When less timber extraction is allowed from off-Java islands, the national GDP in 2020 is lower than the baseline scenario. In terms of GDP, Sumatra and Kalimantan are affected the most. This is natural since most timber comes from these two islands and so a 10 percent reduction is significant for them. What is rather surprising is the result for Java- Bali. Although it does not have much remain- ing forest and moreover no restrictions on har- vesting timber, the region is negatively af- fected. The main reason for this is that major- ity of wood processing industries are in Java and they are affected when less wood is avail- able. As a consequence of this lower GDP, both urban andrural household consumption per capita in all regions in 2020 is lower than at baseline, and urban andrural poverty levels in all regions are higher.
In the simple word, geopolitics can be revealed as the way of thinking regarding politic and development in the certain country. Preston E James (1971), an American Geographer explain that the geographic condition has a strong relationship with the politics and government. Because of when we talk about geography such as land use management, we have to mention government which has authority to establish them, Moreover, the government can be separated with a political dimension. In Indonesia, the geopolitics is called Wawasan Nusantara. Actually, wawasan Nusantara is referred to Pancasila and UUD 1945. In the empirical place, it consists of many aspects such as Race, religion, norms, value, ideology, regional condition, livelihoods and infrastructure condition (Satriya, 2009). The relation among all of the theory which is used in this research can be illustrated with figure bellow.
Some of the key explanatory chapters in the book deal with issues such as education levels, niche mar- kets, networks and lifestyle choices as a means of exploring the differential performance of rural regions. In many cases, the ®ndings are similar and point to the need to view rural employment changes both within a set of global and national changes, commonly termed `restructuring', which have speci®c rural impacts and with reference to micro-regional characteristics. For example, in their work McGrana- han and Kassel (1997) conclude that, despite the long standing emphasis put upon workforce education as a key to economic advancement, high regional educa- tion levels offer a limited advantage. Economic devel- opment may be just as dependent upon local circumstances such as proximity to industrial districts or expanding urban centres, favourable climate and amenities as local education levels. Through examin- ing lifestyle choices andrural job creation, Persson et al. (1997) identify three factors which lead to increasing differentiation: internationalization and organization of economic activity; diversity of life- styles and mobility patterns among people; and policy formation and practices (p. 146).
Table 3 and Table 4 present the pooled OLS results with and without household fixed- effects, respectively, for the four different measures of Raskin participation in the past year. In each table, column 1 presents the results for any participation, column 2 for the quantity of Raskin rice purchased, column 3 for the frequency of purchases, and column 4 for the household purchases to community distributions (HP-CD) ratio. For each participation measure, the first sub-column presents results for the specification with log per capita expenditure (PCE) and the bottom 30 percent PCE poverty indicator without an interaction between the two variables. The second sub- column adds an interaction of log PCE and the poverty indicator to the previous specification. In the first specification without the PCE-poverty interaction term, the coefficient on the poverty indicator indicates whether the program overall is pro-poor, i.e. whether the poor as a whole have higher program participation compared to the non-poor. Including the PCE-poverty interaction term allows us to make inferences about regressive program participation among the poor. Controls for household and community characteristics along with ruralandregional dummies are included in all regressions, but are not reported in the tables.
The proven strong association between tuberculosis and tobacco calls for joint action to curb the epidemics of tobacco and tuberculosis in the Region. In fact, the lethal interaction between tobacco consumption and tuberculosis in adults, youth and high-risk population groups in the Region exemplifies the need for well integrated approaches for disease management and control. Traditional disease-specific approaches fall short of recognizing common features and potential synergies in integration of care, management and control of non-communicable and communicable diseases. Particularly in resource-limited environments in many countries of the Region, the need to tackle a broader range of overlapping comorbid conditions through integrative approaches can hardly be overemphasized.
In conclusion, residents of Cheshe reported that about 50 – 80% of cost of their farming activities were borne by the philanthropist and that resulted in significant improvements in yields and equally perceived improvement in their livelihoods. In Dungu, respondents said they needed external support to help them increase their yields in improve their livelihoods. Therefore, granted that projects are made sustainable in communities and allowed to continue even after completion of the project. There is the need for a dramatic change in some of the perceptions held by rural dwellers of philanthropists because those very perceptions hinder their own growth and development. The remained status-quo of philanthropic practices as widely practice around the globe, I’m afraid is mitigating canon either a panacea to solving poverty related issues.
Pendirian akademis Dr. Sajogyo secara konsisten berada pada ontologi realisme. Sejak masa pendidikan sarjana pertanian ia sudah terbiasa melakukan praktek lapangan ke desa-desa pertanian dengan bimbingan asisten dosen, yang bisa dibaca sebagai semacam studi etnografi. Disertasinya tentang transmigran spontan di Lampung (Utomo, 1958) juga disusun sebagai laporan praktek lapangan di desa-desa di sana, di mana etnografi semakin kuat. Aspek lainnya yang menariknya ke dalam realisme ialah suasana akademik di lingkungan teknis pertanian, yang bisa dimaknai sebagai suasana engineering (artikel Sosiologi Terapan). Proses rekayasa membutuhkan ontologi realisme, suatu pengetahuan “di sana” yang hendak dipengaruhi. Sebagai sosiolog, Dr. Sajogyo tentu saja tidak memusatkan engineering secara mekanis, melainkan memaknainya sebagai pemanfaatan atau penerapan sosiologi. Pendalaman dan pengembangan ilmu penyuluhan oleh Dr. Sajogyo juga dapat dipandang sebagai upaya memperbaiki petani, menjadikannya fungsional atau bermanfaat. Kegiatan konsultansinya untuk departemen pemerintah sekaligus untuk pengembangan fokus penelitian sosiologi pedesaan memiliki kaitan dengan suasana engineering atau teknokratis pula, yaitu suatu kebutuhan berkreasi dalam ranah realisme. Seusai pensiun dari guru besar IPB Bogor, Dr. Sajogyo melakukan studi-studi partisipatif dalam organisasi Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat, terutama melalui metode PLA (Participatory Learning and Action) yang dimaknai sebagai perbaikan PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal). Eksemplar Siregar (2001) yang dipandang Dr. Sajogyo sebagai puncak PLA dalam organisasi yang dipimpinnya. Dalam bab tersebut sudah dibahas, bahwa PLA dilandasi ontologi realisme pula, yang diwujudkan dalam pembagian OL (Orang Luar) dan OD (Orang Dalam).
Sistematika pemikiran di atas berkonsekuensi pada diskursus komunitas sebagai bagian evolusi menuju masyarakat (society). Konsep komunitas disetarakan dengan gemeinschaft menurut Tonnies, atau masyarakat berbasis solidaritas mekanis menurut Durkheim (1933). Komunitas memiliki struktur sosial yang lebih sederhana, diferensiasi sosial lemah, pembagian kerja rendah. Komunitas desa memiliki sifat demikian dan memiliki ketergantungan dengan masyarakat perkotaan, sebagaimana dikemukakan dalam teori rural-urban continuum menurut Redfield. Linearitas semacam inilah yang menjadi bahan dekonstruksi dalam poskolonialisme. Kedudukan kota dipandang lebih tinggi karena di sanalah kosmopolitanisme dikesankan ditumbuhkan, terutama melalui pengumpulan para ahli, institusi kapitalisme, penumpukan tentara (Derrida, 2005). Desa menduduki posisi subaltern, yang lebih rendah, tidak bisa menyatakan dirinya sendiri, sehingga harus diwakili oleh kota.
menurut Durkheim (1933). Komunitas memiliki struktur sosial yang lebih sederhana, diferensiasi sosial lemah, pembagian kerja rendah. Komunitas desa memiliki sifat demikian dan memiliki ketergantungan dengan masyarakat perkotaan, sebagaimana dikemukakan dalam teori rural-urban continuum menurut Redfield. Linearitas semacam inilah yang menjadi bahan dekonstruksi dalam poskolonialisme. Kedudukan kota dipandang lebih tinggi karena di sanalah kosmopolitanisme dikesankan ditumbuhkan, terutama melalui pengumpulan para ahli, institusi kapitalisme, penumpukan tentara (Derrida, 2005). Desa menduduki posisi subaltern, yang lebih rendah, tidak bisa menyatakan dirinya sendiri, sehingga harus diwakili oleh kota.
In our new ‘Survey of recent developments’, Thee Kian Wie and Siwage Dharma Negara argue that little has happened to dispel concern that Indonesia’s reform momentum is dissipating, and they predict that new National Economic and Innovation Committees intended to help accelerate development will probably achieve little. It appears that economic growth has stabilised rather than continu- ing to accelerate, not least because iscal policy is no longer providing a stimulus. Manufacturing has been in the doldrums, partly because of the ‘Dutch disease’ effect of surging export commodity prices and volumes, but its recent growth seems more promising. Soeharto-era attachment to small budget deicits remains evident in the 2011 budget, which persists in emphasising heavy spending on subsidies at the expense of investment in sorely needed infrastructure.
As far as the interpretation of the components of the trade:adjusted shift:share analysis is concerned, it should be noted that the national effect component has four sub:components: (a) the domestic demand national effect, (b) the exports national effect, (c) the imports national effect, and (d) the labor productivity national effect. These sub:components would represent, respectively, the effect on employment through a residual effect of national demand shifts, the hypothetical effect if employment were to expand proportionately to national exports, the effect on employment through national imports substituting for domestic production, and a correction factor as productivity gains (losses) may lead to employment losses (gains) if output growth leads to disproportionately smaller (greater) job growth. The industry mix component of the trade:adjusted shift:share analysis, also, has four sub:components: (a) the domestic demand industry mix, (b) the exports industry mix, (c) the imports industry mix, and (d) the labor productivity industry mix. These sub:components would represent, respectively, the residual effect of domestic demand on local industries, the hypothetical employment effect as if a region’s industries expanded proportionally to national export sales in those industries, the hypothetical employment effect through import substitution for region’s industries, and a correction factor as productivity gains (losses) may lead to employment losses (gains) if the national:level productivity growth of the region’s industrial structure has outperformed (lagged:behind) the corresponding productivity growth of the nation’s industrial structure. Evidently, the employment effects attributed to domestic demand, exports and imports shifts are all hypothetical. The basic assumption is that output:based measures are translated into jobs as if employment:to:output ratios had remained constant. The labor productivity components come into play to account (as correction factors) for possible shifts of employment:output ratios.
This research finding answered hypoth - esis 2 (H2), there was significant influence of cosmopoliteness’ level variable on consumer empowerment. Respondents that succeeded to accomplish higher level of education will be more open-minded and has more knowledge on consumer’s concerns. In addition, respondents who were used to travel to regions outside their residence and make wider relationship with other people will have more potency of having the experience from the encounter with unfair business practices. Thus, the more cosmopolite the consumers, the more positive enhancement to consumer empowerment in both ruraland urban areas. Suja (2012) reveals that mobil - ity is one of the aspects which represent em - powerment. The finding of Nardo et al., (2011) showed that consumer empowerment index is highly correlated to the level of internet usage which appealed to be one of the indicator of consumer cosmopoliteness. Consumer’s knowl - edge is increasingly broader as more informa - tion received. Information on consumer issues which they received is not only derived from Table 4. Analysis result of factors influenced consumer empowerment
Mansfield & Reinhardt support their argument through analyzed empirical data from several phenomena. First, an increasing number of WTO members. This raises the issue about collective action and heterogeneity problems. The more members means a difficulty in monitoring others’ trade practices. Unless joining the groups, they will be easily cheated by their counterparts. Heterogeneity implied a more preferences and practices must be considered during negotiation. Mansfield cited Financial News which mention “a round with China in is going to be much mor e difficult than a round without China”. Difficulties in achieving global consensus stimulate countries to try RTA’s way.
mobile, the objectives of urban andregional planning have been changing. Shifts from a demand-side policies to supply-side policies and from a redistributive stance to a competitive and marketing stance have taken place. The central aim of plans is not to regulate economic growth and its effects on urban andregional territories but rather to activate it.
The horizontal line shows the mean share of ADB lending across the entire sample (0.06, n=597). The left-hand part of the figure compares the average share of annual lending that goes to countries not serving on the UNSC (0.05) to the average share going to elected members of the UNSC (0.15). A t-test and the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicate that this difference is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. More convincing is the pattern over time, presented on the right-hand part of Figure 1. The average share of ADB loans rises and peaks during the second year of UNSC membership before decling slowly after UNSC tenure ends. This pattern may be driven by the ADB s’ project lending cycle—it typically takes 18–30 months from project proposal, which begins during the election year, to disbursement. See Lim and Vreeland 2012, section A3 for a detailed illustration of the
Although initially collected only for whole-rock studies, we have since performed single crystal dissolution geochronological analysis on a sample from this outcrop (KSH-11-21). After sev- eral other collected Chopawamsic Formation samples were found to be devoid of zircon, a portion of this sample was processed and found to include plentiful zircon. The subsequent on-the-fl y goal of “re-dating” this outcrop was to provide better resolution on the most important age to come out of the Chopawamsic Forma- tion; although fewer crystals are analyzed with the TIMS method than the SHRIMP method, the individual results are more pre- cise. Nine individual zircons were dissolved; four contained little radiogenic Pb and have large errors associated with them. Of the remaining fi ve, four cluster for a concordant age of 465.4 ± 0.7 Ma (2 σ uncertainties with uranium decay constant uncertain- ties included, Fig. 19A). The fi fth analysis shows signs of Pb loss and plots below the concordia line on the Wetherill diagram.
It is, of course, an interesting question how a CTV can be assessed. Clearly, it has to be based on solid scientific research concerning, e.g. re- source availability or human health effects. This means that scientific information and expert opin- ion are of critical importance. In addition how- ever, it ought to be recognised that several CTVs have by definition a policy meaning, (e.g. on the acceptable level of access to resources), so that there is, of course, a policy involvement in the specification and numerical assessment of CTVs. Thus, the concept of CTVs must be used with great caution. It is based on existing knowledge which may be specific for a given area, for local socio-economic and natural conditions, and for particular local/regional policy ramifications. Fur- thermore, some changes in natural conditions may exhibit a resilience, so that after a temporary time span of violating critical threshold conditions a return to a sustainable development or an envi- ronmental security pathway may take place.
Liao, P.S. 2000, The Effect of Community Attachment and Quality of Life on Migration Intention: A Comparison of Taiwanese and Pennsylvania Rural Communities, article publication, Dept. of Agricultural Economics andRural Sociology, Pennsylvania State University.
There are different reasons that cause rural-urban migration in Nigeria. They are the so-called push and pull factors which can be seen as simultaneous analysis of factors that attract migrants to urban areas. These determinants are split up into economic and non-economic factors for easy understanding. Todaro’s rural urban migration model is adopted here as a theoretical framework to guide the discussion. Although the theory failed to capture non-economic factors in explaining rural-urban migration, the paper addressed such shortcomings. It was discovered that people who migrate are usually the more educated, young and determined. Socio- economic factors, such as better employment and educational opportunities, etc are the main reasons for people to migrate to cities in Nigeria, although insecurity has compounded the picture. The paper recommends that good educational facilities and qualified teachers as well as agro-allied industries must be set-up in rural areas in order to better living conditions of rural dwellers.
The responsibility for furthering an understanding of the multidimensional and interactive impact of the built environment lies with its researches, academicians and practitioners. Architects, urban designers, planners, development analysis and transportations managers need to develop the interdisciplinary perspectives to understand the relationship between global warming and our activities as shapers of the built environment. As a member of professions that contribute to the built environment, The School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development (SAPPD) at Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) has a particularly important role to play. The perspective adopted by the school is a holistic one, focused on an attempt to understand the interaction between the different elements that make up the built environment. Interaction among researchers within the school, as well as engagements with international scientiic community, are important mean to achieve that scholarly pursuit.