pukulan air hujan, melindungi daya transportasi aliran permukaan, dan menambah infiltrasi tanah, sehingga pasokan air dan cadangan air dalam tanah meningkat. Disamping itu, dapat memasok bahan organik dan hara N, serta dapat menyediakan pakan untuk ternak. Cara ini dapat dilakukan dengan cara penanaman tanaman penutup tanah, penanaman sistem lorong, dan penghijauhan. Untuk meningkatkan efisiensi penggunaan lahan dan menekan laju erosi, dapat menerapkan pola usaha tani konservasi melalui sistem penanaman ganda (Multiplecropping), dan sistem pertanian terpadu.Sistem penanaman ganda (Multiplecropping)Sistem penanaman ganda merupakan sistem bercocok tanam dengan menanam lebih dari satu jenis tanaman dalam sebidang tanah bersamaan atau digilir. Sistem ini dapat menunjang strategi pemerintah dalam rangka pelaksanaan program diversifikasi pertanian yang diarahkan untuk dapat meningkatkan optimalisasi pemanfaatan
Prosedur yang dilakukan adalah mendigitalisasi citra tampak, kemudian menyimpan dalam bentuk file berextentensi jpg atau bmp. Proses selanjutnya adalah melakukan pemilihan objek dalam citra digital yang dibutuhkan dalam proses cropping. Proses perbesaran citra digital hasil cropping dilakukan lewat dua jalur. Jalur pertama mengalami proses filterisasi selanjutnya diperbesar dengan menggunakan metode bilinear interpolation dan jalur kedua, citra hasil cropping langsung diperbesar menggunakan metode bilinear interpolation. Keluarannya dengan merata – rata keluaran dari kedua jalur tersebut.
To investigate alternative cropping strategies we used an optimization tool, a common feature in most spreadsheet programs. These tools optimize a given func- tion and have provisions for placing constraints on parameters within the function. We used an optimization model that minimized the land area required to produce targeted nutrient requirements (energy, protein, vitamin A, zinc, calcium and iron) given the selected crops. The restrictions on protein, vitamin A, zinc, calcium and iron were set at ``equal to or more than'' the speci®ed level, while energy was set at ``equal to'' the speci®ed level.
cropping pattern of the plant with corn was expected to improve its production efficiency and compatibility. The experiment was conducted in the Cimanggu Experimental Garden Bogor, Latosol soil type, elevation 240 m above sea level, climate type A of Schmidt and Fergusson. Planting was done November 2003. The experiment was designed in a randomized block with 6 replications. Treatments were (1) monoculture of king bitter cropping pattern, (2) king bitter and corn (in a plant spacing 150 cm x 20 cm) cropping pattern, (3) king bitter and corn (in a plant spacing 120 cm x 20 cm) cropping pattern, (4) king bitter and corn (in a plant spacing 90 cm x 20 cm) cropping pattern. King bitter was planted at 30 cm x 40 cm spacing, fertilized with 10 tons manure + 150 kg SP-36 + 150 kg KCl and 150 kg urea fertilizer was applied one of third dosage in 0, 1, and 2 months after planting. Corn was grown twice during the experiment; first was planted 2 weeks prior to planting of the king bitter, and second was 75 days after the first planting. Corn was fertilized with 5 tons manure + 300 kg SP36 + 200 kg KCl per ha, and 300 kg urea fertilizer was applied half dosage in 0, and 1 months after planting. First harvest of the king bitter was done in March 2004, followed with 5 harvests every 2 months. Farming efficiency was analyzed using descriptive analysis, B/C ratio and sensitivity analysis. The results showed that quality of dry raw material of king bitter matched with MMI standard. Productivity of king bitter decreased by the increasing population of corn in cropping pattern, in monoculture bitter king productivity was 1.1 kg/m 2 decreased to 0.5 kg/m 2
Maize yield of 2 t ha −1 or more per season over 5 years of continuous double cropping in the control indicates that initially the experimental site was not nutrient-depleted unlike typical farmers’ fields. The fairly high yields were also partly because of good agronomic management under researchers’ control. However, nutrients became a limiting factor whenever rainfall was above normal or well distributed, as evi- dent from significant maize response to green manur- ing in 5 out of 12 seasons. This maize response could be ascribed primarily to N in the gliricidia biomass as the site initially contained a high level of extractable P (average = 16 ± s.d. 4.3 ppm). In a parallel experi- ment on a nearby field that had five years of cropping history, maize yields were significantly increased by 40 kg N ha −1 in 6 out of 11 seasons (Mathuva et al., 1998). A significant linear relationship between yield and rainfall in most cropping systems and lack of any time-related trends in yields over years further indi- cate that maize yields in this study were influenced more by water than by soil fertility. The results point out that although nutrient depletion occurs slowly in the newly opened base-rich Alfisols in water-limited semi-arid tropics, N could become a limiting nutri- ent very soon and potential yields cannot be realised without external inputs. The decline of extractable P from the initial 16 to 11 ppm by the end of 6.5 years suggests that P inputs would be needed in due course. Increased maize yield in grain legume-based sys- tems in the presence of adequate water was the re- sult of higher N availability to maize in those systems
Multiple is a kind of noise on seismic data which may interfere with the primary data. Both Primary data and multiple were recorded by seismic receiver as a raw data. Misinformation subsurface condition might be showed by seismic data caused by multiple. Therefore, multiple needs to be eliminated. There are several methods for multiple elimination, such as tau-p deconvolution, radon, and SRME. SRME is a data-driven method and can predict multiple better than other methods in near offset. The research was conducted in geophysics function, Upstream Technology Center of PT Pertamina (Persero) using one line of synthetic data and five lines shallow water seismic real data and would be processed using omega 2016 software. Seismic data processing was done in shot gather data format. This research obtained multiple elimination result using SRME method was effective in near offset. In far offset data, it is necessary to apply any combinations with other methods to obtain the most effective results.
The general objective about this paper is to improve access of rural children in Gunungkidul Yogyakarta to early childhood education (ECE) based on multiple literacy principles. The aim is to identify and develop multiple literacy-based ECE model for children 3–6 years of age, with a community and poverty targeted focus for selected rural families to develop theor character. The specific objectives are to (a) identify and conduct cost-effective programs that are accessible for the target groups; and (b) strengthen the capacity of the ECE based on multiple literacy principles of practitioners in planning, managing, financing, coordination, monitoring, and evaluation the programs. (c) improving society’s awareness and the independence in the establishment of ECE. (c) ensuring the sustainability of the program.
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) merupakan sistem yang terdiri dari sejumlah terminal (antena) pengirim dan penerima. MIMO digunakan dalam teknologi wireless karena dapat meningkatkan throughput tanpa adanya tambahan bandwidth maupun transmit power. Karena itulah, MIMO menjadi salahsatu elemen penting dalam berbagai standar komunikasi nirkabel, misalnya IEEE 802.11n, IEEE 802.11ac, HSPA+, WiMAX, dan LTE.
One of the factors that affect s plant growth is spacing. Plant spacing distance affects the microclimate condition and at the end will influence plant growth and productivity of rice paddy. The purpose of this study is to obtain optimal spacing distance of row cropping system (Legowo) in order to improve rice productivity in subak system. The study was conducted in Subak Suala, Pitera village, Penebel distric, Tabanan Regency, Bali, Indonesia. The study consisted of 5 treatments of spacing distance width, namely: K0 (Control, spacing distance based on local farmer practices = 28 cm), K1 (Legowo width of 1.25 x row spacing = 35 cm), K2 (Legowo width of 1.50 x row spacing = 42 cm), K3 (Legowo width of 1.75 x row spacing = 49 cm), and K4 (Legowo width of 2.0 x row spacing = 56 cm). Every treatment was repeated 3 times, thus there were 15 demonstration plots. The observation variables in the study included: panicle length, number of grains per panicle, weight of grains per clumb, weight of 100 grains, the productivity per area unit. The result was obtained were an increase in panicle length, number of grains per panicle, and weight of 100 grains. K3 treatment showed a higher production compared to other treatments.
Multiple intelligence atau yang dikenal juga dengan kecerdasan majemuk menurut Misni (2006) adalah kemampuan untuk memecahkan masalah atau melakukan sesuatu yang ada nilainya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Kecerdasan bukan sesuatu yang dapat dilihat atau dihitung, melainkan potensi sel otak yang aktif atau nonaktif tergantung pada pengalaman hidup sehari-hari, baik di rumah, sekolah atau di tempat lain. Gardner (1993: 15) menyatakan bahwa: