The government considers the land conflict be- tween the SAD Batin 9 and AP company has finished by the distribution of 2,000 hectares of land. However, the settlement is only capable of reducing open con- flict. But the latent conflict will remain as the funda- mental problem, namely, respect for people' rights of SAD Batin 9 on their ancestral lands. It is not accom- modated by the government or the company. SAD Batin 9 receives farm partnership scheme with 2 hectares of land per household just because they have no choice. There is only one solution offered by com- panies, and local governments through the Integrated Team also recommends that people are receiving scheme. Social-economic conditions of the SAD Batin 9 is getting merely blue. They live in the semi-perma- nent home in the middle of oil-palmplantation com- pany. They have to accept the only solution that off- ffered by the company. Deep inside, they miss the old
Collembola is one of the dominant microarthopods in almost all soils types. They have important function in food webs soil ecosystem. This research was done at Cikasungka oilpalmplantation for six months (April until September 2014). The aim of the research was to collect the information of diversity abundance and population fluctuations of Collembola, and their linkages between environmental factors. Collembolans were collected based on four points of soil sample from five trees of oilpalm which has similar criteria. Distance of 0, 120, 240 cm from the trees, and compost lane were used to collect the samples. Results showed 37 species from 10.438 individuals with a density of 544 individu/ m 2 . The species belongs to 4 orders and 13 families. Result also showed that are fluctuations in the
Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oilpalm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oilpalmplantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palmplantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oilpalm fruit bunches (PFB) more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop 70%, improve 30% of PFB, increase business scale 13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs 16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palmoil business and cattle business.
Indonesia has the potential land to grow oilpalmplantation and currently being the largest producer of crude palmoil (CPO). Satellite remote sensing data is very potential to be used in studies of forest conditions and plantation, because remote sensing data gives current and accurate information. Sumatra Island, especially Musi Banyuasin regency is one of area that has potential for oilpalmplantation development. The objective of this research is to determine the potential location of oilpalmplantation development by considering bio-physical criteria such as climate suitability, land condition, and accessibility in Musi Banyuasin regency, and to evaluate the suitability map of oilpalmplantation that obtained compared with existing plantation in Musi Banyuasin regency. The Method of this research is based on multi criteria decision making by implementing GIS model technology using spatial multi criteria evaluation that will determine location of oilpalmplantation potential. Each criterion and alternatives should be evaluated and weighted using pairwise comparison method to determine the best location for oilpalmplantation potential in Musi Banyuasin Regency. Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis using Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) in finding the best location for oilpalmplantation succeeded to choose Sungai Lilin Sub-District as the best location for oilpalmplantation development. Sungai Lilin Sub-District has the total suitability area of 62,246.37 Ha or 20.30% of Musi Banyuasin area. Based on the calculation area and percentage of suitability map and existing oilpalmplantation indicated that area Highly Suitable (S1) for development plantation area is 306,612.42 ha or 21.23% of Musi Banyuasin regency and for the existing plantation area is 223,699.66 ha or 15.49%.
Increasing rate of oilpalmplantation in Indonesia since 2008-2011 was 6.92%, that increased from 7,363,703 to 7,873,384 ha. Vegetation grown in the area of oilpalmplantation is weed for its main crop. There is potential source of oilpalmplantation area for livestock industry. Oilpalm-cattle integration system is well known and it has been applied in many oilpalm plantations, by the use of waste from oilpalmplantation, oilpalm by-product, the fronds for feed and feces from cattle as organic fertilizer for the plant. Management of oilpalmplantation, including plant maintainance, weeding, providing organic and chemical fertilizer is costly. Grazing system under oilpalm would minimize cost problem and oilpalm production input can be reduced. One of the systems in oilpalm-cattle integration that prospective to be developed is grazing by rotation system. Types of plants under oilpalmplantation consist of grasses, legumes, other narrow and broad leaves, some are palatable and some are unpalatable or toxic for cattle. Species of vegetation under oilpalm vary among the plantation depending on the age of oilpalm plant. Introduction of superior forage into oilpalmplantation is promising effort to increase the production and quality of feed. Carrying capacity for cattle varies among the oilpalmplantation and depends on vegetation under oilpalmplantation and age of oilpalm. Studies showed that integration oilpalm-livestock by grazing system has been proven economically feasible.
Basically the materials and equipment that we need are as follow: UAVs, digital camera & its fixtures, radio control transmitter (Tx), LiPo/camera batteries & its chargers, telemetry unit & its ground control station software, photogrammetry software, proper oilpalmplantation as test field and quite powerful workstation to run the post-processing jobs on big data. We also need a bright and calm day (preferably morning time). A collection of 5 different multi-rotors UAV models were used in this study and one fixed-wing airplane was included as comparison. All of them were electric powered. Fixed-wing RC airplane Skywalker model 2012, from Event38 Unmanned Systems Inc., Akron Ohio, USA was first acquired and became precursor equipment for this study. However subsequently after a few preliminary trials it was dropped out as the terrain and environment in oilpalm field were less favourable to fixed-wing UAV hence it became a comparison member only. Additionally fixed-wing requirement dictate the lowest safe altitude (LSALT) for aviation is generally 304.8 m (1000 ft.) and our 80m – 120m (AGL) planned missions are just barely adequate for a SkyWalker 2m span fixed-wing UAV safety buffer.
Classification of land suitability is very important for oilpalmplantation for oilpalm and quality of oilpalm yield. This classification depends on soil properties and climate characteristic of Pelalawan district, Riau province. Soil properties are combinations of soil characteristics which are known to occur in soils and which are considered to be indicative of present or past soil-forming processes. In addition to soil properties, land suitability also is influenced by the climate in that area. Climate components that influence the growth of palmoil are the air temperature, rainfall and humidity. Furthermore, to classify land suitability will be classification algorithm that can be used for analysis of soil properties and climate characteristic. In this dissertation, the author will be used combining of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fuzzy Clustering Means (FCM) methods for classifying of land suitability. These techniques were applied to the collected soil and climate data and the achieved performance were joined and analysed. Based on experimental results, PCA and FCM were able to improve the performance of accuracy in classification. PCA – FCM can achieve 98.780% for training process and 97.345% for testing process when using six variables. While comparative study, PCA-FCM can achieve 98.890% for training process and 98.655% for testing respectively. By applying PCA to classify land suitability, the accuracy of classification can be maintained with less of the number of variables.
Difference of Hemipteran Predator Species Composition in OilPalmPlantation with Different Distance from Natural Habitat. Species composition of hemipteran predator in oilpalmplantation was not affected by their distance from natural habitat (ANOSIM R=-0.045, P=0.641). Oilpalmplantation that located in near vs medium distance from natural habitat had 83.2% similar species, while near vs far distance was 78.9% similar species and medium vs far distance was 84.8% similar species. In addition, 13 similar species of hemipteran predator were found in oilpalmplantation located in medium and far distance from natural habitat, while near and far distance was found 12 similar species. Species composition of hemipteran predator did not differ between oilpalm plantations with different distances from natural habitat. This was allegedly due to similarity of vegetation types in the whole oilpalm plantations. Based on vegetation analysis, we found 20 similar vegetation species in oilpalm plantations between near, medium and far distance from natural habitat. According to Humprey et al. (1999), diversity of vegetation on agricultural habitat affects the composition of insects in it. Vegetation within or around oilpalm field provide important contribution to the presence of hemipteran predator such as alternative habitat, shelter or resting habitat and food (prey) source.
The research is to examine the payment behaviour of oilpalmplantation borrowers, and identify their payment behaviour. The result of this research will help to profile the criterion of potential borrowers in order to help the financial institute to evaluate the borrowers.
The materials used in this study were lower vegetations grow under oilpalmplantation (i.e. legumes, grasses, and weeds), and soil samples from each study site that had been determined in the plantation area. Several equipments such as a location map, GPS, quadrants, plant identification books/books monographs of plants, pH meter, thermohigrometer, compass, weighing scale, camera, machetes, knives, rope, calculators, computers, boots, scissors, raincoats, sample envelopes, sample bags, observation sheets, notebooks, pencils or pens, and other equipments in the laboratory.
Although in palm field the fertilizer inputs could be different from time to time depend on plant age, environmental issues, price, as well as local regulation (Hoekstra and Chapagain, 2007), to reduce fertilizer application in palm field is not easy. Intensive cultivation could lead to intensive soil degradation under oil palms. According to Guillaume et al. (2016) 10% of soils under oil palms had very low C content (<1%). Thus, field improvement could be made to reduce nutrient leaching. In rubber plantation, Rusli and Heryana (2015) revealed that silt pit (rorak) construction enables to conserve N-P-K nutritions from sinking to waterbody. Furthermore, Tarigan et al. (2016) demonstrated that application of frond pile management, and its combination with silt pit construction reduce run-off water by 10% and 31% in palm field, respectively. Utilization of ground cover Nephrolepis biserrata as a cover crop in combination with ridge terracing reduces the rate of water loss by percolation and run-off by 36% and 80%, respectively according to Ariyanti et al. (2016). Comte et al. (2012) demonstrated that although oilplantation receives high fertilizer application, nutrient losses especially Mg + into the waterbody is equal
This research was aimed to determine criteria the value of the crop nutrient was based on the range of the adequancy of the nutrient to the oilpalm (Elaeis guineensis) for the crop produced. This research was used the survey method, that is taking the sample of the oilpalm crop randomized to plantations that spread in Riau, Lampung, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan and South Sumatra. The sample of the crop came from a pair of leaf to the tail of the lizard from the 17 th steam. Then was taken by a third to the middle and was removed palm leaf rib. Samples of these leaves were gathered from 20 trees. The level of nutrient was produced by the analysis of the crop were connected with the growth variabel and the production to determine the range of the adequancy of the nutrient.
Nutrient management is the key of success on oilpalmplantation management. The right nutrient management is arranged by informations of soil fertility, leaf nutrient content, land nutrition poorness, and plant nutrient needs. According to Witt, et al. (2005), biophysic data such as yield potential, soil nutrient availability, soil limiting factors, leaf nutrient content status, and the symptom of nutrient deficiency are needed to arrange the fertilizing recommendation. We can see the sufficiency of soil and leaf nutrient by comparing the soil and leaf analyses with nutrient threshold and critical content of nutrient on oilpalm (Dierolf et al., 2000; IFA, 2005; Fairhurst et al., 2006). Fairhurst and Mutert (1999) said that the sufficiency of K, Ca and Mg by counting the percentage of respective nutrient in the leaf, and the critical limit of P as 0.0487 x N content on leaf + 0.039. Spodosols in Kutai are acid, low content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, low CEC, and soil mineral dominated by quartz (Prasetyo et al., 2006). The soil has the low capacity in holding the subsoil water and holding the nutrient so that only a small quantity of added nutrients was absorbed by the plant. Spodosol soils are very acid one and too poor for plant (MacKinnon et al., 1996).
In Pelalawan Regency, land evaluation for the oilpalmplantation use is conducted after the areas has been surveyed to determine the nature of the land resources. This is usually done by the Centre for Soil and Agriclimate Department in Pelalawan Regency. The products of such surveys are Soil and Climate Survey Report, which contains an evaluation of the suitability of land for oilpalmplantation. Based on the survey, every area in Pelalawan regency has different land and climate condition then production of oilpalm to be unstable.
Results of study indicate that the incoming capital penetration into the customary community changes social, economical and cultural aspects of the community. The incoming market economy system into the culture of Talang Mamak crushes traditional service economic system and weakens the use of traditional technology. The narrawed forest area and less productive rice field represent the job shift though it still underlines their forest, such as the shift of field function into rubber plantation and its convesion into oilpalmplantation. The community of Talang Mamak responds any changes in their regional in several manners such as intensive farming, hunger rent, self-exploitation, land diversification into rubber plantation, and ritualism involving technological transfer. This strong effect does’t stimulate the cruelty among the community of Tala ng Mamak. The unfavorable phenomenon occurs because a certain social agency successfully calms down their emotional fluctuation.