Field research in Bogor indicated that organic rice yield steadily increased with planting season and approaching that of conventional one. But, this trend was not applicable for organic vegetables. Organic vegetable yield was still lower than that of conventional one and very sensitive with the weather conditions, pests and diseases. From economic point of view, organic rice was economically feasible. It resulted in higher incomes, due to higher prices, than those of conventional ones. However, organic vegetable was still infeasible. Market for organic products was also very specific. This has made the farmers reluctant to adopt organic agricultural system. Some programs are suggested in developing the organicfarming system in the region: expansion of the organic products markets through the development of market networks and farmers‟ cooperation; and improvement of government supports for agricultural development, including technical training on organicfarming and provision of extension workers.
The organicfarming is an agricultural system which uses organic material such as manure and crop residues as substitute of chemical fertilizers. In organicfarming, the use of synthetic pesticides is prohibited in order to reduce the damage effect to environment. The cropping pattern of rice and soybean cultivation, where those crops are planted in sequence, is one of the managements to improve soil microbe population. The objective of the research was to study population dynamics of soil microbes in rice and soybean cropping system on organicfarming. Soil samples were taken from experimental plots in Cikarawang Bogor. The soil microbe analysis was conducted at Soil Biotechnology Laboratory of IPB, from March 2011 to March 2012. Soil microbes were sampled from 5 randomized points per plot. The experiment was arranged according to randomized block design with two treatment factors : cropping systems (rice-rice, rice-soybean, soybean-soybean) and organic fertilizer rates (20 t ha -1 and 10 t ha -1 ), three replications. The effect of interaction between cropping system and fertilizer was not significant. The cropping system significantly affected the variables. The results showed that the increase of total number of microbes, total fungi, Azotobacter, Phosphate Solubilizing Microbe (PSM) and Cellulolytic Microbe were found in rice-soybean cropping system. The effect of fertilizer rates was insignificant to most variables observed in rice and soybean.
This IbDM program aims to create a prosperous Rowosari Farmers community through the utilization of crops, horticulture and nature resources that are competitive, fair, democratic and sustainable through optimum and sustainable management of domestic resources with the organicfarming center village program. Target to be achieved of the activities undertaken are: (1) The creation of Rowosari Village, Sumberjambe Sub-district, as Sentra OrganicFarming Village in Jember Regency; (2) The utilization of research results of universities to the peasant communities of Partner village; (3) Availability of organic fertilizer by processing in farmer group and distributed to members in general and organic farmers in particular; (4) The emergence of understanding on the Farmers Group that the importance of conducting partnership partnerships with several business partners; (5) There is a capability or skill in the farmer group in the productivity of organic fertilizer. The agreed solution between Team IbDMState Polytechnic of Jemberand Partner village is to provide mentoring, training and motivation to youth and farming communities through farmer groups and youth organization to be the implementation of university research results to the partner community to create the village of Rowosari become the center of organicfarming in Jember District. The results of the devotion activities conducted in Rowosari village showed a positive response from the community in the partner village. The socialization and training of organic agriculture conducted by Team from Jember District Polytechnic with Farmer Group and KarangTaruna are always attended by people who want to learn better about organicfarming. Residents hope that the activity continues to run because the assistance is very different from organicfarming activities that they often get. In addition, farmer groups who join in the organic rice production activities have increased so that the extent of the working area of farmer group "Tani Jaya II" increased 13 ha. The community has also applied organicfarming in the surrounding environment by growing vegetables. From the cultivation of organic vegetables, produced a very high production of 1 cauliflower that has only weight between 1-2 kg / fruit, setleha given MOL application made to produce net weight 3.8 kg / fruit.
Some constraints in implementing organicfarming systems, namely: ( 1 ) any transmigran pest often cause the serious damages; (2) market of organic products is still restricted to a particular segments; (3) organic matter in potatoe lands are very limited, so have to deliver supplies from other locations with a high cost; (4) import of organic material requires a great place and transportation costs; (5) no competition with other interest in acquiring the crop residues and organic wastes; (6) marketing system of organic agriculture products not yet coordinated well; (7) the price of organic products are relatively cheap; (8) business partners and institutional management are not good; (9) farmer perceptions toward the risks of harvesting failures; (10) not all farmer understand environmental health properly; (11) government policy in the development of organic agriculture not capable in creating organicfarming; (12) it is difficult to change the farmer perception toward the organicfarming; ( 13 ) standardization of hygienic products are not yet implemented well.
Rice production from year to year has decreased, which are caused by the degradation of wetland. With the increasingly widespread land degradation due to the intensity of the continuous cultivation with the use of organic fertilizers and most crops carried out and no other additional organic matter (Mujiyo and Syamsiyah, 2006) led to many rice fields have low levels of soil organic matter (Sirappa and Razak, 2007). Yet to obtain optimum productivity organic C in excess of 2.5% is needed (Simanungkalit et al., 2006). Low content of soil organic matter causes additional inputs (inputs such as fertilizer) cannot be offset by the increase in results (leveling off).
Good agricultural systems should be able to develop sustainable farming which depends on the development of production systems able to reduce soil erosion, improve physical and biological soil fertility and of course increase farmer’s income (Dogliotti et al. 2005). Poor management of the livestock waste can generate increasing rate of pollution, including the emergence of conflicts with other activities, such as tourism, due to nuisance smells. Therefore, mastering the management of livestock wastes is deemed necessary by local authorities. Agronomic research was thus required to help farmers and extensionists to find ways of matching the supply of organic matter from livestock to the demand of crops, both within and between farms (Aubry et al. 2006). Since livestock waste is one of the sources of organic fertilizer, one possible solution is the utilization of it for the production of organic fertilizer such as compost and bokashi. This in turn will reduce the risk of environmental pollution. Another source of organic fertilizer is paddy straw with ample potential production of about 1.4 times the harvest yield per hectare (Kim and Dale 2004 in ISROI 2009). The utilization of paddy straw as agricultural waste for the production of compost offers several benefits either in economic, social or environmental aspects. Economically, it is always available after harvest for free sustainable production of compost. Environmentally, it can reduce the possibility of pollution by converting the waste into compost.
The aims of this research are to compare growth and yield of sweet corn that is planted at kinds of organic fertilizers wich applied in different times; to obtain the best result at kind of organic fertilizer wich applied in different time, and to know residual to the soil after harvesting from organic and anorganic fertilizer. The research have done at Tlogomas village, Malang, on September until December 2002. The experimental method of Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD) comprising of seven treatments and four replication each, those are: Glyricidia sepium 7 tons ha -1 applied in a week (GO 1 ) and two weeks (GO 2 ) before planting, Tithonia diversifolia 6 tons ha
The interesting thing about SRI is that almost no external inputs are necessary for a farmer to benefit from this method. This method should work with any seeds that are now being used. It is not necessary to use new seeds or new high yielding varieties (HYV), although some of the highest yields obtained using SRI have been from the HYVs of paddy. The introduction of SRI to farmers in Indonesia was conducted by non-government organizations (NGOs). The first trials were in small scales, where water requirement and organic fertilizers were still manageable. The sustainability of this rice farming method would still be in question if it is applied in large scale due to its promising future in intensive rice production. The change from the traditional to SRI system might cause some changes in socio-economic, technical, as well as environmental aspects of the rice production. It might take some years for farmers to get confidence that this method could consistently raise production so substantially (Gardjito et al. 2006).
For organic rice farming, the question thus arises as to how to measure sustainability in this particular context. What are the possible indicators to measure the sustainability of organic rice farming? In Indonesia, the number of organic rice farmer is still limited. At Mojogedang, Karanganyar district and Sambirejo, Sragen district, there were farmer who have been doing organic rice farming continuosly for the last 8 years. In each area, there was an organicfarming group that played important role in the development of organicfarming. Farming in Indonesia, generally has low incomes which are forcing farmers to cultivate land for economic needs in the short-run, thus sacrifice long term ecological sustainability. Agriculture becomes sustainable only when farmers have reason to make it so.
Organic matter is important to soil aggregate stability. The research of effect dosage goat manure to soil aggregate in organicfarming system was done on Andisols soil in Permata Hati Farm, Ciburial Hamlet, North Tugu village, Cisarua sub-district, Bogor district, West Java province. The research was conducted on October 2012 until the end of February 2013. The research purposes are: a) Know the goat manure’s dosage influence on soil in organicfarming system, b) Determine the dosage of goat manure that can provide the best Mean Weight Diameter (MWD) and Aggregate Stability Index (ASI) in organicfarming sistem. The research used randomized completely block design (RCBD) with 6 treatments and 3 replications. Goat manure dosage were used as treatments are 0 ton ha -1 , 5 ton ha -1 , 10 ton ha -1 , 15 ton ha -1 , 20 ton ha -1 , and 25 ton ha -1 . Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan ’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level. The research results showed, with initial number of C-organic >4.5%, goat manure application was significant to change soil aggregate. Goat Manure 5 ton ha -1 was enough to increasing Mean Weight Diameter (MWD) and ASI (Aggregate Stability Index).
Mr. Kamaruddin’s communication skill is not as good as Mr. Sarman, but his entrepreneurship ability shows other farmers that organicfarming can be profitable. In general, economic benefits are the main reason for the changes in farmers’ practices, while the environmental are secondary (Tarnoczi, 2011). Many farmers in Lubuk Bayas grow organically only in a small part of their land for family consumption but still apply the conventional farming to gain a higher income. Mr. Kamaruddin initiated an organic rice busi- ness, put an organic label on the rice package and successfully sells it with higher prices than the conventional kind. He also supplies organic pesticide, so that farmers do not have to spend more time to produce the pesticide. In addition he provides some loans for farmers, so that they can pay their debt to chemical fertilizers and pes- ticides dealers and switch their farming system to the organic one. His organic paddy’s field is located close to the main road, which is passed by many farmers. They could observe the differ- ence in performance between Mr Kamaruddin’s paddy crops with those at the adjacent locations, and began to ask about the way Mr. Kamaruddin managed his farm.
Organicfarming is an alternative that needs to be developed on an ongoing basis. In the long run, or- ganic farming can increase and maintain the level of production and fertility of agricultural land so that the farmers can be in a more stable economy. The transition period is one of the important things that should be known and understood in the process of converting from conventional farming to organicfarming. Some previous studies conclude that dur- ing the transition period, the organicfarming pro- duction is lower than the conventional one (Neera et al. 1999; Padel 2001). Therefore, this research is in- tended to analyze the productivity and technical efficiency of organic rice farming as well as the ef- forts to improve the productivity and technical effi- ciency of organic rice farming through the applica- tion of agricultural intensification method or com- monly known as System of Rice Intensification (SRI). The term economic productivity illustrates a comparison between output and input (Rutkauskas and Paulaviciene 2005). Productivity in this study illustrates the relationship between the yield of rice production and the index of combined inputs for a variety of farming, particularly labor, capital and natural resources. The term technical efficiency illu- strates the ratio between observation farming pro- duction and the output (production) of frontier pro- duction function (Syamsudin, Suryati, and Akti- viyani 2009).
Based on the investigation result of some previous studies have not found research which is related to the sustainability status of part- nership of oil palm plantations directly. The research result of Widiarta, Adiwibowo, and Widodo (2011) about the sustainability of organicfarming practice among farmers, the research of Suyitman, Sutjahjo and Djulardi (2012) about the sustainability status ofbased area of beef cattle breeding, and the research of Hasim, Sape'i, Budiharsono, and Wardiatno (2012) about the sustainabilitymanagement of lake. Thisresearch concluded that: (1) The total sustainability index of palm oil plantation partnerships on MSA pattern is 43.59%, KKPA pattern is 32,43 and patterns IGApatternis 75.54%. (2) The partnership pattern of oil palm plantations that have the highest sustainability degree is IGA pattern, thus it can be a reference in the preparation of a partnership pattern of palm oil plantations in Central Kalimantan with retaining the advantages and fix its weakness.
Soil organic carbon storage (SOCS) is one of indicator for soil quality. It requires several years to be able to detect the SOCS and the impact on crop yields. A research was conducted to study soil organic carbon (SOC), labile carbon (SLC), SOCS and the yields of Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) under organic and conventional farming systems. The location was at the area of vegetable farming in Baturiti village, Tabanan regency, Bali province, Indonesia, between 08 0 32’93”SL and 115017’64”EL, 975 m above sea level. Soil samples were taken from the land of organic system after one, three and five years of application, and from the conventional system accordingly in the neighboring area. Variables of SOC, SLC, SOCS, total nitrogen, soil respiration and bulk density were measured. The yields of Chinese cabbage were obtained from the last five years of farmer records. Results of this study indicated that SOC, SLC, SOCS, total nitrogen and soil respiration, but not soil bulk density, were significantly (P<0.05) higher under organic than under its conventional counterpart after five years application of organic system. The SOCS increased 3.37 Mg C ha -1 annualy under organic compared to that under conventional system. The SOC, SLC and soil microbial respiration significantly 68.6%, 49.01% and 38.5% higher respectively under organicfarming system after five years, but soil nitrogen did not increase. The organic system was highly correlated (r= 0.836**, r=0.846**) with levels of SOC and SLC respectively. During the first three years the yield of Chinese cabbage was lower under organic but after five years the yields (25.78 t ha -1 ) was not significantly different from that in conventional system. This explains that significant yield increases in organicfarming system could only be expected after five years of application. Keywords: Soil organic carbon, soil organic carbon storage, labile carbon, organicfarming system, conventional farming system, Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.).
Eco-friendly agricultural system has emerged as an important priority area globally in view of the growing demand for safe and healthy food and long term soil-environmental sustainability and concerns on environmental pollution associated with indiscriminate use of agrochemicals 10 . Microorganisms also play very important role as the component of the biological soil phase and also indicator of soil fertility and soil degradation 11 . Biofertilizers are being essential component of organicfarming are the preparations containing live or latent cells of efficient strains of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing or cellulolytic microorganisms used for application to seed and, soil bio-priming or composting areas with the to enhance the effective microorganisms and accelerate those microbial processes which augment enhance the availability of nutrients that can be easily assimilated by plants. Biofertilizers play a very significant role in improving soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, both, in association with plant roots and without it, solubilise insoluble soil phosphates minerals and produces plant growth substances in the soil 12 . Biofertilizer contains microorganisms which promote the adequate supply of nutrients to the host plants and ensure their proper development of growth and regulation in their physiology. Effective living microorganisms are used in the preparation of biofertilizers. They are in fact being promoted to harvest the naturally available, biological system of nutrient mobilization 13 . The role and importance of biofertilizers in sustainable crop production has been reviewed by several authors. But the progress in the field of BF production technology remained always below satisfaction in Asia because of various constraints.
These study results are similar to several studies, Prompathansombat et al (2011) concluded that important factors on decision of adoption of organicfarming that were positively significant included farm-gate paddy and attitude to conventional production problems, andalso water accessibility. Schneeberger et al (2002) revealed that Austrian farmers did not adopt organic practices due to fear of decreased income and marketing problems. Niemeyer and Lombard (2003) revealed that in South Africa, the lack of marketing opportunities, no premium paddys, and the lack of subsidies had kept the farmers from adopting organic practices. Kennvidy (2011) revealed that farmers shifted to organicfarming in order to reduce the expenses on synthetic fertilizers, to avoid the negative effects of synthetic fertilizers to health, to utilize the available resources in the neighborhood, to conserve the environment as well as soil and water quality and to acquire the beneficial paddys on organic products