Due to its sustainability, Malaysia oilpalmplantation has increased significantly starting from 1960 to 2005 (MPOB, Malaysian Rubber Board, MRB) particularly the growth of small and medium planters. According to the Jabatan Perikanan Malaysia, the small and medium oilpalmplantation is defined as a planter that has plantation land equivalent to 4 hectare or lower. The small planters seek for fund to expand their oilpalmplantation. According to The Times 100, banks provide a number of important financial services to businesses.
Increasing rate of oilpalmplantation in Indonesia since 2008-2011 was 6.92%, that increased from 7,363,703 to 7,873,384 ha. Vegetation grown in the area of oilpalmplantation is weed for its main crop. There is potential source of oilpalmplantation area for livestock industry. Oilpalm-cattle integration system is well known and it has been applied in many oilpalm plantations, by the use of waste from oilpalmplantation, oilpalm by-product, the fronds for feed and feces from cattle as organic fertilizer for the plant. Management of oilpalmplantation, including plant maintainance, weeding, providing organic and chemical fertilizer is costly. Grazing system under oilpalm would minimize cost problem and oilpalm production input can be reduced. One of the systems in oilpalm-cattle integration that prospective to be developed is grazing by rotation system. Types of plants under oilpalmplantation consist of grasses, legumes, other narrow and broad leaves, some are palatable and some are unpalatable or toxic for cattle. Species of vegetation under oilpalm vary among the plantation depending on the age of oilpalm plant. Introduction of superior forage into oilpalmplantation is promising effort to increase the production and quality of feed. Carrying capacity for cattle varies among the oilpalmplantation and depends on vegetation under oilpalmplantation and age of oilpalm. Studies showed that integration oilpalm-livestock by grazing system has been proven economically feasible.
Difference of Hemipteran Predator Species Composition in OilPalmPlantation with Different Distance from Natural Habitat. Species composition of hemipteran predator in oilpalmplantation was not affected by their distance from natural habitat (ANOSIM R=-0.045, P=0.641). Oilpalmplantation that located in near vs medium distance from natural habitat had 83.2% similar species, while near vs far distance was 78.9% similar species and medium vs far distance was 84.8% similar species. In addition, 13 similar species of hemipteran predator were found in oilpalmplantation located in medium and far distance from natural habitat, while near and far distance was found 12 similar species. Species composition of hemipteran predator did not differ between oilpalm plantations with different distances from natural habitat. This was allegedly due to similarity of vegetation types in the whole oilpalm plantations. Based on vegetation analysis, we found 20 similar vegetation species in oilpalm plantations between near, medium and far distance from natural habitat. According to Humprey et al. (1999), diversity of vegetation on agricultural habitat affects the composition of insects in it. Vegetation within or around oilpalm field provide important contribution to the presence of hemipteran predator such as alternative habitat, shelter or resting habitat and food (prey) source.
Water footprint (WF) is one of rigorous method to evaluate water utilization by crops (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007). In this contex, water used by crop is simplified as virtual water relative total yield that is applicable to all crops (Aivazidou et al., 2016; Lovarelli et al., 2016). Many WF assesments have been made on the oilpalm (Bulsink et al., 2009; Mekonnen and Hoekstra, 2011; Zulkifli et al., 2014; Suttayakul et al., 2016) that mostly used field basis calculation. WF evaluation based on tree stand was limited. Tree-based WF needs to be evaluated because WF value is sensitive to volume of water consumption, climate and agricultural practice (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007), productivity and region (Bulsink et al., 2009), variety and efficiency on oil extraction (Suttayakul et al., 2016).
Pelalawan Regency has more than 380 hectares of oilpalmplantation areas with 42 private managing companies. Determining the suitability of land and climate will affect the oilpalm plantations and the quality that will be produced. The PCA (Principal Component Analysis) method is used to process 8 criteria consisting of temperature, rainfall, irradiation, humidity, C-Organic, H2O pH, into the soil and Slope. The source of the data used comes from agencies that manage the land and climate of Pelalawan Regency, Riau Province. Existing data is processed and analyzed against 8 criteria to determine the most dominant factors. Based on the results of the research conducted, the priority criteria for planting oilpalm are soil depth, rainfall, organic matter, H2O pH, slope, irradiation, humidity and temperature. Therefore, recommendations from this study will be further developed for land and climate suitability classifications for plant oilpalm.
Classification of land suitability is very important for oilpalmplantation for oilpalm and quality of oilpalm yield. This classification depends on soil properties and climate characteristic of Pelalawan district, Riau province. Soil properties are combinations of soil characteristics which are known to occur in soils and which are considered to be indicative of present or past soil-forming processes. In addition to soil properties, land suitability also is influenced by the climate in that area. Climate components that influence the growth of palmoil are the air temperature, rainfall and humidity. Furthermore, to classify land suitability will be classification algorithm that can be used for analysis of soil properties and climate characteristic. In this dissertation, the author will be used combining of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fuzzy Clustering Means (FCM) methods for classifying of land suitability. These techniques were applied to the collected soil and climate data and the achieved performance were joined and analysed. Based on experimental results, PCA and FCM were able to improve the performance of accuracy in classification. PCA – FCM can achieve 98.780% for training process and 97.345% for testing process when using six variables. While comparative study, PCA-FCM can achieve 98.890% for training process and 98.655% for testing respectively. By applying PCA to classify land suitability, the accuracy of classification can be maintained with less of the number of variables.
Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oilpalm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oilpalmplantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palmplantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oilpalm fruit bunches (PFB) more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop 70%, improve 30% of PFB, increase business scale 13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs 16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palmoil business and cattle business.
This research was aimed to determine criteria the value of the crop nutrient was based on the range of the adequancy of the nutrient to the oilpalm (Elaeis guineensis) for the crop produced. This research was used the survey method, that is taking the sample of the oilpalm crop randomized to plantations that spread in Riau, Lampung, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan and South Sumatra. The sample of the crop came from a pair of leaf to the tail of the lizard from the 17 th steam. Then was taken by a third to the middle and was removed palm leaf rib. Samples of these leaves were gathered from 20 trees. The level of nutrient was produced by the analysis of the crop were connected with the growth variabel and the production to determine the range of the adequancy of the nutrient.
Collembola is one of the dominant microarthopods in almost all soils types. They have important function in food webs soil ecosystem. This research was done at Cikasungka oilpalmplantation for six months (April until September 2014). The aim of the research was to collect the information of diversity abundance and population fluctuations of Collembola, and their linkages between environmental factors. Collembolans were collected based on four points of soil sample from five trees of oilpalm which has similar criteria. Distance of 0, 120, 240 cm from the trees, and compost lane were used to collect the samples. Results showed 37 species from 10.438 individuals with a density of 544 individu/ m 2 . The species belongs to 4 orders and 13 families. Result also showed that are fluctuations in the
This research aims to analyze the technical efficiency and source of technical inefficiency of palmoil production. The data used are secondary data from agricultural census survey in 2013 with a sample of 1229 farmer. Technical efficiency is measured by using stochastic frontier production function and is estimated using MLE method assuming that Cobb-Doughlas is the functional form of palmoil. From the research result, it is known that the factors that influence the technical efficiency of palmoil production in West Kalimantan Province are a number of productive trees, plant age, urea fertilizer, SP36, NPK, labor and dummy pesticide. Furthermore, variables of the percentage of own capital, membership of cooperative and membership of contract farming are influencing to reduce technical inefficiency. Therefore, efforts to improve the technical efficiency is to increase the role of the cooperative to its members, and increase the involvement of palmoil farmers in the plasma pattern.
Results of study indicate that the incoming capital penetration into the customary community changes social, economical and cultural aspects of the community. The incoming market economy system into the culture of Talang Mamak crushes traditional service economic system and weakens the use of traditional technology. The narrawed forest area and less productive rice field represent the job shift though it still underlines their forest, such as the shift of field function into rubber plantation and its convesion into oilpalmplantation. The community of Talang Mamak responds any changes in their regional in several manners such as intensive farming, hunger rent, self-exploitation, land diversification into rubber plantation, and ritualism involving technological transfer. This strong effect does’t stimulate the cruelty among the community of Tala ng Mamak. The unfavorable phenomenon occurs because a certain social agency successfully calms down their emotional fluctuation.
The eviction and the expulsion of SAD Batin 9 community conducted by AP company citing the exis- tence of the SAD Batin 9 in the concession area actu- ally had been unlawful. The Company is the holder of the rights to the area because the government has given permission. It does not mean that Indigenous people could consider as squatters who disrupt the company plantation. The criminalization of indige- nouspeople is one way to get rid of them from the area of the concession. From the perspective of indigenous people SAD Batin 9, the action was taken by the com- pany is the deprivation of the right to the living area, because they have live and make a living in this area since hundreds of years ago. They obtained the land of their ancestors. They also buried their ancestors in the
Dayana, A. R., Roshanida, A. R., Rosli, M. I., Siti, F. Z. M. F., M. Anuar, J., Nazlul, A. C. Bioconversion of Empty Fruit Bunchess (EFB) and PalmOil Mill Effluent (POME) into Compost Using Trichoderma virens. African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 10(81), pp. 18775-18780.
In these last 5 years(2001-2005) production of crude palmoil (CPO) in Indonesia has been increasing. Its average growth rate is 45.6 %, which is 8.4 mill ton in year 2001 and rose to 12.2 mill ton in year 2004. While projection of Indonesia production in year 2005 is 13.1 mill ton. This production activity is also followed by increase in export volume. Indonesia CPO average export is 620 thousand ton (80.7mill dolar US).Today, palmoil export in crude form is about 20 %, while 80 % is in processed form such as frying oil, margarine, palmoil mill and other food products. One of study by Capricorn Indonesian Consultant (CIC) concluded that after year 2004 there will be an increase in international demand of CPO. This analysis can be made as a leading indicator to increase palmoil production and export.Other good news is that the total area has been increasing up to year 2005, covering 5.5 mill ha. Combination of these two factors is expected to be a stimulant for investors to invest their money for palmoil. Although Indonesia is still behind Malaysia in terms of palmoil
Based on assessment of land cover and distinguishing the land cover into suitable mineral soils for oilpalm, the classified land was determined its legal basis in the area according to the concession areas and the forest function of MoF which has been agreed by the Minister of Forestry through a decree Number SK.292/Menhut-II/2011, signed at 31st May 2011. Concession refers to rights to use a land for a particular purpose (i.e. for oilpalm called HGU, timber industries called IPHHK or HPH and HTI). In this step, information regarding concessions on potentially suitable sites is collected from the most recent publicly available Ministry of Forestry concessions data (2010). The potential sites for future oilpalm development are area outside of the current concessions (un-license areas). Meanwhile, the forest function refers to the legal classification of the land described in the Forestry Law of 1999, which classifies land as either within the Forest Area (Kawasan Hutan) or outside the Forest Area (Non-Forest area, Areal Penggunaan Lain - APL) 22 . Land within the forest area is further classified according to the following functions: Permanent Production Forest (Hutan Produski Tetap – HP), Limited Production Forest (Hutan produski Terbatas – HPT), Convertible Production Forest (Hutan Produski Konversi– HPK), Protected Forest (Hutan Lindung – HL), Conservation Forest (Hutan Konservasi – HK). By regulation oilpalm plantations can be developed in APL areas or in HPK areas when extra procedures are followed to release the HPK area from the Forest Area.
The scope of this project is mainly focusing on the mixing of the empty fruit bunch, EFB and the recycled papers. All these palmoil mills is to be obtained, mixed up and to be develop as a fuel briquette at a certain ratio or percentage with the EFB as the major element. This fuel briquette is to be carried out with the performance tests and comparison tests in terms of its calorific values, stability, and durability, proximate, ultimate, immerse and crack. Other aspects of the material will not be covered.
Puji dan syukur penulis sampaikan kehadirat Tuhan Yang Maha Esa atas segala rahmat dan berkat-Nya yang telah diberikan kepada penulis, sehingga penulis dapat menyelesaikan tugas akhir ini tepat pada waktunya. Tugas akhir ini disusun sebagai persyaratan unuk menyelesaikan pendidikan Program Studi D-3 Kimia Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Sumatera Utara dengan judul “PERBANDINGAN BILANGAN IODIUM ANTARA CRUDE PALMOIL DAN REFINED BLEACHED DEODORIZED PALMOIL ” .
The main causes of poverty were attributed mainly to inaccessibility of small farmers to productive assets namely, land and capital and also due to the low returns of agricultural enterprises which farmers were involved in. The Malaysian government has tried to overcome poverty in relation to the provision of land and capital through massive development of new land and enhancing the productivity of traditional farms (Arif Simeh and Arif Ahmad, 2001). Several government agencies such as FELCRA, RISDA and other state government agencies have converted former rubber plantations into palmoil plantations in order for the landless poor to gain benefit. Prior to thus development, government management experts used to operate the smallholdings. RISDA has also aided by providing replanting funds to rubber smallholders who wish to switch to oilpalm. The cultivation of oilpalm had certainly played a dominant role in enhancing the income of the rural population and in the alleviation of poverty among agricultural smallholders.
There has been a strong opinion toward the industry of palmoilplantation in Indonesia, indicating that this industry has caused the destruction of environment in Indonesia. One effort that has been done so far by the Indonesian government to develop this industry continuously is by creating the continuous standard called Indonesia Sustainable PalmOil (ISPO) which has the characteristic of mandatory. This research aimed to know the capability of palmoilplantation companies in the research areas in fulfilling the standards of Indonesia Sustainable PalmOil (ISPO). The evaluation of companies’ capability in achieving ISPO standards was conducted by using audit method to identify the continuous status in the existing condition and condition in which the situation change was needed, and continuous status were evaluated using index analysis and method of Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) respectively. The identification of key factors was performed using Rap- Palma Ornidasi, need analysis of stakeholders and prospective analysis. The results showed that the plantation companies’ capability in the research areas achieved 87% in fulfilling the standards of ISPO, and this capability can be increased until it reaches 100% by increasing the efforts to fulfill the principles, criteria, and indicators that are still inappropriate with ISPO requirements.
The area of palmoilplantation can be used as the alternative for ruminant husband- dry development by utilizing the vacant area among the crops, besides its by-product ensures abundant feed source. The opportu- nity to acquire new sources of feed materials which are fully used the palmoilplantation resources is enormous. That resource should be used optimally in order to obtain low cost new feed source. The use of plantation waste and its by-products as the complete feed (CF) composition is possible. Various by-products can be used as new feed sources. Processing can be conducted using technology approach to make it edible and create potential feed livestock. Processing can be conducted through physical, biological, and chemical processes with hydrolysis, fermentation, and ammonization (Mathius and Sinurat, 2001; Sunarso, 2008; Sunarso et al., 2011). The development of CF is expected to assist the supply of balanced feed ingredient because of balanced concentrate and nutrition content. CF technology as the alternative for feeding strategy can be widely applied in various location conditions (Mariyono and Romjali, 2007; Mayulu et al., 2009; Sunarso et al., 2011). The problem to solve is how to optimize palmoilplantation as the affordable source of alternative feed for ruminants?