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Effect of Time after Mating on the Recovery and Motility of Spermatozoa from the Female Reproductive Tract of Ewes - repository civitas UGM

Effect of Time after Mating on the Recovery and Motility of Spermatozoa from the Female Reproductive Tract of Ewes - repository civitas UGM

The biological features of both spermatozoa and the female reproductive tract that determine the distribution of spermatozoa leading to a population of spermatozoa in the oviducts capable of fertilisation are not known. The experiments reported in this studies were undertaken to determine the effect of time after mating on the recovery and motility of spermatozoa from the female reproductive tract of Merino ewes.

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Ultrasonography of Endometritis Cows Reproductive Tract which Treated with a Combination of Intrauterine Infusion of Gentamicine, Flumequine and PGF2α Analog

Ultrasonography of Endometritis Cows Reproductive Tract which Treated with a Combination of Intrauterine Infusion of Gentamicine, Flumequine and PGF2α Analog

There are some factors to increase livestock population, such as an improvement of management reproduction system and minimization the existence of reproductive disorder that can lead to infertility and sterility. Therefore it will increase reproductive efficiency. One of the reproductive disorders caused by uterus pathology is endometritis which is an inflammation of the uterus endometrial lining, usually cause by an infection of bacteria especially through vagina during parturations, parturition abnormality and at the time of assisting birth. Persistent uterine infection results in a reduction of reproductive performance by a direct deleterious effect on the uterus and disruption of normal ovarian faction. Hence, an appropriate treatment is essential component of successful reproductive management programs. Numerous treatment approaches including intrauterine infusion of antibiotics and PGF 2α have been done. The present study examines the reproductive tract ultrasonography in endometritis cow’s treated with a combination of intrauterine infusion of gentamicine, flumequine and PGF 2α analog . Six endometritis cows (N=6) divided into 2 groups
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KIA Semester III.

KIA Semester III.

Differentiation of Reproductive Tract Although male and female external genitalia develop from the same embryonic tissue, but reproductive tract develop from the different system [r]

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Suppression of androgen action and the i (2)

Suppression of androgen action and the i (2)

in AR immunoexpression in target tissues, with the exception of mi- nor changes in the testes of flutamide-treated males. GnRHa treat- ment caused a reduction (83%) in Leydig cell volume comparable to that caused by 10 ␮g DES. Immunoexpression of estrogen re- ceptor alpha (ER␣) in the efferent ducts and of ER␤ in all tissues studied were unaffected by any of the above treatments. Neonatal coadministration of testosterone esters (TE; 200 ␮g) with 10 ␮g DES prevented most of the morphological abnormalities induced by 10 ␮g DES treatment alone, though testis weight was still subnormal (46% reduction in DES ⫹ TE vs 72% in DES alone and 49% with TE alone) and some lumenal distension was still evident in the ef- ferent ducts. Coadministration of TE with DES prevented DES-in- duced loss of AR immunoexpression (confirmed for testis by West- ern blot analysis). It is concluded that 1) reproductive tract abnor- malities induced in the neonatal male rat by a high (10 ␮g) dose of DES are associated with reduced AR expression and Leydig cell volume; 2) these changes are largely absent with a lower dose of DES (1 ␮g); 3) treatments that interfere with androgen production (GnRHa) or action (flutamide) alone failed to induce reproductive tract abnormalities or alter AR expression as did 10 ␮g DES; 4) a grossly altered androgen:estrogen balance (low androgen ⫹ high estrogen) may underlie the reproductive tract abnormalities, other than reduced testis weight, induced by high doses of DES.
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Atrazine effects on testosterone levels

Atrazine effects on testosterone levels

ed that at the termination of the study, the average body weight of rats receiving atrazine at 100 mg/kg per day was reduced by approximately 9%. This suggested the possibility that the effects of atrazine on the reproductive tract may not be direct, but rather that deficits of the male reproductive tract resulted from reduced food intake. We tested this by feeding rats amounts of food that were equivalent to that consumed by the atrazine-fed rats, and then assessing reproductive tract endpoints. Food restric- tion resulted in reductions in serum and intratesticular tes- tosterone concentrations, androgen-dependent organ weights, and serum LH concentration, the same deficits seen in atrazine-gavaged rats. Indeed, the effects of at- razine on the male reproductive tract that were seen in rats receiving atrazine at greater than 50 mg/kg per day could not be distinguished from the effects of reduced food consumption.
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Suppression of androgen action and the i

Suppression of androgen action and the i

The similarity between the phenotypes of males ex- posed developmentally to either estrogens or to antian- drogens suggested to us the possibility that both pheno- types might be the result, at least in part, of a similar underlying mechanism. This hypothesis is supported by evidence that in utero exposure of male rats to exogenous estrogens reduces expression of the messenger RNA for 17␣-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase, a key enzyme in testos- terone production (Majdic et al, 1996), while neonatal administration of DES reduces both testicular and plasma androgen levels in 12-day-old rats (Keel and Abney, 1985). Furthermore, neonatal treatment with DES can cause life-long suppression of plasma testosterone levels (Atanassova et al, 1999), and postpubertal DES treatment clearly results in reduced androgen production (Cigorraga et al, 1980; Abney and Keel, 1986). At the very least, these various findings suggest an inter-relationship be- tween raised estrogen exposure and reduced androgen production. The primary purpose of the present study was therefore to assess whether the effects of neonatal admin- istration of DES to rats, at a dose that induces widespread reproductive tract abnormalities, was associated with al- tered androgen action. In planning and undertaking these studies, we also became aware that in our own and most (possibly all) published studies that have described DES- induced abnormalities in males during perinatal life, ex- tremely high doses have to be administered to induce such effects—generally equivalent to, or in excess of, 100 ␮g/ kg. In view of the extremely high affinity of estrogen
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Suppression of Androgen Action and the I (1)

Suppression of Androgen Action and the I (1)

The similarity between the phenotypes of males ex- posed developmentally to either estrogens or to antian- drogens suggested to us the possibility that both pheno- types might be the result, at least in part, of a similar underlying mechanism. This hypothesis is supported by evidence that in utero exposure of male rats to exogenous estrogens reduces expression of the messenger RNA for 17␣-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase, a key enzyme in testos- terone production (Majdic et al, 1996), while neonatal administration of DES reduces both testicular and plasma androgen levels in 12-day-old rats (Keel and Abney, 1985). Furthermore, neonatal treatment with DES can cause life-long suppression of plasma testosterone levels (Atanassova et al, 1999), and postpubertal DES treatment clearly results in reduced androgen production (Cigorraga et al, 1980; Abney and Keel, 1986). At the very least, these various findings suggest an inter-relationship be- tween raised estrogen exposure and reduced androgen production. The primary purpose of the present study was therefore to assess whether the effects of neonatal admin- istration of DES to rats, at a dose that induces widespread reproductive tract abnormalities, was associated with al- tered androgen action. In planning and undertaking these studies, we also became aware that in our own and most (possibly all) published studies that have described DES- induced abnormalities in males during perinatal life, ex- tremely high doses have to be administered to induce such effects—generally equivalent to, or in excess of, 100 ␮g/ kg. In view of the extremely high affinity of estrogen
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The role of estrogen in testis and the m

The role of estrogen in testis and the m

Jensen, 1974). At first it was thought that this male source of estrogen was produced primarily by the accessory sex glands and that estrogen’s function should be relegated to influencing the female reproductive tract after ejaculation, a role that it may indeed play to some degree (Willenburg et al., 2003). In the 1930’s it was reported that developing testes were responsive to the “female” hormone ( also reviewed by Weniger, 1990; Wolff and Ginglinger, 1935). It was also known in the 1930’s and 40’s that developmental exposure to high doses of estrogens could induce malformations in the male reproductive tract (Arai et al., 1983; Burrows, 1935; Greene et al., 1940; McLachlan, 1979). However, as late as the early 1990’s, many scientists still considered estrogen receptor presence in the adult male reproductive tract to be only a residual of embryological differentiation (Greco et al., 1993). Previous reviews have already covered important aspects of estrogen’s influence on male reproductive development (Hess, 2003; Hess et al., 2001b; Iguchi et al., 2001; O'Donnell et al., 2001; Sharpe, 1998; Sharpe, 2003); therefore, here we will focus on a comparison of estrogen synthesis, receptor localization and potential function in a variety of adult male species.
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Oestrogen its receptors and function in

Oestrogen its receptors and function in

Oestrogen is synthesized in the male reproductive system by at least three different cell types; Sertoli, Leydig and germ cells. Although testosterone is recog- nized as the primary sex steroid in man, oestrogen is produced in sizable quantities in the testis, as well as the brain (Roselli et al., 1997) and is found in extremely high concentrations in the semen of several species (Claus et al., 1992, 1987; Free and Jaffe, 1979; Ganjam and Amann, 1976). Early studies of oestrogen reported that the primary source of oestrogen in the immature male was the Sertoli cell (van der Molen et al., 1981). In the adult testis, Leydig cells express P450arom and actively synthesize estradiol at a rate much greater than that seen in the adult Sertoli cell (Payne et al., 1976; Carreau et al., 1999; Levallet and Carreau, 1997; Leval- let et al., 1998). Currently, a growing body of evidence indicates that germ cells also synthesize oestrogen, and possibly serve as the major source of this steroid in the male reproductive tract. In 1993, in collaboration with
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Inhibition of the reproductive system by

Inhibition of the reproductive system by

Parallel measurements of other HPG variables, such as testosterone and estrogen, or endoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract are needed to provide further insight into the contraceptive effects of deslorelin. Concurrent observations of reproductive behaviors throughout the study may have provided additional information for clini- cians. We used egg production to assess the effects of deslorelin on female fertility, but we did not include analogous measures of male reproductive capability. For mammals, testicular mass and semen quality have been used as additional parameters for monitoring the effects of deslorelin on fertility. 4,15,36 This approach clearly is needed for male pigeons, because in a variety of mamma- lian species, it appears that only pulsatile LH
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Animal Reproduction Science:Vol59.Issue3-4.May2000:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Animal Reproduction Science:Vol59.Issue3-4.May2000:

ampulla 90% at all sampling times, but not from the uterus. The epithelium of the oviduct segments contained mucus-secreting and ciliated cells and peak secretory activity was observed in the ampulla at 6 h. At 3, 6 and 12 h, many spermatozoa were found in epithelial folds within the isthmus. The present study has provided basic information on sperm transport and storage events within the female reproductive tract of T. Õ ulpecula following superovulation and AI. It is

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Oestrogen its receptors and function in (1)

Oestrogen its receptors and function in (1)

Oestrogen is synthesized in the male reproductive system by at least three different cell types; Sertoli, Leydig and germ cells. Although testosterone is recognized as the primary sex steroid in man, oestrogen is produced in sizable quantities in the testis, as well as the brain and is found in extremely high concentrations in the semen of several species. The high concentration of oestrogen in rete testis fluid of the rodent is now thought to be derived from the conversion of testosterone to estradiol by P450 aromatase in germ cells of the testis and spermatozoa traversing the reproductive tract. This new major source of oestrogen would target oestrogen receptors in the male reproductive tract, in particular the efferent ductules, which contain the highest concentration of oestrogen receptor-a. This recent data raises new hypotheses regarding the role of oestrogen in the function of the male reproductive system. The oestrogen receptor-a knockout mouse was used to help define the function of oestrogen in the male. It was found that oestrogen receptor-a is essential for fluid reabsorption in the efferent ductules and in the absence of expression the male is infertile. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Animal Reproduction Science:Vol64.Issue1-2.Dec2000:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Animal Reproduction Science:Vol64.Issue1-2.Dec2000:

‘Ultrasonography and Reproduction in Swine’ ably presents and explains the principles and practical applications of ultrasonography in swine. This is an excellent book that man- ages to collate much of the information available in the subject area. A wide audience will find this book useful as it presents the most up-to-date information in addition to the back- ground of this technique. The first section of the book introduces the reader to the principles of ultrasonography before going on to cover general aspects of the reproductive tract and its anatomical positioning. The next section deals with the oestrous cycle and then a thorough scrutiny of gestation. A section is also included on postpartum and lactation changes that take place in the reproductive tract and also a particularly well illustrated section on detect- ing abnormalities in the swine reproductive tract. The final section deals with the diagnosis of gestation, the factors that determine the accuracy of this test, and the advantages of using ultrasonography. This book is extremely well illustrated and hence makes it an invaluable learning tool for those who are being introduced to the subject. A great benefit to the reader is the summaries that close each section with a concise overview of the material presented. Overall, this book provides an excellent review of not only ultrasonography, but also of more general reproduction in the swine.
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Buku Panduan Mahasiswa Reproductive Syst

Buku Panduan Mahasiswa Reproductive Syst

Maka interaksi farmakokinetik yang terjadi dari kedua obat itu adalah peningkatan jumlah amoksisilin dalam darah oleh karena terjadi peningkatan masa paruh eliminasi penisilin dalam dara[r]

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PEDOMAN UMUM PENYUSUNAN LAPORAN PROYEK T

PEDOMAN UMUM PENYUSUNAN LAPORAN PROYEK T

Apabila ada indikator yang berskala nasional, sedapat mungkin buatlah analisis kuantitatif yang menyatakan kontribusi kegiatan daerah terhadap indikator berskala nasional tersebut. Berikut ini adalah contoh pengisian pencapaian Output 1 Proyek Essential Reproductive Health untuk OVI kegiatan (activity) ke-4:

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Prevention and control of hospital-associated infections

Prevention and control of hospital-associated infections

The prevention and control of hospital associated infections require various precautions-some of which are collectively known as universal (standard) precaution and remaining are directed towards system-specific prevention of infections such as respiratory and urinary tract infections, which were described in detail. The various practical aspects of implementation of these precautions to ensure their efficacy was emphasized. Dr Somsak and Dr Geeta Mehta subsequently discussed prevention and control of infections of surgical sites, urinary and respiratory tract and intravascular catheter related infections
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:B:Brain Research:Vol887.Issue2.Dec2000:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:B:Brain Research:Vol887.Issue2.Dec2000:

Fig. 4. Distribution of p38 immunoreactivity in horizontal and coronal sections. Dense p38 immunoreactivity is observed in dlo, dorsolateral olfactory tract; lo, lateral olfactory tract (A); sm, stria medullaris; cc, corpus callosum (B); alv, alveus hippocampi; bsc, brachium superior colliculus; ec, external capsule; fi, fimbria hippocampus; st, stria terminalis (C) in horizontal sections and cg, cingulum; fr, fasciculus retroflexus (D); fr; ic, internal capsule; opt, optic tract; mt, mammillothalamic tract; cp, cerebral peduncles (E) in coronal section. CPu, caudate putamen; Ld, lambdoid septal zone; MHb, medial habenular nucleus; Rt, reticular thalamic nucleus. Scale bar5150 mm.
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Safe Natural Cures For Urinary Tract Infections

Safe Natural Cures For Urinary Tract Infections

Title: Safe Natural Cures For Urinary Tract Infections Word Count: 481 Summary: With commonly prescribed antibiotics becoming useless in fighting bladder infection, natural cures for [r]

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Chapter Four – Adolescent Reproductive Health

Chapter Four – Adolescent Reproductive Health

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Reproductive Number and Serial Interval

Reproductive Number and Serial Interval

There are several limitations in this analysis which merit discussion. First, we assume that all cases are known and reported. It has been shown previously that, if cases are not reported, this may bias estimates generated using this method [39]. If the proportion of cases reported remains consistent over the study, then the estimates of transmissibility will not be biased; however, if the reporting fraction varies through time, then biased estimates of the reproductive number and serial interval may result. Likewise, variation in case ascertainment with time may bias our estimates of the temporal variation of R t . Generally higher reporting rates may
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