The area that formed a clear zone indicates that the bacteria in a culture that has a high ability to change the substrate contained in a growth medium . Proteolyticactivity of bacteria is influenced by several factors given during treatment. The factors that influence proteolyticactivity for each isolates are pH, substrate and enzyme concentration, temperature and the presence of activators and inhibitors. The high value of the proteolytic index on media treatment is given Fe results of magnetic field exposure is suspected because FeCl 3 which has been exposed by the magnetic field has induced
The presence of aspartyl and cysteine proteinases in weevil midgut homogenates was further examined at pH 3.5 and 5.0 by adding low-molecular weight inhibitors known to specifically inhibit these proteinases. Pepstatin A (PEP) and E-64 are known to be largely specific towards aspartyl (Barrett, 1977b) and cysteine protein- ases (Hanada et al., 1978; Barrett et al., 1982), respect- ively. The inhibition pattern obtained with these inhibi- tors without added thiol activator is presented in Fig. 2A. At pH 3.5, PEP and E-64 treatment resulted in a reduction in total hemoglobinolytic activity of about 32 and 33%, respectively, vs reductions in azocaseinolytic activity of approximately 50 and 42% for the respective inhibitors at pH 5.0. Adding both inhibitors simul- taneously to the reaction mixture indicates that aspartyl and cysteine proteinases together account for approxi- mately 80% of the total midgut activity at either pH. PMSF, a serine PI (Barrett, 1977a), did inhibit the extract by as much as 20–30% when tested at pH 5.0 (data not shown); however, this pH is inconsistent with the expected activity range of serine proteinases, and PMSF is known to inhibit cysteine proteinases (Storey and Wagner, 1986) in the absence of reductants. Further- more, an inhibitor of both cysteine and serine proteinases (leupeptin) (Barrett and Kirschke, 1981) gave a similar pattern and level of inhibition as E-64 at concentrations ranging from 0.1–200 µM (data not shown). This is inconsistent with a serine-like proteolyticactivity, as leupeptin would be expected to exceed the inhibition of E-64 if both classes of proteinases were present in the extract. The metalloproteinase inhibitor EDTA (Barrett, 1977a) did not inhibit proteolyticactivity at either pH when included at 1 mM or 5 mM (data not shown). Inhi- bition experiments were not conducted at higher pH values due to the absence of measurable hemoglobino- lytic or azocaseinolytic activity at pH $ 7.
41%). Plants are the largest source of protease enzyme (up to 43.85%). Plant protease plays a very large role in industry and has not been fully replaced by microbial enzymes. An enzyme produced from animal tissue is relatively expensive and its availability depends on the demand for the animal so that the source of the enzyme in the market is limited. Protease enzymes can be produced from fresh fruit of Carica papaya latex after scratches on its skin. On the other hand, with the increasing use of protease in the food industry, the availability of protease enzyme is insuficient. Therefore, it is necessary to ind other sources of protease (Witono et al.,2006). The latex from the icus group has a proteolyticactivity. There are more than 1.800 species of Ficus and over 800 types of Ficus carica, with each variety having a speciic proteolyticactivity (Pourmorad et al., 2011).
This study was conducted to investigate the proteolyticactivity and protein characteristics of fermented beef. The effect of different mechanical treatments on beef, (sliced and ground beef) was compared. The contents of amino acid were analyzed using HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method. The results indicated that Lactobacillus plantarum 1B1, isolated from beef, had better proteolyticactivity on sliced fermented beef if compared to ground fermented beef, and improved crude protein on sliced fermented beef. Sliced and groud fermented beef contained 15 components of amino acids which consisted of threonine, tyrosine, methionine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine as essential amino acid and aspartate, glutamate, serine, histidine, glycine, alanine and arginine as non-essential amino acids. Leucine was the highest among essential amino acids content and glutamate was the highest among non-essential amino acids content. The SDS PAGE profiles showed the beef protein molecule weight range of 94.71 - 13.43 kD. The numbers of protein band of fresh beef, sliced and ground fermented beef were 12, 7 and 7. In conclusion, fermentation process on raw beef by Lactobacillus plantarum could improve amino acid availability because of its proteolyticactivity on beef protein.
which did not display any antagonistic activity to- wards soil-borne fungal pathogens (Budi et al., 1999) also produced cellulolytic and pectinolytic activities revealed by the formation of clear zones of 17 and 20 mm diameter for cellulolytic activity and 12 and 22 mm diameter for pectinolytic activity, respectively. No proteolyticactivity was observed for these two isolates. The two other isolates B3 and B7, which have a very weak antagonistic activity (Budi et al., 1999), also produced proteolyticactivity with the formation of clear zones of 14 and 15 mm diameter, respectively. No cellulolytic and pectinolytic activities were ob- served for these two isolates. The chitinolytic activity was detected under UV light as a strong light-blue fluorescence for Paenibacillus sp. strain B2 and a weak light-blue fluorescence for isolates B6 and B8. No fluorescence was observed for isolates B3 and B7.
Papuma Beach has a high bacterial diversity. The results of the previous research were obtained 23 bacterial isolates. A potential that can be exploited was the ability to produce a fibrinolytic enzyme that can be used to solve various problems of thrombosis (myocardial infarction). The purpose of this research was to examine proteolytic and fibrinolytic activities of bacterial isolates from Papuma beach. Proteolyticactivity test performed using skim milk agar (SMA) media on 23 bacteria isolate and fibrinolytic activity test using Fibrin Plate Assay method on isolate that are known to have proteolyticactivity. Eleven bacterial isolates have proteolyticactivity and three bacterial isolates have fibrinolytic activity. Bacterial isolates WU 021012* has the highest proteolytic index i.e. 4.3. Bacterial isolates that has fibrinolytic activity i.e WU 021012*, WU 021001* and WU 021055* with fibrinolytic index 7.01, 6.95, and 5.86 ,respectively.
Abstract. Anting-anting ( Acalyphaindica ) plants is a species of plant having catkin type of inflorescence. This research aims to utilize anting-anting as antibacterial toward Streptococcus mutans and degradationof biofilm on teeth. Anting-anting leaves were extracted by maceration technique using methanol, chloroform, and n ¬-hexane. Antibacterial and biofilm degradation assays were performed using microdilution technique with 96 well. n -Hexane extracts of anting-anting leaves gave the best antibacterial potency with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration value of 500 µg/mL and exhibited good biofilm degradation activity. Fraction of F3 obtained from fractionation of n-hexane’s extract with column chromatography was a potential for degradation of biofilm with IC 50 value of 56.82 µg/mL. Alkaloid was suggested as
This research result shows that there are 9 bacteria isolate that found in the fish flesh. Between these bacterias isolate there are 2 isolate of proteolytic bacteria that can hydrolize protein and 9 isolate of lipolytic bacteria that can hydrolize lipid.