Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria

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Characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from Pb contaminated soils and their potential for dissolving tricalcium phosphate

Characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from Pb contaminated soils and their potential for dissolving tricalcium phosphate

Abstract: Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) enhances P availability in soils through dissolving inorganic P pools. The characteristics of PSB and the potential of three Pb tolerant phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria, i.e. Pseudomonassp, Bacillus sp., and Actinomycites sp. were evaluated. PSB were isolated from soil samples contaminated with 300 and 500 mg Pb/kg after incubation for 30 days. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria were screened on for phosphate solubilisation ability in Pikovskaya agar medium (PA). In addition, two of the three indentified PSB strains (Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp.) were characterized for their ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate in Pikoskaya broth (PB) and also were examined their growth during culture medium incubation. The isolates exhibited different phosphate solubilization index, ranging from 1.87 to 2.98. Pseudomonas sp. had the highest ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate: 9.82 mg P/ L and 12.23 mg P/ L in Pikoskaya broth following the addition of 4 mg Pb/L and 2 mg /Pb L, respectively.
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Ketersediaan Fosfor pada Tanah Andisol untuk Jagung (Zea mays L.) oleh Inokulum Bakteri Pelarut Fosfat Phosphorus Availability on Andisols for Maize (Zea mays L.) by Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Inoculant

Ketersediaan Fosfor pada Tanah Andisol untuk Jagung (Zea mays L.) oleh Inokulum Bakteri Pelarut Fosfat Phosphorus Availability on Andisols for Maize (Zea mays L.) by Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Inoculant

Andisols has relatively low phosphorus availability due to its adsorption by allophane. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) increases the availability of P via release of adsorpted-P. The aims of this research were to determine: 1) anorganic- P solubilization, 2) organic-P mineralization, 3) blocking of Andisols adsorption site, and 4) effective PSB inoculant. The research was arranged in completely randomized design, with PSB inoculant as treatment. Variables observed were soluble- P, mineralize-P, adsorpted-P, pH, total acidity, PSB population, phosphatase and phythase activity, relative surface charge, and maize’s growth component. The result showed that PSB inoculation increased soluble-P from 30 to between 150 and 195 ppm P, increased mineralize-P from 23.7 to between 63.6 and 91.7 ppm P, and decreased P-adsorption from 95 to between 36 and 13%. PSB inoculation decreased the Andisols pH, increased the total acidity, PSB population, the phosphatase and phytase activity, and PSB had relatively high of relative surface charge (69%). The PSB inoculation increased maize P absorption in the range of 70 and 75 mg P plant -1 , and increased relative agronomic effectiveness (RAE )between 145 and
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The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from sugarcane wastes for solubilizing phosphate

The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from sugarcane wastes for solubilizing phosphate

Abstract: Most of P in agricultural soils is in unavailable forms for plant growth. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria can increase soil P availability. This study was aimed to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from sugarcane waste compost and to test ability of the isolated bacterial to dissolve phosphate. The bacteria were isolated from three types of sugarcane waste, i.e. filter cake compost, bagasse compost, and a mixture of filter cake + bagasse + trash biomass compost. The potential colony was further purified by the Pikovskaya method on selective media. Eight isolates of phosphate solubilizing bacteria were obtained from all wasted studied. Amongst them, T-K5 and T-K6 isolates were superior in dissolving P from Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 in the media studied. The two isolates were able to solubilize P with solubilizing index of
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Mineral Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from Various Plant Rhizosphere under Different Aluminum Content | Damarjaya | Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology 7558 13385 1 PB

Mineral Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from Various Plant Rhizosphere under Different Aluminum Content | Damarjaya | Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology 7558 13385 1 PB

The objectives of this study was to isolate and characterize the mineral phosphate solubilizing bacteria from rhizosphere and evaluate their potential as plant growth promoting bacteria in Al-toxic soils. The halo zone formation method was used to isolate PSB using the media containing insoluble phosphates (Ca-P or Al-P) as a source of phosphate. Eight of acid and Al-tolerant PSB isolates that were able to solubilize Ca-P were obtained from rhizosphere of clover, wheat, corn, and sunflower grown in Al-toxic soil. Identification of the isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolates were strains of Burkholderia (5 strains), Pseudomonas (1 strain), Ralstonia (1 strain), and unidentified bacterium (1 strains). All PSB isolates showed the capability to dissolve Ca-P, and only 1 strain (Ralstonia strain) was able to dissolve Al-P in agar plate medium. The P-solubilization by these isolates was correlated with pH of medium. Inoculation of the bacterial strains on clover on Al-toxic medium showed that all isolates increased the plant dry weight compared with uninoculated treatment. Our results showed that those PSB isolates have potential to be developed as a biofertilizer to increase the efficiency of P-inorganic fertilizer used in Al-toxic soils.
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T1  Abstract Institutional Repository | Satya Wacana Christian University: Aktivitas Isolat Bakteri Pelarut Fosfat yang Diperoleh dari Tanah Sawah di Daerah Jalan Lingkar dan Gunung Sari, Salatiga = Activities of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated f

T1 Abstract Institutional Repository | Satya Wacana Christian University: Aktivitas Isolat Bakteri Pelarut Fosfat yang Diperoleh dari Tanah Sawah di Daerah Jalan Lingkar dan Gunung Sari, Salatiga = Activities of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated f

One of essential macro elements for plants is phosphate. In general, the availability of phosphate in the soil is abundant, however 95-99% is in the form of insoluble phosphate rock and can-not be processed and used by plants. Therefore, it is necessary to seek for an alternative that involves soil microbes (bacteria solvent- phosphate). One of soil microbes, Pseudomonas putida has an ability to dissolve the phosphate. The previous isolation obtains two isolates of phosphate solvent. Two isolates of solvent P which have been obtained are taken from rice land in the Ring Road area of Salatiga (isolate A) and from rice field in Gunung Sari Salatiga (isolate B). The purpose of this study are (1) to determine the ability of the two bacteria in dissolving P using Pseudomonas putida as the comparison and (2) to determine which isolates that have the greatest ability in dissolving phosphate. Test for ability of bacteria to dissolve P was conducted on day 0, 7 and 14 repeatedly for three times. The results of research showed that on the day 14th, isolate of Pseudomonas putida with 420 mg/l of biomass can dissolve 11 mg/l of phosphate, isolate A with 830 mg/l of biomass can dissolve 6.61 mg/L of phosphate and isolate B with 191 mg/l of biomass can dissolve 10,9 gr/l of phosphate. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the isolate A and B have lower ability to dissolve phosphate compared to isolate of Pseudomonas putida.
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Pengaruh Mikroba Pelarut Fosfat terhadap Aktivitas Enzim Fosfatase, P - Tersedia, Serapan P, Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Jagung (Zea mays L.) pada Inceptisols Asal Jatinangor.

Pengaruh Mikroba Pelarut Fosfat terhadap Aktivitas Enzim Fosfatase, P - Tersedia, Serapan P, Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Jagung (Zea mays L.) pada Inceptisols Asal Jatinangor.

Low soil available P on Inceptisols Jatinangor became a background of purpose improving the productivity of the soil to improve crop yields. This research was conducted to find out the effect of phosphate solubilizing microorganism which consist of phosphate solubilizing bacteria Pseudomonas mallei and phosphate solubilizing fungi Penicillium sp on phosphatase activity, P - uptake, availability of phosphorus, growth and the yield of maize plants (Zea mays L.) on Inceptisols Jatinangor. The research was conducted from April 2012 to August 2012 at the field of Agricultural Faculty, University of Padjadjaran, Jatinangor at 752 m above sea level. The experiment used a Randomized Block Design which was arranged in one factor and three replications. The factor were inoculation of phosphate solubilizing microorganism in carrier consisted of ten levels: without phosphate solubilizing microorganism, 5% isolate of phosphate solubilizing bacteria, 10% isolate of phosphate solubilizing bacteria, 15% isolate of phosphate solubilizing bacteria, 5% isolate of phosphate solubilizing fungi, 10% isolate of phosphate solubilizing fungi, 15% isolate of phosphate solubilizing fungi, 5% isolate of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi, 10% isolate of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi, 15% isolate of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi. The results of this research showed that solubilizing phosphate microorganism gave significant effects on phosphatase activity, concentration of phosporus, availability of phosporus, and the yield of maize plants. Treatment with 10% isolate of phosphate solubilizing bacteria in carrier gave the highest result increasing P - uptake (47%), availability of phosporus (37%), and the yield of maize plants (55%).
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Combined use of phosphate solubilizing b

Combined use of phosphate solubilizing b

Although most of the soils are rich in total phosphorus (P), but its large portion remains unavailable to plants and is considered as a limiting factor for plant growth especially in alkaline calcareous soils. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) is a group of bacteria that enhance the P availability by solubilizing hydrolysable inorganic P compounds in addition to mineralization of soil organic P. Sixteen bacterial isolates were isolated from the rhizosphere of mung bean and tested in lab for phosphate solubilization and phosphatase activities. Five bacteria were found positive for P solubilization as well as in vitro production of phosphatase enzyme. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the selected five phosphate solubilizing bacteria in combination with poultry manure (PM) on growth and yield of mung bean. Results showed that inoculation with PSB improved the growth and yield of mung bean in presence as well as absence of PM as compared with un-inoculated control. However, PSB isolates were most effective for enhancing yield and growth of mung bean in the presence of PM compared with their use in absence of PM, most probably due to their phosphatase activity. Maximum increases in pods number per plant (80%), 100 grain weight (57%), and grain yield per plant (36%) were observed by combined use of isolate S5 and PM as compared to un-inoculated control without PM. Combined applica tion of PSB and PM also caused significant increase in phosphatase activity of the rhizosphere (79% over control) and available P contents (45% over control) in soil. The most efficient bacterial isolate (S5) was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis on the basis of rrs (16S rRNA) gene sequencing. It is concluded that multi-trait PSB with phosphatase activity in combination with organic amendments could be more convincing to enhance P bioavailability for plants especially in alkaline calcareous soils.
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EFEK TEKNIK PENGATURAN AIR DAN JENIS PUPUK ORGANIK TERHADAP POPULASI BAKTERI PENAMBAT N, PELARUT FOSFAT DAN HASIL PADI VARIETAS CIHERANG BERBASIS IPAT BO.

EFEK TEKNIK PENGATURAN AIR DAN JENIS PUPUK ORGANIK TERHADAP POPULASI BAKTERI PENAMBAT N, PELARUT FOSFAT DAN HASIL PADI VARIETAS CIHERANG BERBASIS IPAT BO.

The experiment to find out the effect of water management technique and organic fertilizers application on population of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and rice yield grain of Ciherang Variety based on system of organic based aerobic rice intensification (SOBARI) has been conducted from May to August 2012 at Faculty of Agriculture, Winaya Mukti University, Tanjung sari, Sumedang, West Java. The experiment was arranged as a factorial randomized block design with three replications. The first factor was management of water depth (flooding) consisted of 4 levels at; +5 cm, 0 cm, -5 cm and -10 cm. The second factor was organic fertilizer application consisted of 4 levels; without organic fertilizer, 1 t ha -1 Azolla, 0,5 t ha -1 Azolla + 2,5 t ha -1 straw compost, dan 5 t ha -1 straw compost. The experimental result revealed that there was no interaction beetwen water management technique and organic fertilizers application on population of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing, number of panicles, 1000 grain weight and rice yield grain. Independent effect of management of water depth (flooding) showed effect on population of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, number of panicles, 1000 grain weight and rice yield grain of Ciherang Variety, whereas organic fertilizer application showed effect on population of nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, number of panicles, rice yield grain but there was no effect at 1000 grain weight based on system of organic based aerobic rice intensification (SOBARI). Management of water depth at level 0 cm showed the highest result of unhulled rice weight in the amount of 88,04 g pot -1 (7,12 t ha -1 ) and application of organic fertilizer at level 52,5 g pot -1 (5 t ha -1 ) straw compost showed the highest result of unhulled rice weight in the amount of 82,60 g pot -1 (6,69 t ha -1 ).
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Mass production of innoculant azotobacter, azospirillum and phospate solubilizing bacteria using alternative media

Mass production of innoculant azotobacter, azospirillum and phospate solubilizing bacteria using alternative media

The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Soil Biotechnology, and the Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Soil Fertility, the Department of Soil Science and Land Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). The results showed that the media IPB RI-1 was able to support the growth of 10 10 cfu / ml Azotobacter, 10 8 cfu / ml Azospirillum and 10 9 cfu / ml Phospate Solubilizing Bacterium. The Nutrient Broth media was only able to produce microbial cells much as 10 8 cfu / ml media. This means that the media IPB RI-1 increased 100-fold population of Azotobacter compared to the growth of this bacterium in Nutrient Broth and Phospate Solubilizing Bacteria increased 10-fold of their population in Nutrient Broth medium. The costs of the IPB RI-1 and IPB RI-2 were much cheaper compared to the cost of Nutrient Broth media. The cost of media IPB RI-1 only 3% (Rp 945) and IPB RI-2 about 2% (Rp 690) of the cost of media Nutrient Broth (Rp 27.752).
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ISOLASI MIKROBA ASLI TANAH ANDISOL DIENG DAN KAJIAN POTENSINYA SEBAGAI INOKULAN PUPUK HAYATI PELARUT FOSFAT (Isolation of Indigenous Phosphate Solubilizing Microbia from Andisols Dieng and Its Potency as Inoculum of Phosphate Solubilizing Biofertilizer)

ISOLASI MIKROBA ASLI TANAH ANDISOL DIENG DAN KAJIAN POTENSINYA SEBAGAI INOKULAN PUPUK HAYATI PELARUT FOSFAT (Isolation of Indigenous Phosphate Solubilizing Microbia from Andisols Dieng and Its Potency as Inoculum of Phosphate Solubilizing Biofertilizer)

availability for plant. This research aimed to find indigenous phosphate solubilizing microbia from Andisols Dieng as biofertilizer inoculum. It was conducted in UNS Soil Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, UNS. The research was begun with an exploratory research to obtain P solubilizer isolates (PSB). Research continued by two experiment, set by a completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors: kind of isolate from Andisols Dieng and incubation time. The first experiment was conducted in temporary period in the pikovskaya liquid medium. The second experiment was conducted in vermicompost its carrier. Each treatment combination was repeated 3 times. As much as 10 6 cell or spore was inoculated per gram of medium or vermicompost. Dissolved P , biomass or cell density, and pH at 0,1, 3 and 6 days after incubation for the pikovskaya liquid medium and at 0, 2, 4 weeks for vermicompost. The results showed that there were 4 isolates potential to be inoculums of P solubilizer biofertilizer, they were are isolates of bacteria (P 1 ), Aspergillusniger, Fusarium sp, and Aspergillus tamarii.
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Characterization of Bacillus sp. strains isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plants for their use as potential plant growth for promoting Rhizobacteria

Characterization of Bacillus sp. strains isolated from rhizosphere of soybean plants for their use as potential plant growth for promoting Rhizobacteria

soybean plant sample were confirmed further for their PGPR attributes. Some isolates showed potential activity of producing IAA, solubilizing phosphate, producing siderophore, promoting seed germination, and inhibiting the growth of plant pathogenic fungi. The ability of Bacillus sp isolates to use tryptophan supplemented in the cultivation medium is one of the important points to determine IAA producing activity. Tryptophan is the main precursor of IAA biosynthesis in bacteria via indole pyruvic acid (IPA) pathway (Patten and Glick, 1996). IAA is one of many secondary metabolites produced by bacteria, thereby the metabolite is observed abundantly at the stationary phase. The presence of Trp in the medium is an important factor for Bacillus sp isolates to produce IAA.
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Solubilization of silicate from quartz mineral by potential silicate solubilizing bacteria

Solubilization of silicate from quartz mineral by potential silicate solubilizing bacteria

In this research, the highest solubilizing silicate diameter zone in solid Bunt and Rovira solid medium was observed for B. cenocepacia KTG, but silicate solubilizing activity in liquid medium from this isolate was less than A. punctata RJM3020 and B. vietnamiensis ZEO3. However, the diameter of the clear zone resulting from the activity of bacteria in this study was less than that reported by Vasanthi et al., (2012) i.e. 16 mm. Results of this research indicating that no correlation between solubilizing silicate activity and solubilisation zone on solid Bunt and Rovira medium as reported by Vasanthi et al. (2013). Therefore, some selective substrates and media for assessing the growth and silicate solubilizing activity were needed for to screening potential SSB.
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Importance and Application of Potassic B

Importance and Application of Potassic B

K-solubilizing microorganism (KSMs): The potassium solubilizing microorganisms (KSMs) are a rhizospheric microorganism which solubilizes the insoluble potassium (K) to soluble forms of K for plant growth and yield. K-solubilization is carried out by a large number of saprophytic bacteria (Bacillus mucilaginosus, Bacillus edaphicus, Bacillus circulans, Acidothiobacillus ferrooxidans, Paenibacillus spp.) and fungal strains (Aspergillus spp. and Aspergillus terreus). Major amounts of K containing minerals (muscovite, orthoclase, biotite, feldspar, illite, mica) are present in the soil as a fixed form which is not directly taken up by the plant. Nowadays most of the farmers use injudicious application of chemical fertilizers for achieving maximum productivity 30 . However, the KSMs are most important microorganisms for solubilizing of fixed form of K in soil system. The KSMs are an indigenous rhizospheric microorganism which shows effective interaction between soil and plant systems. The main mechanism of KSMs is acidolysis, chelation, exchange reactions, complexolysis and production of organic acid. According to literature, currently negligible use of potassium fertilizer as a chemical form has been recorded in agriculture for enhancing crop yield. Most of the farmers use only nitrogen and phosphorus and not use the K fertilizer due to unawareness so that the problem of K deficiency occurs in rhizospheric soils. The K fertilizer is also costly as compared to other chemical fertilizers. Therefore, the efficient KSMs should be applied for solubilization of a fixed form of K to an available form of K in the soils 31 . This available K can be easily taken up by the plant for growth and development. Our aim of this review is to elaborate on the studies of indigenous K-solubilizing microbes to develop efficient microbial consortia for solubilization of K in soil which enhances the plant growth and yield of crops. Potassium Solubilizing Bacterial isolates that are able to dissolve potassium from mineral soils that increase crop plant growth and yield. The first evidence of solubilization of mineral potassium had shown.
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Mass Production of Innoculant Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Phospate Solubilizing Bacteria Using Alternative Media.

Mass Production of Innoculant Azotobacter, Azospirillum and Phospate Solubilizing Bacteria Using Alternative Media.

The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Soil Biotechnology, and the Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Soil Fertility, the Department of Soil Science and Land Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). The results showed that the media IPB RI-1 was able to support the growth of 10 10 cfu / ml Azotobacter, 10 8 cfu / ml Azospirillum and 10 9 cfu / ml Phospate Solubilizing Bacterium. The Nutrient Broth media was only able to produce microbial cells much as 10 8 cfu / ml media. This means that the media IPB RI-1 increased 100-fold population of Azotobacter compared to the growth of this bacterium in Nutrient Broth and Phospate Solubilizing Bacteria increased 10-fold of their population in Nutrient Broth medium. The costs of the IPB RI-1 and IPB RI-2 were much cheaper compared to the cost of Nutrient Broth media. The cost of media IPB RI-1 only 3% (Rp 945) and IPB RI-2 about 2% (Rp 690) of the cost of media Nutrient Broth (Rp 27.752).
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The Formulation of Consortium of Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizobacteria with Bradyrhizobium japonicum as Biofertilizer and Their Application to Soybean Plant

The Formulation of Consortium of Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizobacteria with Bradyrhizobium japonicum as Biofertilizer and Their Application to Soybean Plant

Phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria were known for their ability to convert insoluble form of phosphate to the accessible form. The use of rhizobacteria as biofertilizer is one of the most promising biotechnologies to improve plant production. This study was conducted to formulate phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria (Bacillus sp. Cr and Pseudomonas sp. Crb) coinoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum (Bj) and appliance them to soybean plant as biofertilizer. Pikovskaya medium containing tri-calcium phosphate at concentration of 0.5% was used to measure P-solubilizing ability of tested strains. Results revealed that Crb1 is the most powerful P-solublizer using tricalcium phosphate as a P source. It was also observed decreasing in pH along with the increasing of amount of soluble P ranged from -0.96 to -0.42 from initial culture during 72 hours. Isolates of the rhizobacteria (Crb and Cr) were grown in media containing skim milk and molases prior to formulation in peat as a carrier material. The combination of three strains produced 4 packages of inoculants. Each packages was tested for their viability and effectiveness on soybeans in the field. The number of bacterial population after 9 months of storage ranged from 7.5 x 10 6 to 5.8 x 10 8 cfu gr -1 of peats. Field experiment showed that treatments designed as F1+NPK and F3+NPK were significantly increased soybean plant growth and mineral uptake compared to untreated control and better than NPK treatment. While F1+NPK and F2+NPK were able to increase soybean productivity.
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THE PERFORMANCE OF CHITOSAN-FERRIHIDRYTE MEMBRANE FOR PHOSPHATE UPTAKE | Rumhayati | Indonesian Journal of Chemistry 21506 40592 1 PB

THE PERFORMANCE OF CHITOSAN-FERRIHIDRYTE MEMBRANE FOR PHOSPHATE UPTAKE | Rumhayati | Indonesian Journal of Chemistry 21506 40592 1 PB

Fig. 2 presents the orthophosphate ion adsorption kinetic curves of crosslinked chitosan-ferrihydrite membranes. The initial concentration of phosphate was 5 mg P/L and pH 5.0. Relatively slow kinetic rates of phosphate uptake onto the chitosan-ferrihydrite membranes were observed. Approximately, 38% of initial phosphate concentration was uptake by the membrane during 5 h immersion. Up to 24 h, the amount of phosphate adsorbed was twice than the first five hours. It was observed also that the equilibrium had not been reached yet up to 24 h. Practically, the uptake equilibrium of solute by a DGT probe is reached for 24 h to uptake low concentration of phosphate (in micro units). Hence, kinetic experiment was not continued more than 24 h regarding with higher concentration of phosphate used in this research. However, the obtained kinetic rates data are promising to implement the crosslinked chitosan-ferrihydrite membrane as a binding layer for the DGT technique for phosphate uptake.
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ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI KAPANG PELARUT FOSFAT DARI FOSFAT GUANO GUA PAWON Isolation and Identification of Phosphate Solubilizing Fungi from Phosphate Guano in Pawon Cave Anggita Rahmi Hafsari dan Vinessa Dwi Pertiwi

ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI KAPANG PELARUT FOSFAT DARI FOSFAT GUANO GUA PAWON Isolation and Identification of Phosphate Solubilizing Fungi from Phosphate Guano in Pawon Cave Anggita Rahmi Hafsari dan Vinessa Dwi Pertiwi

The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify phosphate solubilizing Fungi from phosphate guano in Pawon Cave, Karst area, Citatah, West Java. The research design was descriptive. The data obtained were presented descriptively based on macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics and the result of qualitative phosphate capability screening on pikovskaya medium. The results showed that there were five isolates in the phosphate guano in Pawon Cave. Karst area, which were Penicillium sp. PF1, Aspergillus sp. PF2, Aspergillus sp. PF3, Mycelia sterilia, and Mucor sp. Based on the screening test, there were two isolates which could solubilize the phosphate, Aspergillus sp. PF3 and Mucor sp.
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Application of Indigenous Phosphate Solubilizing Fungi from Paddy Soil Increased P Availaibility and Its P Uptake on Rice

Application of Indigenous Phosphate Solubilizing Fungi from Paddy Soil Increased P Availaibility and Its P Uptake on Rice

Increasing P availaibility can be done using Phosphate solubilizing microorganism. However, information on utilization of indigenous phosphate solubilizing microorganism originated from paddy soil with intensive P fertilization is limited. The objectives of this experiment were to isolate, to select and to test the potential of phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) in increasing P availability, P uptake and enhancing rice production. Five isolates of PSF, referred to A 1 , A 2 , A 3 , A 4 and A 5 isolates, were belong to the Aspergillus genera. Field experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with one factor and 3 replications. The treatments consisted of 11 combinations of PSF and NPK fertilizer, i.e., without PSF + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A 1 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A 1 + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A 2 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A 2 + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A 3 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A 3 + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A 4 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A 4 + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A 5 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer; PSF A 5 + 100% rate of NPK fertilizer. The results showed that application of PSF isolates increased P availaibility, P uptake, rice growth and rice production significantly. Application of PSF A1 + 50% rate of NPK fertilizer was the best treatment as indicated by the increased in weight of 1,000 grains, P availaibility and P uptake.
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International Journal of Agriculture The

International Journal of Agriculture The

Solubilizing Phosphate Bacteria can increasing the phosphate solubilizing by phosphatase enzyme and organic acid as its secondary metabolite. The ability of a few soil microorganisms to convert insoluble forms of phosphorus to an accessible form is an important trait in plant growth-promoting bacteria for increasing plant yields. The use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria as inoculants increases the P uptake by plants. Arthrobacter sp. (CC-BC03) was the highest phosphate solubilizing strain bacteria to produce soluble- P in 5 g of tricalcium phosphate medium after 72 hours incubation, and then in succession are Serratia marcescens (CC-BC14), Delftia sp. (CC-BC21), Arthrobacter ureafaciens (CC- BC02), Chryseo-bacterium sp. (CC-BC05), Bacillus megaterium (CC-BC10) Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum (CC-BC19), Rhodococcus erythropolis (CC-BC11), and Gordonia sp. (CC-BC07) (Chen et al., 2006). The solubilizing bacteria were screened for
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ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISTIC OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA AND PHOSPHATE-SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM SOIL HIGH IN MERCURY IN TAILINGS AND COMPOST AREAS OF ARTISANAL GOLD MINE

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISTIC OF NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA AND PHOSPHATE-SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA FROM SOIL HIGH IN MERCURY IN TAILINGS AND COMPOST AREAS OF ARTISANAL GOLD MINE

In addition to re-vegetation technique to support reclamation or mining heap in the gold mine, the role of N-fixing bacteria and P solubilizing bacteria after phytoremediation of mercury in the tailing areas of gold mine was proposed in this study. The use of indigenous species and strains that have been adapted with local soil and climatic conditions is highly recommended. Utilization of local plants and indigenous bacteria is suggested so that the growth of vegetation and microbes can help restore and stabilize the environment. In the long term, it is expected that the microclimate can be improved, the biodiversity can be restored, and improve soil conditions towards more productive. N-non symbiotic fixing bacteria (Azospirillim sp, Azotobacter sp, Aerosomonas sp and Aspergillus sp) can also fungtion as soil aggregate stability. Strain bacteria isolation and selection on acid soil Azotobacter is also able to produce growth hormone regulation besides its N-Fixing potential (Widayati, 1998). P solubilizing bacteria can produce enzyme phosphatase, as well as organic acid which produces citrate, oxalate, and succinate (Paul and Clark, 1989). Spesies microorganism P solubilizing as like Aspergillus sp, Penicillium, and Pseudomonas sp (Mikanova and Novaka, 2002).
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