This study aims to identify and analyze economically NationalCommunityEmpowermentProgram (PNPM) in three rural districts, namely Sragen, Sukoharjo and Wonogiri. Economic evaluation is mainly analyze whether funding the NationalProgram for CommunityEmpowerment (PNPM) Mandiri rural SMEs can increase profits receiving support in both the short and medium term. Besides, also the distribution if there are irregularities, irregularities are either negative or is part of the strategy, targeting accuracy, in accordance with the guidelines, and the guidelines are not the NationalProgram for CommunityEmpowerment (PNPM) Mandiri countryside. Terakir purpose ie whether program beneficiaries can get out of poverty.
National park of Meru Betiri (TNMB) is 58,000 ha. Since 1960, more than 2,000 ha of national park of Meru Betiri (TNMB) has given to PT. New Sukamade Banyuwangi and PT. Bandealit Jember as Cultivation Rights Title/HGU. Through the Director General of PHPA Decree and Forestry Minister Decree No: 131/Kpts-II/1998, the government lengthened HGU of 2,155 ha in buffer zone of TNMB (Director General of PKA Decree No: 185/Kpts/DJ-V/1999). The lengthening of HGU in chaos national political condition triggered people to loot land of TNMB. This action occurred as a result of imbalance and scarcity of property right and narrow life space of community. Realizing chaos sociopolitical condition (2001-2003), TNMB invited national and local NGOs in order to take back looted/occupied land through rehabilitation program based on community development. Ramifications were social consequences of political co-operation of rehabilitation. Rehabilitation cooperation legalized access for planting. Impact of this cooperation was tenure issues lead to insecurity tenure for both parties. This study applied political ecology analysis to find that there was conflicts of access and natural resources benefits of and impact load caused by disparity of power, land ownership, and income between community groups in buffer villages with TNMB and community groups given access and privilages. This conflict triggered looting and occupation of land. The policy to legalize land distribution for planting resulted positive implication to socio-economic people but negative to socio- culture people (local wisdom) and to ecological aspects (fail rehabilitation program) as results of conflict interests and treatment difference in rehabilitation.
Efforts carried out by the government to empower communities, the government had taken measures to empower communities in coastal areas by including empowerment policy in national broad guidelines, forming a national strategic plan, and developing necessary legal frameworks and legislations to provide legal basis for the government to act. It had also established a CommunityEmpowerment Bureau from the national to the district level and implemented programs intended to use an empowerment approach. But training for the government staff about empowerment philosophy, methodology and approaches, essential to implement empowerment was not carried out (missing link), even though the Ministry of Internal Affairs had issued a decree to require this. Government did not experience with empowerment process that should be carried out in the training process. As a result there was no change in government staff members’ knowledge, skills and behaviours, and staff continued practising the old top down mode of delivery and target focused approach to development processes.
Konflik akibat pemanfaatan lahan di TNGHS terus berkembang sejalan dengan diperluasnya kawasan tersebut pada tahun 2003 berdasarkan Surat Penunjukan Menteri Kehutanan No 175/Kpts-II/2003 tanggal 10 juni 2003 tentang perluasan dan perubahan status TNGHS. Hal ini dikarenakan masih terdapat ratusan ribu orang yang berada di dalam kawasan TNGHS dan berdasarkan data TNGHS (2006) terdiri dari 155.345 jiwa di Kabupaten Sukabumi (Tahun 2006), 296.138 jiwa di Kabupaten Bogor (Tahun 2005) dan 154.892 jiwa di Kabupaten Lebak (Tahun 2005) yang mendiami 348 kampung. Ketergantungan penduduk terhadap sumberdaya lahan di kawasan TNGHS tersebut sangatlah tinggi yang dicirikan oleh beragamnya pola pemanfaatan lahan di dalam TNGHS tersebut, seperti pertanian lahan kering, sawah, pertambangan, permukiman, dan sebagainya dengan berbagai fasilitas fisik wilayah yang telah berkembang sejak lama. Perkembangan pemanfaatan lahan di kawasan tersebut berkaitan dengan kebijakan tata ruang Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, dan Lebak yang belum seluruhnya sesuai dengan wilayah kelola TNGHS. Selain itu kondisi masyarakat di dalam TNGHS secara ekonomi umumnya tergolong miskin, sehingga perlu upaya-upaya peningkatan ekonominya. Namun dengan masih tidak sinkronnya antara tata ruang kabupaten dengan TNGHS menjadi kendala terkait program peningkatan ekonomi masyarakat, dimana program pembangunan masyarakat pemerintah kabupaten sulit dilakukan di wilayah yang pengelolaannya dilakukan oleh UPT Kementerian Kehutanan. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan utama dalam penelitian ini adalah :
Background : Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem of global, national and local level. The problem is associated with the low level of community knowledge and attitude towards TB. CommunityEmpowerment People Against Tuberculosis (CEPAT) is a TB program that working at community level to increase community mobilization to prevent, detect, and treat TB. Such mobilization includes increasing awareness and knowledge of TB information and reduce TB stigma.
Minimalization of Kendari Town government attention towards the process of the implementation of urban and societal cycle stated that the leader and members of the Team of Regional Poverty Overcoming Coordination of Kendari Town have not shown political will that is oriented on Sustainable Human Development to utilize the people’s money on the field of pro poor, pro people and pro jobs. This is seen by the absence of effort for strengthening institutional capacity of Society Self-Supporting Board that has been rooted in the middle of society. Because so far, some projects are given by the Head of region such as Major, Regent, and so on to certain groups that are considered to take part in “political democracy party” . In this context, in accordance with the Coordinator of NationalProgram of Independent Urban Society Empowerment of Kendari Town stated that:
PNPM-Mandiri as communityempowermentprogram is a nationalprogram to accelerate the poverty reduction. The implementation of the program in some areas showed the successful by the poverty reduction. Nevertheless, many areas failed in implementing the program showed by the poverty remains, even worse. Therefore, it needs further analysis whether successful of the implementation of the program could not automatically reduce the poverty rate. The problem was occured in Besito Village Gebog Sub-District Kudus Regency. BKM Besito Makmur, the community based organization in the Village, won Kudus Regency awards in some years and also from Provincial level, but the poverty rate is still relatively high. This research used qualitative method in analyzing the implementation of PNPM Mandiri Urban in Besito Village, a communityempowerment project supported by World Bank joint funded by local community. Besides this research analyzed the effectiveness of PNPM - Mandiri in reducing the poverty, this research also analyzed the roles of stakeholders to reduce the poverty through PNPM - Mandiri, the constraining factors, and the result of program implementation. As a result of evaluation, this program seems to be failed in terms of poverty reduction as final goal. The poverty reduction in Besito Village cannot be achieved although the BKM won awards because the implementation of the program only good in administration. The roles of stakeholders were not optimal, since the poor, women, and community leaders were not involved in all activities especially in the planning stage. The constraining factors divided into two categories, structural problems and operational problems. The poverty alleviation program needs some improvement to be more effective, efficient, relevant, sustainable and give positive impact in reducing the poverty. To cope with, the poor should be centered in implementing the program.
According to the World Bank, the Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat/ NationalProgram for CommunityEmpowerment (PNPM) is a good example of the World Bank poverty alleviation project in Indonesia (Jakarta Post, 2009). Previously named as Kecamatan Development Project (KDP), the project has been showing positive and negative impacts (further discussions see Carroll 2009; Fang 2006; Guggenheim S., 2006:111-144). On the positive side, the wide-array of success on building infrastructures and strengthening local governance has been claimed by the Bank to show that the program has lifted the poor out of poverty (World Bank, 2008). In addition, other countries replicate the concept of Community-Driven Development (CDD) that has been used in PNPM as convincing method for poverty reduction (World Bank, 2012). The World Bank assumes that using PNPM will foster Indonesia into the leading middle income country in South East Asia.
The development of Islamic boarding school (Pesantren) that is no longer just to teach religion, but has become a social and economic institution with delivers the knowledge and skills of cooperative and entrepreneurship in Pesantrens. The study used qualitative method through Participatory Learning and Action (PLA). Research location in one of the largest Pesantren namely El Bayan 1 and 2, Cilacap, Cetral Java. The study determined the informant through purposive sampling i.e. the managers and members of cooperative Pesantren. Data were collected by interviews, focus group discussion, observation and documentation. Research data were analyzed with the SWOT analysis. The results showed the strategy cooperative Pesantrens in the economic empowerment of students is very important with the to improve and enhance institutional managed, membership, finance, partnerships and the development of agribusiness based business unit to enhance the well-being of Pesantren, student and the community.
People empowerment is economic development concept summarizing social values. This concept describe new development paradigm with the nature of people-centered, participatory, empowering, and sustainable (Zubaedi, 2013). People economic empowering is strengthening production ownership factors, strengthening distributing and marketing authority; strengthening people to gain proper salary or wages; and strengthening people to gain information, knowledge, and skill which should be done in multiple aspects in people aspect and policy aspect (Mardi, 2000). Therefore, the economic strategic issue has specific local nature and specific problem. People economic empowerment operational could not be formulated generally.
This study uses Participation Action Research. Community participation is key in every step of the development movement and a variety of reasons that show the benefits of a participatory approach by involving all citizens are involved. During this development program is planned from above (top-down) without directly involving the community - only to receive the program and sometimes does not touch people's needs and sometimes a survey conducted as the basis for a foothold in formulating a program conducted by research institutions are sometimes unduly colored by insights, thoughts of his own views or too academic researchers, so that sometimes the program does not touch the need felt by the community. The reason for this that reinforce why this study used the Action Research in a sense for the society to able to recognize the portrait of himself, able to formulate a program in accordance with the needs required by the communities concerned. And more important thing is no longer the object but the subject, so hopefully through their involvement will be the "owner" not just as an executor. Community involvement, as the executor will not guarantee sustainability of the program. Thus in the future dependence on outside parties will further be reduced.
Malacca District is one of Indonesian border area with East Timor. This region is also become the home for largest number of refugees in East Timor after the poll.The existence of the East Timorese former warrior who lived in the ressetlement area built by the EU and UNHCR in Kanamasa village, Central Malaka subdistrict-Malacca District, need special attention amid uncertainty life after their struggle. The Central Malacca subdistrict classified as number one priority areas of food insecurity in East Nusa Tenggara according FSVA. The development of agriculture is alternative solutions in an effort to strengthen the refugees household food security. The purpose ofthis study wasto analyzethe condition of the availability of food, the factors causing food problems, and designing a model of communityempowerment efforts to increase food security in the inter-state border. The results showed the condition of the people of East Timorex-fighters in a state of food insecurity that characterized the energy consumption below the cutting point for the adequacy of the energy consumption of 2.160Cal/cap/dayis equal to1209.08Cal/cap/day. Food problems that arise due to the lack of diversification factor, high food prices, and food cultureareless supportive of the adequacy of nutrient intake in the family. Agricultural development program is an effort to address the problem of food insecurity, with a capital in the community experience in agriculture. Programs that can be developed are: 1) institutional strengthening through the establishment of farmers' groups; 2) human resource development through training of crops and horticulture nursery; 3) optmize of yards land use; 4) initiation of land cultivation procurement; 5) agriculture activities in demonstration plots land.
212 ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persepsi masyarakat terhadap implementasi Alokasi Dana Desa yang diperuntukkan bagi Penyelenggaraan Pemerintahan Desa, Pembangunan Desa, Pemberdayaan Masyarakat, dan Kegiatan Kemasyarakatan, dengan pengaruh moderasi good governance. Tujuan alokasi dana desa pada prinsipnya untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan dan pemerataan pembangunan desa guna mengatasi kesenjangan pembangunan antar desa serta memperkuat masyarakat desa sebagai subjek dari pembangunan. Hal ini sesuai dengan substansi dari Undang-Undang Desa No 6/2014 untuk memberikan otonomi yang lebih besar kepada desa agar dapat mandiri. Saat ini masih banyak pihak yang tidak memahami terhadap penggunaan anggaran dana desa. Perlu ada media yang tepat dan mudah dipahami agar masyarakat bisa melihat dan mengetahui apa yang telah dilakukan pemerintah desa dalam penggunaan anggaran desa. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang dikumpulkan dari administrasi desa, sedangkan data primer dikumpulkan dari masyarakat desa Kabupaten Bantul. Alat analisis data yang digunakan Structural Equation Modeling berbasis variance dengan bantuan software SmartPLS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pelaksanaan alokasi dana desa secara simultan untuk semua program memiliki berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap persepsi masyarakat desa, sedangkan program secara parsial untuk masing-masing pedanaan tidak berpengaruh signifikan. Tata kelola yang baik sebagai variabel independen berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap persepsi masyarakat desa, tetapi peran Tata Kelola sebagai moderasi pelaksanaan setiap program pendanaan secara parsial tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap persepsi masyarakat.
Penelitian ini dapat memperluas dan meningkatkan pengetahuan tentang pemberdayaan masyarakat dalam rangka peningkatan status gizi masyarakat khususnya bagi keluarga yang memiliki anak balita. Program pemberdayaan ini membutuhkan agen pemberdayaan yang mengerti kebutuhan masyarakat sehingga terciptanya kerjasama antara masyarakat, agen pemberdayaan dan pemerintah.
This research examines the implementation of the farmer’s empowermentprogram by Rural Agribusiness Development in Mulyodadi Village, Wonoayu Subdistrict, Sidoarjo Regency using the concept of empowerment strategy of ACTORS theory by Sarah Cook dan Steve Macaulay. The results show that some findings in the implementation of Rural Agribusiness Development, among others Direct Aid Fund of Rural Agribusiness Development (DAF-RAD) have not been for farmers households, small-scale farmers (owners and/or sharecroppers), and farm laborers who are weak or powerless groups that are structurally feasible to be empowered. In addition, the process of institutional formation of farmers has not reached the final stage, meaning that Tani Mulyo farmer’s group does not have an Micro Finance Institutions Agribusiness (MFI-A). The implementation of Rural Agribusiness Development as a form of farmer ’s empowerment not as expected. Therefore, it is necessary to review by using SWOT analysis and bottom up farmer ’s empowerment.
Land is frequently appropriated for logging, oil palm plantation development or gazettement of land for forest reserves, national parks and other protected areas without adequate consultation and consent of customary owners or compensation (FPP, 2008; Chao, 2012). Affected communities have limited knowledge of their legal rights and few opportunities to challenge abuses and violations (Chao, 2012). Indigenous communities have resorted to the courts to seek redress for land conflicts. Between 2002 and 2011, the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (SUHAKAM) received more than 1,000 complaints related to native customary rights (SUHAKAM, 2011), and there are hundreds of ongoing court cases against state agencies and corporations for alleged appropriation of customary lands. These efforts have had mixed results. While Sarawak courts have upheld native peoples’ land claims as consistent with international human rights law and the Malaysian Constitution and rejected the state government’s restrictive interpretation of native customary rights, the state government has responded by tightening regulations rather than recognizing native land claims (Colchester et al., 2007). Private sector expansion, including on native customary rights lands, continues to be promoted, with 60,000–100,000 ha of customary lands allegedly developed for oil palm every year (ibid.).
A large number of Muslim population in Indonesia is also suitable for a large number of mosques. Mosque in the history of Islamic civilization is a means to perform da’wah and development of economic resources of Muslims. Using descrip- tive qualitative methods, this study aims to examine how the economic role of the mosque can be improved through communityempowermentprogram in Yogyakarta City, Indonesia. From the result, it may be concluded that mosque has a strategic position to empower congregation. For enhancing the economic role through em- powerment, there are at least six steps. Firstly, planning process including agreement among the administrator, looking for fund source, and also looking for the partner. Secondly, socialization to the congregation, opened, closed, or limited. Thirdly, se- lecting the beneficiaries. Fourthly, the empowering process including lending a soft loan, establish cooperative, or marketing intervention. Fifthly, mentoring both eco- nomic and spiritual progress of the beneficiaries. The last process is evaluating the program periodically. The success indicators of this program are the performance of returning loans and the improving intensity of the congregation prayer.
A concept of ecotourism development has been suggested by Hidayati et al. (2003), the business of ecotourism development in Indonesia are still at the early stages. According to Hadi (2007), tourism currently tend to give the benefits to the international companies and mass tourisms oriented to just simply enjoy the beauty of nature (sea, sand and sun), net yet a lot of creating added values to the local community (local value added), not to prioritize the conservation of the cultural and social values and not to minimize environmental impacts.
Rather than just doing research, it is a need for community organizer to be encourager. It is someone who 'hangs around' and lives with the community to share their troubles and their community development process. Limited access to knowledge and information prevents the full use and potential growth of intelligence. It is useful to start by observing that both human creations and social constructs. They are designed to explain and meet some of the challenges that individuals or groups face at a particular time and place. They can be used to empower the individual or the group. To build the content of information resources, people will want to work systematically and to involve community members. As human creation, the beneficiaries use knowledge and information to organize their view of history and culture. The ultimate goal of the center is to encourage self-realization or enlightenment of individual and community. This awakening of all is achieved though the selfless sharing of each community members. Every day, there is a meeting at lunch that primarily for sharing their experience. What emerged from discussion with these groups, as well as the community members themselves, was that a way was needed to expand and stabilize the period of transition so people could reconstruct their business as well as the value of lives, which they called as “kawruhan ilmu rejeki”.