(Roser & Cullen, 1964; The Brazilian Academy of Science, 1977). In Indonesia the mean of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate is 40 nGy h -1 ( 40 nSv h -1 )with range of 23.9 nGy.h -1 to 40.1 nGy h -1 , and the high radiation dose rate was found in Bangka Island and Karimu Island, average dose rate in this area of 330 nGy h -1 and 310 nGy h -1 respectively (UNSCEAR, 2010). The main purpose for the study is to determine the base line data of natural radiological background in downtown of Indonesia and its health implication.
Abstract. Mamuju in West Sulawesi was well known has a highest level of natural radiation due to radon exposure compared to other areas in Indonesia. Therefore it is interested to study on the negative impact that may found in the local community members mainly to their healthand physical conditions that may lead to cancer induction. Aim of the study is to assess the impact of natural radiation to the health condition (eye, skin, ENT (ear-nose-throat) andteeth) of community members in Takandeang Village, Mamuju. Sixty male and female respondences in Takandeang and 30 respondences in Keang Village as control were participated in this research with the range of age of 16 and 75 years old by filling out informed consent. The examination was also done through anamneses i.e. interviewing the health history covering daily life style and consumption as well as cigarette. Cataract examination was done by anamneses and shadow test. Results of study showed that there is no health impact was found in general, including cancer incidence caused by radiation among community memebers who were participated in the study and there is no correlation with their age. Incidence of cataract as a marker of high radiation exposure was found in very low cases. It noted that in general the blood pressure in control group was higher than that in study group that need further assessment. Based on palpation on the neck area, there is no enlargement of thyroid glands and neck lymph nodes among residents and control group.It can be concluded that there is no impact of natural radiation to the healthand physical conditions of residents living in Takandeang Village.
The results showed that in Tarutung Hospital there is 1 Radiation Protection Officer, 1 medical physicist, 6 radiographers, and 1 specialist who not working regularly. Organize radiation protection training for Radiation Protection Officer, but not including to the other personnel. Organizing monitoring of radiation doses for all personnel, but personnel have never received a health monitoring program from the hospital. The building have compliance with the obtain regulations. There are 3 Pb aprons, 1 shielding, and 2 Pb gloves. Organizing fit test for all X-ray machines in this unit.
on period 199742006. Exposure result of radiation is done every year in Laboratory Safety, Healthand Environment, Centre of Research and Development Safety Radiation, National Nuclear Energy Agency. This research aim is to know how much exposure dose of radiation accepted by worker radiation weather have been fulfilled or not the system limitation of dose which have been specified by
3. Environmental influences: Presence of organic material (blood, feces, saliva) tends to inhibit antimicrobials, pH etc. 4. Time of Exposure: Chemical antimicrobials andradiation treatments are more effective at longer times. In heat treatments, longer exposure compensates for lower temperatures.
In heat transfer, heat is form of energy that flows from high temperature to low temperature. There are three modes of heat transfer; conduction, convection andradiation. Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as a result of interactions between the particles. Normally, it occurs in solids, liquids and gases. Convection is the flow of heat through a bulk, microscopic movement of matter from a hot region to a cool region. However, convection occurs on solid surface and it involves the combine effects of conduction and fluid motion. Unlike conduction and convection, heat transfer by radiation can occur between two bodies, even when they are separated by a medium colder than both of them. Radiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic waves.
ABSTRACT: The natural radioactivity due to Radium, Thorium and Potassium in environmental samples such as soil and building materials contributes to the radiation dose received by human beings signiicantly. For assessing the environmental radiological impact to public it is essential to evaluate the activity levels of these nuclides. Using high-resolution Gamma ray spectrometry system the soil and few building material samples viz., granite, sand, brick collected from Shahpur region of North Karnataka were analysed and the radioactivity levels were estimated. The absorbed dose rate due to natural radionuclides was also calculated and the results are reported in this paper. The results obtained were observed to be normal in comparison with the World literature values for almost all samples whereas granite samples showed relatively higher activity and hence higher dose. This study provides a baseline data of radioactivity background levels in the Shahpur region of Gulbarga district and will be useful to assess any changes in the radioactive background level due to various man made processes.
5. Shah, L.C., West P., Bremmeyr, K & Savoy-Moore, R.T. (2010).Health Literacy Instrument in Family Medicine: The “Newest Vital Sign” Ease of Use andCorralates. J Am Board Fam Med, 23, 195-203 http://www.jabfm.org/content/24/3/281.full (diakses 8 Oktober 2015)
In addition to the eight health services indicators assessed, we also looked at three child nutrition outcome indicators: stunting (height for age); underweight (weight for age); and wasting (weight for height) in children less than 5 years. Improving nutritional status of children and women has been recognized as a top priority by the Nepali Government, as malnutrition remains a major contributor to child health problems. Although the situation of chronic malnutrition has improved since 2001, Nepal remains one of the most malnourished countries in the world, with concentration being in the mid- and far-west hill and mountainous regions, and in the central Terai. Unfortunately, the national nutrition action plan, prepared in 2007, was never finalized. The full definitions of all the indicators assessed are presented in Annex 1.
Lack of time Not seeing results quickly Stress, demanding work or travel schedule Lack of energy Cost of food, weight loss programs, or gym memberships Feeling hungry all the time Get bored Limited options of foods and beverages that taste good Don't like the taste of foods/beverages I have to eat/drink Dislike of physical activity Lack of suppport from friends/family Lack of knowledge Other None/Nothing
FSI Survey 2001 states that the mangrove forest cover in India is 4481 Sq.Kms. About 9 states and Union territories in the country have mangroves in their coastal regions. Southeast coast mangroves especially which lie at Tamil Nadu with in the proposed Sethusamudram project cover an area of 23 Sq.Kms. Mangrove mapping by MSSRF, 2002 states that the mangrove cover in this zone is 15 Sq.Kms (15,035 ha). Good mangrove coverage is available at Cuddalore: Uppanar- Coleroon estuarine region (Pichavaram), Thanjvur: Coleroon estuarine region (Puthupattinam), Thiruvarur and Thanjavur: distributaries of Vennar (Muthupet), Ramanathapuram: Islands of Gulf of Mannar (Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park), Ramanathapuram: Mouths of tidal creeks (Palk Strait) and Tuticorin: Tamiraparani estuary (Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park). The number of species recognized from Indian mangroves is 65 belonging to 22 genera and 16 families (Kathiresan and Bingham, 2001) and in Tamil Nadu excluding the associates it is 18 true mangrove species.
Outbreak epidemiology. Weekly versus daily case occur- rence, which is reflected in the epidemic curve (Figure 4), showed a slow incremental increase in outbreak cases begin- ning week 25 (June 14–20, 2002), then a dramatic increase during week 31 (July 25–31, 2002), nearly two-fold. The out- break peaked during week 32 (August 1–7, 2002), with the first notable decrease in cases during week 35 (August 22–28, 2002). There was no evidence of continued diarrheal out- break transmission beyond week 37 (September 5–11, 2002). The overall attack rate (AR) in Kupang was 1.1% (2,600 of 236,630 inhabitants), with a case fatality rate of 0.46% (12 of 2,600). In none of the four sub-districts comprising the city did the AR reach 2%. Controlling for age clearly shows the pre- ponderance of outbreak-associated risk in the population < 1 year of age: AR ⳱ 27.9% (ranging from 19.4% in the Maulafa sub-district to 42.8% in the Alak sub-district), AR ⳱ 4.6% (ranging from 4% in the Maulafa sub-district to 6.9% in the Alak sub-district), and AR ⳱ 0.39% (ranging from 0.27% in the Kelapa Lima sub-district to 0.57% in the Alak sub- district), in the age groups < 1, 1–5, and > 5 years old, respec- tively (Table 1).
Communities are also increasingly vulnerable to weather-related natural disasters, the frequency and severity of which is expected to worsen due to climate change. Environmental crises could also threaten water supplies, and increase food insecurity. There has, however, been an increased awareness of the interconnectedness of global health issues, and of the need to support efective responses at global, regional and national levels. This has led to a dramatic increase in the number of actors in the global health arena, with over 40 bilateral agencies, 25 UN organizations, 20 global and regional funds, and more than 90 global initiatives now focused on providing health activities and assistance. However, global funding for health, which increased dramatically during the irst several years of the century, has now levelled of. In light of increased competition for more limited resources for health, it is essential for each organisation to focus on areas where it can have the greatest impact.
Recently day, the detection and stealth technology is rapidly growth and cause the attention to the reduction af radar cross sectional area. However, the the RCS reduction will lead to the degradation of an antenna performances and increase the complexity of an antenna. The effect by the degradation of antenna performances is narrow bandwith, the value of the gain decrease and shifting the resonance frequency. In addition, antenna is a special scatter and difficult to balance the reduction of RCS simulataneously with the good of antenna radiation performances.
Caplan, R.D., Cobb, S., French, J. R. P., Van Harrison, R. and Pinneau, S.R. (1975). Job Demands and Worker Health, Main effects and Occupational Differences. U.S Department of Health, Education and Welfare. National Institute for Occupational Safety andHealth , Washington, D.C.
• Within the context of health promotion, health has been considered less as an abstract state and more as a means to an end which can be expressed in functional terms as a resource which permits people to lead an individually, socially and economically productive life .
page 155) that has no measurable contributions from small crystallite size and microstrains, the peak-shape function parameters (V , W and P), responsible for the instrumental and wavelength dispersion broadening, can be determined ex- perimentally. These should remain constant during following experiments when using different materials and, thus should be kept fixed in future refinements. Obviously, the goniometer configuration must be identical in the experiments conducted using both the standard and real samples. This method requires mea- suring a standard every time when any change in the experimental settings oc- curs, including replacement of the X-ray tube, selection of different divergence or receiving slits, monochromator geometry, filter, and other optical components. – Taking advantage of the fundamental parameters approach, which is based on a comprehensive description of the experimental conditions and hardware con- figuration. It is developed quite well and as a result, the corresponding peak- shape parameters may be computed, and not necessarily refined. This technique requires realistic data about the experimental configuration, such as slit open- ings and heights, in-plane and axial divergences, monochromator characteristics, source and sample geometry and dimensions, and other data. Indeed, consider- able effort is involved in order to obtain all required physical characteristics of the powder diffractometer, the source, and the specimen. The resultant peak shape is then obtained as a convolution (8.18) of the modeled instrumental function, Ω, wavelength distribution in the incident spectrum, Λ, and sample function, Ψ, with the pseudo-Voigt function. 29 For example, the instrumental function can be
Kumar Amit dan Tanvir Singh; Vasishath Kaushal; Divya Khurana; JNV Theog; Shimla. 2013. Electromagnetic pollution : Experimental comparison of 2G and 3G wireless communication networks. 2013. Proceeding of conference on emerging trends in engineering and technology. Association of Computer Electronics and Electrical Engineers. 559-564.
Each building may have two roles. It can be: 1. A shadow caster which will block the direct radiationand/or 2. A shadow receiver which is the point we just calculated. Figure 3 illustrates the workflow of the first part. Depending on whether the building shadow caster or shadow receiver, use different LODs. We consider that shadow casting surface doesn’t need to have details on the facades, because a wall surface with a window and door will cast approximately the same amount of shadow if there was no door or window at all. Therefore we use LOD2 when we consider the building as shadows caster. But as for shadow receiving surface, the more detail the better. In this case the windows and the doors must be excluded from the surface since no photovoltaic cells can be placed on them. To calculate the SVF, a ray plane intersection algorithm has been used where it is possible to determine if a point is going through a triangle. And for calculating shadow receiving points, LOD3 model has been subdivided into very small triangles according to desired resolution and then the centre of the triangle has been stored.