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Penerapan Price Elasticity Modelling pada Aplikasi Penjualan ABC Jaya Tehnik.

Penerapan Price Elasticity Modelling pada Aplikasi Penjualan ABC Jaya Tehnik.

Salah satu kesulitan yang ada pada saat ini adalah pencatatan seluruh kegiatan yang terjadi masih dilakukan secara manual, sehingga seringkali mengalami kesulitan untuk mengetahui keluar[r]

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Elasticity and its Application

Elasticity and its Application

ELASTICITY AND ITS APPLICATION 38 Price Elasticity of Supply Price elasticity of supply equals P Q S Q1 P1 Example: ELASTICITY AND ITS APPLICATION 39 The V ariety of Supply Curves [r]

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BAB I Cakupan dan Metode Ekonomi

BAB I Cakupan dan Metode Ekonomi

ELASTISITAS HARGA PERMINTAANThe Price Elasticity of Demand Elastisitas harga permintaan adalah derajat kepekaan/respon jumlah permintaan akibat perubahan harga barang tersebut atau deng[r]

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Directory UMM :Journals:Journal of Health Economics:Vol20.Issue2.Mar2001:

Directory UMM :Journals:Journal of Health Economics:Vol20.Issue2.Mar2001:

There appear to be many societal and policy influences that effect the probability that an individual adolescent will proceed from experimentation to dependent smoking, and whether price is one of these influences is an important question. Most previous studies of the effect of price on adolescent smoking, however, have measured smoking participation with a dichotomous variable indicating whether or not the adolescent smoked in the past 30 days. Such a measure is limited because experimenters are categorized with heavier smokers, along with those who may report having recently quit smoking. Each group might respond differently to factors, such as cigarette prices, that could influence their smoking behaviors. The inconsistencies among the adolescent price elasticity estimates in the literature may at least partly reflect differences in the smoking experience or measurement of smoking in the study samples. This paper specifically examines the relationship between experience with smoking and adolescent price sensitivity in a 1993 national cross-section of adolescents. Section 2 describes the datasets and statistical methods used. Section 3 summarizes our results, and Section 4 discusses our findings in the context of other studies and public policy.
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PENGELOLAAN INVENTORY DENGAN MEMPERTIMBANGKAN PRODUK SUBSTITUSI PADA STRUKTUR DUAL CHANNEL SUPPLY CHAIN - ITS Repository

PENGELOLAAN INVENTORY DENGAN MEMPERTIMBANGKAN PRODUK SUBSTITUSI PADA STRUKTUR DUAL CHANNEL SUPPLY CHAIN - ITS Repository

Struktur DCSC yang diamati Notasi Berikut adalah notasi-notasi yang digunakan selama penyusunan model : α1 = self-price elasticity pada retail channel α2 = self-price elasticity pad[r]

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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:I:International Review of Economics And Finance:Vol8.Issue4.Nov1999:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:I:International Review of Economics And Finance:Vol8.Issue4.Nov1999:

increase in the price level and money balances leads to a different level of real money balances. Assuming that M2 is chosen as the monetary target by the monetary authorities in Korea, our results imply that a 1% increase in the price level leads to a 2.02% increase in the demand for nominal M1. A possible explanation for this may be that, as the price level, increases the real cost of transactions experienced by economic agents also rises. This is different from the results reported for nominal balances in the United States. For instance, Arize and Darrat (1994) reported a price elasticity of less than one for the U.S. economy. Our results for Korea’s M2 suggest that to control inflation under 10%, the growth rate of M2 should be 29.8%, assuming the economy grows at 10% per year. 14 Finally, as Hafer and Kutan (1994) noted, if
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Agricultural Systems:Vol63.Issue3.Mar2000:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Agricultural Systems:Vol63.Issue3.Mar2000:

available to them). The apparently inelastic demand for pesticides implies that high taxes will be needed to achieve signi®cant reductions. If the price elasticity of the demand for pesticides is low, the main e€ect of any tax will be to internalise some of the external costs, but with little change in usage levels and hence little environmental improvement. Furthermore, while there will be an adverse e€ect on user income levels, any pollution victims will not bene®t unless revenues are recycled into expendi- ture on amelioration measures. There may also be critical levels of taxation below which no e€ect will be observed (Falconer, 1997). However, sub-critical taxes and levies will still be capable of raising government revenue, which could then be recycled into the agricultural sector through expenditure on research and extension (perhaps con- tributing to greater long-run ¯exibility pesticide usage) or environmental amelioration. An important issue is whether the price elasticity of demand for pesticides is really as low as indicated from the various studies across the EU, and if so, whether it could be increased. The following section questions this. Theoretical production± economics models commonly assume pro®t-maximisation and producer rationality, so care is needed when interpreting their results: policy implications di€er with the relative degree of trust placed in these elasticity estimates. Demand may be inelastic due to factors other than the underlying technology of production such as lack of knowledge of alternative production practices, hindering price-induced adjustments. There may be lower responses to taxes than anticipated on the basis of pro®t max- imisation because of behavioural factors (Falconer, 1995). For example, farmers may derive utility from professional pride in clean, weed-free ®elds, with some reluctance consequently to reduce usage.
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INDIVIDUAL DEMAND FOR A COMMODITYSERVICE

INDIVIDUAL DEMAND FOR A COMMODITYSERVICE

assumption that the demand for B segment cars is price elastic). Will this strategy necessarily increase the overall, total revenues coming from sales in different seg- ments? Not necessarily, because there will be a cross-substitution effect. Some of the new customers who were thinking of buying an A segment Hyundai car before will switch over to a B segment car. Similarly, from the other end, some potential buyers of the C segment Hyundai car may also want to switch to a B seg- ment car. In other words, Hyundai will face a decline in the revenue from sales in the A and C segments. This is where information on the cross price elasticity is critical. The higher the elasticity of demand for A and C segment Hyundai cars with respect to the price of B segment Hyundai cars, the greater will be the decline in revenues from A and C segments, and the less likely will it be that a price cut- ting strategy of this kind will boost the company’s total revenues.
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Price Discrimination Analysis of Butter in the German Market

Price Discrimination Analysis of Butter in the German Market

For instance, in the wine market case, the retail channel stores can be divided into three types: drug stores, grocery stores and liquor stores. Drug store consumers buy wine products as an unplanned purchase, while initially shopping with the intent of buying other products. Bucklin and Lattin (1991), as cited in Cuellar & Brunamonti (2014), indicate that drug store consumers have a relatively high price elasticity of demand (great price sensitivity). In contrast, grocery store consumers buy wine products on impulse. Kahn and Schmittlein (1989) and Bucklin and Lattin (1991), as cited in Cuellar & Brunamonti (2014), show that grocery store consumers tend to be larger family with higher incomes, thus categorized as having low price sensitivity. Finally, liquor store consumers have specific shopping intent for wine. Thus, consumers also have the lowest price sensitivity. Price discrimination between the various retail channels is included in price discrimination based on consumers’ self -selection and shopping intent (Cuellar & Brunamonti, 2014).
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Market Demand and Elasticity

Market Demand and Elasticity

year at a price of $2 per pound. The price elasticity of demand for chicken is -1.5. If the price of chicken increases to $2.20 (a 10% increase). What is the difference between new family’s expenditures on chicken and the old one? The family’s consumption of chicken falls to 85 pounds a year (a 15%

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Demand Response Management in Power Systems Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Demand Response Management in Power Systems Using Particle Swarm Optimization

The DR problem that we consider here is motivated by a need to reduce the energy supply to a set of con- sumers by a specified amount. This event is managed by a consumer ag- gregator, aiming at minimizing the global value paid by the consumers. To achieve this goal, the aggregator considers the individual consumers’ price elasticity, which relates demand reduction with price increase. Indi- vidual load reduction and price in- creases that minimize the consumers’ global cost are determined for each consumer.

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ELASTISITAS PERMINTAAN DAN PENAWARAN (1)

ELASTISITAS PERMINTAAN DAN PENAWARAN (1)

Permintaan konsumen terhadap suatu barang tidak hanya tergantung pada harga barang tersebut. Tetapi juga pada preferensi konsumen, harga barang subsitusi dan komplementer Dan juga pendapatan. Para ahli ekonomi mencoba mengukur respon/reaksi permintaan terhadap harga yang berhubungan dengan barang tersebut, disebut dengan elastisitas silang (Cross Price Elasticity of demand). Perubahan harga suatu barang akan mengakibatkan pergeseran permintaan kepada produk lain, maka elastisitas silang (Exy) adalah merupakan persentase perubahan permintaan dari barang X dibagi dengan persentase perubahan harga dari barang Y. Apabila hubungan kedua barang tersebut (X dan Y) bersifat komplementer (pelengkap) terhadap barang lain itu, maka tanda elastisitas silangnya adalah negatif, misalnya kenaikan harga tinta akan mengakibatkan penurunan permintaan terhadap pena. Apabila barang lain tersebut bersifat substitusi (pengganti) maka tanda elastisitas silangnya adalah positif, misalnya kenaikan harga daging ayam akan mengakibatkan kenaikan jumlah permintaan terhadap daging sapi Dan sebaliknya.
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ANALISIS ELASTISITAS TIGA BAHAN PANGAN SUMBER PROTEIN HEWANI DI INDONESIA

ANALISIS ELASTISITAS TIGA BAHAN PANGAN SUMBER PROTEIN HEWANI DI INDONESIA

Abstract: Elasticity Analysis for Three Animal Protein Resources in Indonesia. This study aimed to analyze the behavior of household demand on three sources of animal protein (fish, beef, and chicken) were associated with different household characteristics and analyze the response of households in Indonesia to changes in price and income on the consumption of fish, beef, and chicken. Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) was adopted in this study, using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey wave 4 (IFLS 4). Total number of the household analyzed in this study amounted to 839 households. The results showed that partially price of fish, beef prices, household expenditure, geographic region, and number of family members affect the share of expenditure fisheries products, chicken, and beef. The results implied that Price elasticity of demand for demand for fish, beef, and chicken were categorized as inelastic. While the income elasticity for beef and chicken were elastic, furthermore income elasticity for fish was inelastic.
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P R O G R A M OF THE MODULE

P R O G R A M OF THE MODULE

Price Elasticity of Demand. Classifying Demand as Elastic or Inelastic. Elasticity Is Independent of Units .Calculating Elasticity’s .The Mid- Point Formula .The End-Point Problem. Calculating Elasticity at a Point .Elasticity and Demand Curves .Elasticity Is Not the Same as Slope .Elasticity Changes along Straight-Line Curves .Interpreting Elasticity’s .Substitution and Price Elasticity of Demand. Geometric Tricks for Estimating Price Elasticity .Empirical Estimates of Elasticity. Price Elasticity of Demand and Total Revenue .Total Revenue along a Demand Curve .Elasticity of Individual and Market Demand. Empirically Measuring of Elasticity. Other Elasticity of Demand .Income Elasticity of Demand .Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand. A Review of the Alternative Elasticity Terms .Graphing Income and Cross-Price Elasticity’s of Demand .Price Elasticity of Supply .Classifying Supply as Elastic or Inelastic .Substitution and Supply .Empirical Estimates of Elasticity .The Power of Supply and Demand Analysis .Elasticity and Shifting Supply and Demand.
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Pricing Strategies (resources mainly taken from e-book fundamental of managerial economics)

Pricing Strategies (resources mainly taken from e-book fundamental of managerial economics)

that marginal revenues equal marginal cost, it is not necessary to calculate both to set optimal prices. Just using information on marginal costs and the point price elasticity of demand, the calculation of proft-maximiaing prices is quick and easy.

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Slide MGT101 Slide05

Slide MGT101 Slide05

CHA © 2007 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics 8e by Case and Fair 2 of 29 Chapter Outline 5 Elasticity Price Elasticity of Demand Slope and Elasticity Ty[r]

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P R O G R A M OF THE MODULE

P R O G R A M OF THE MODULE

Price Elasticity of Demand. Classifying Demand as Elastic or Inelastic. Elasticity Is Independent of Units .Calculating Elasticity’s .The Mid- Point Formula .The End-Point Problem. Calculating Elasticity at a Point .Elasticity and Demand Curves .Elasticity Is Not the Same as Slope .Elasticity Changes along Straight-Line Curves .Interpreting Elasticity’s .Substitution and Price Elasticity of Demand. Geometric Tricks for Estimating Price Elasticity .Empirical Estimates of Elasticity. Price Elasticity of Demand and Total Revenue .Total Revenue along a Demand Curve .Elasticity of Individual and Market Demand. Empirically Measuring of Elasticity. Other Elasticity of Demand .Income Elasticity of Demand .Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand. A Review of the Alternative Elasticity Terms .Graphing Income and Cross-Price Elasticity’s of Demand .Price Elasticity of Supply .Classifying Supply as Elastic or Inelastic .Substitution and Supply .Empirical Estimates of Elasticity .The Power of Supply and Demand Analysis .Elasticity and Shifting Supply and Demand.
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137_erikbinternetshopbots. 676KB Jan 09 2011 11:48:46 PM

137_erikbinternetshopbots. 676KB Jan 09 2011 11:48:46 PM

Shopbots are Internet-based services that provide “one-click” access to price and product information from numerous competing retailers. In so doing, they reduce buyer search costs for product and price information by at least 30-fold compared to telephone-based shopping and even more compared to physically visiting the retailers (Brynjolfsson and Smith [2000a]). Shopbots collect and display information on a variety of product characteristics, list summary information for both well- and lesser-known retailers, and typically rank the retailers based on a characteristic of interest to the shopper such as price or shipping time. The resulting comparison tables reveal a great deal of variation across retailers in relative price levels, delivery times, and product availability.
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The analytics of the New Keynesian 3 equ

The analytics of the New Keynesian 3 equ

h e supply shock: Figure 4 represents the consequences of a 1% increase in inl ation (i.e. the negative supply shock acts as an increase in the price of raw materials or energy that increases the real marginal cost of production). h is shock has a direct impact on inl ation that rises and overshoots its tar- geted value. As a consequence monetary authorities should react according to the Taylor principle by raising the interest rate. Since the increase in the nom- inal interest rate is higher than the rate of inl ation, the real rate rises. h is, in turn, negatively af ects output that decreases under its natural value. However, as time passes, the increase in the interest rate dampens inl ation. Finally, the output gap goes back to its steady state value whilst the inl ation rate reaches its targeted value. As previously for the demand shock, the time path of vari- ables is af ected by the parameter values of the Taylor rule. A higher concern for output gap (as represented with ‘inl ation target’ IRF) leads to weaker re- sponses of real variables and stronger responses of nominal variables. Inversely a higher concern for inl ation leads to stronger responses of real variables and weaker responses of inl ation and nominal interest rate.
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LOCAL OWN REVENUE MOBILIZATION IN INDONESIA | Mahi | Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business 6280 10686 1 PB

LOCAL OWN REVENUE MOBILIZATION IN INDONESIA | Mahi | Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business 6280 10686 1 PB

The estimated local own revenue elasticity show that most taxes and user charges, which are the main sources of local own revenue, are considered not a buoyant tax. More analysis using a decomposition of tax elasticity shows that tax to base elasticity is weak, suggesting that local governments need to improve discreationary tax changes at local level, such as local base changes, collection changes, and enforcement changes. The analysis also shows that some local tax bases are not responsive to the economic growth, which leads to the recommendation to improve local business environment, such as streamlining local regulations and reducing harmfull local taxes and user charges.
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