### S PEK 1206062 Chapter3

Dalam DEA terdapat metode non parametrik yang terbagi dalam dua bagian yaitu Constant return to scale (CRS) dan Variable Return to Scale (VRS). Model CRS mengasusmsikan bahwa rasio antara penambahan input dan output adalah sama. Artinya, jika ada tambahan input sebesar x kali,maka output akan meningkat sebesar x kali juga. Asumsi lain yang digunakan dalam model ini adalah bahwa setiap perusahaan atau unit pembuat keputusan (UPK) beroperasi pada skala yang optimal. Rumus dari Constant return to scale dapat dituliskan sebagai berikut:
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## Technical Efficiency of Pesticide Application on Tomato, Chinese Cabbage and Cauliflower in Simpang Empat Sub-District Karo Regency

Table 4 shows that the efficiency of pesticide usage using the assumption of Constant Return to Scale (CRS) is 0.115. The technical efficiency value shows that the average sample can reach 11.5% and the value ≤ 1, which means that the use of pesticide input is inefficient from technical point of view. The analysis shows that 34 farmers (97.15%) are technically inefficient in return for Scale (CRS) and only 1 farmer (2.85%) is technically efficient in the use of pesticides in cauliflower. While using the assumption of Variable Return to Scale (VRS) obtained the average value of technical efficiency of 0.377 that the average sample can reach 3.77%. The average efficiency of pesticide use using VRS assumption is 0.377 ≤ 1, which means that the use of pesticide input on the flower crop is not efficient from a technical point of view. The calculation of analysis with Variable Return to Scale (VRS) resulted in 30 farmers (85.27%) found inefficient and only 5 farmers (14.28%) were technically efficient. From the results obtained samples (flower farmers) that are efficient use of pesticides technically are respondent or DMU 8,11,15,25 and 29 with value of 1,000. So, it can be concluded that only one farmer (2, 85%) efficient by CRS and five farmers (14, 28%) efficient by VRS. This implies that a large number of respondent farmers face serious problems in terms of technical efficiency.
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### ANALISIS SKALA EKONOMIS PADA INDUSTRI KERAJINAN TAS KULIT DI KOTA DENPASAR.

Pada umumnya industri kerajinan tas kulit di kota Denpasar memiliki beberapa kendala antara lain industri sejenis berbasis modal kuat mendominasi dalam proses pemasaran dan proses produksi, persaingan usaha yang ketat serta pengunaan tenaga kerja yang belum optimal, sangat berpengaruh terhadap proses produksi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh secara simultan dan parsial modal dan tenaga kerja terhadap produksi industri kerajinan tas kulit di Kota Denpasar, serta mengetahui skala ekonomis dan sifat produksi industri kerajinan tas kulit di Kota Denpasar, dengan teknik analisis linier linear berganda yang di transformasikan dengan model Cobb-Douglass. Penelitian ini menggunakan sebanyak 67 pengusaha sebagai responden. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan secara simultan maupun parsial, tenaga kerja dan modal berpengaruh signifikan terhadap industri kerajinan tas kulit (p <0,05). Skala ekonomis industri kerajinan tas kulit di Kota Denpasar adalah Increasing Return To Scale dengan jumlah koefisien regresi sebesar 1,484. Sifat produksi industri kerajinan tas kulit di Kota Denpasar adalah padat karya di tunjukan oleh koefisien regresi tenaga kerja lebih besar dari modal.
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### Pineapple Chips Business Efficiency Analysis In Kampar Regency Riau Province Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Method | Oktari | Agro Ekonomi 22985 68925 1 PB

Pineapple chips is a processed product made of pineapple produced in Kampar Regency. Eficient pineapple chips processing will produce both an added value and high proit. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of relative eficiency of pineapple chips business in Kampar Regency in Riau Province. The level of eficiency achieved is a relection of the quality of good performance. This research used Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method to measure the level of eficiency. An analysis using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with Constant Return to Scale (CRS) assumption through input oriented approach was done to understand the levels of the pineapple chips producers relative eficiency. The research result showed that Most of the pineapple chips producers in Kampar Regency had not been eficient in relative terms, in which from the total of 21 pineapple chips producers, 8 producers were eficient (38,10%) and 13 producers had not been eficient (61,90%). The eficient producers should be a reference for ineficient producer in using inputs. By referring to the eficient producers, it is expected that the ineficient producers could use the input optimally so that the processing pineapple chips business could reach an eficient condition. Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Pineapple Chips, Relative Eficiency
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### ANALISIS PRODUKSI DAN PROSPEK PENGEMBANGAN BUDIDAYA TEMBAKAU BAWAH

Shade Grown Tobacco (SGT) is a base material for making cigar that cultivated by using plastic net or waring. Kind of this tobacco is cultivated in a high volume in PTPN X. The SGT cultivation that has separate location, declining labour quantity, as well as pests and disease attack highly can be affected production input uses in tobacco cultivation at PTPN X Kebun Ajong Gayasan Jember. This research study aim to determine : (1) factors affecting SGT production and production scale used Cobb-Douglas function, (2) maximum capacity of SGT cultivation used efficiency measurement; technical efficiency with frontier regression approach and economic efficiency with allocative efficiency approach, (3) development prospect of SGT cultivation used SWOT analysis. The result in this research study are: (1) factors affecting SGT cultivation are fertilizers, pesticide, and labour that labour has significant effect toward SGT cultivation. Elasticity production value is 0.95, it is means that SGT cultivation are on the condition of decreasing return to scale or it is on rational region, (2) SGT cultivation is not reached maximum capacity that caused by technical efficiency as 0,787 to 0,999, but economic efficient as ≠1, (3) SGT cultivation in PTPN X Kebun Ajong Gayasan Jember at white area with IFAS value as 3,28 and EFAS value as 3,15.
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### S PEM 1001632 Chapter3

Return to Scale (RTS) adalah suatu ciri dari fungsi produksi yang menunjukkan hubungan antara perbandingan perubahan semua input (dengan skala perubahan yang sama) terhadap perubahan Output yang diakibatkannya. Terdapat tiga kondisi keadaan Return To Scale ini, yaitu (Soekartawi, 1994: 42) : 1. Decreasing Returns to Scale , bila ∑bi < 1. K ondisi berarti bahwa proporsi

### TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF WATERMELON FARMING IN BLAMBANGAN VILLAGE, MUNCAR SUB-DISTRICT, BANYUWANGI, EAST-JAVA, INDONESIA

ABSTRACT: Small-scale farmers in Blambangan Village, Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia take risk decision in growing watermelon. Assuming that farmers are rational, they will be able to overcome many obstacles regarding the risky watermelon farming. However, in term of efficiency farmers have vary among them and this is the interested topic to be observed more. In line with this thought, this study has several objectives: (1) to analyze the level of technical efficiency of the use of factors of production in farming watermelons in the research area, and (2) to analyze the ratio between actual input and optimum input that should be used in the research area. The method used is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. The value of technical efficiency in this study is based on input-oriented and measurement of technical efficiency use DEA VRS (Variable Return to Scale). The results show that the average technical efficiency of respondent farmers are equal to 0.901. There are 11 respondents in state of Constant Return to Scale (CRS), 8 respondents in state of Increasing Return to Scale (IRS), and 2 respondents in state of Decreasing Return to Scale (DRS). There slack for all inputs used.
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### Analisis Efisiensi Perbankan Syariah Di Indonesia Pascakrisis Finansial Global 2008 Dengan Pendekatan Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

Pengukuran efisiensi pada perbankan syariah dengan metode DEA dan asumsi constant return to scale, serta pendekatan intermediasi dalam penggunaan variabel, memberikan suatu kesimpulan bahwa pada BUS hanya ada satu bank yang mencapai efisiensi 100% secara konsisten mulai tahun 2010-2014, yaitu Bank Maybank Syariah, dan terdapat satu bank yang tidak pernah mencapai efisiensi sempurna yaitu Bank Rakyat Indonesia Syariah, sementara tingkat efisiensi pada sembilan bank yang lain mengalami fluktuasi. Fenomena menarik juga terjadi pada UUS, terdapat satu bank yang mencapai efisiensi sempurna secara istikamah yaitu Bank Permata, dan dua bank yang selalu inefisien yaitu Bank Danamon dan BPD Riau, sementara gejolak efisiensi juga dialami pada sembilan UUS yang lain. Nilai efisiensi yang ditemukan juga menunjukkan bahwa secara umum perbankan syariah di Indonesia tidak terpengaruh imbas krisis suprime mortgage 2008.
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### EFISIENSI TEKNIK PERBANKAN INDONESIA PASCAKRISIS EKONOMI: SEBUAH STUDI EMPIRIS PENERAPAN MODEL DEA

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### Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:E:Ecological Economics:Vol32.Issue2.Feb2000:

Ecological scientists have engaged ecological problems at enormous levels (e.g. greenhouse gases, regional and global biodiversity) and broad ranges over the past two decades (Allen and Starr, 1982; Addicott et al., 1987; Meentemeyer and Box, 1987), and the need to consider the issues regarding scales and scaling in ecological analyses is increasingly important (see, for example, Steele, 1978; Risser and Mankin, 1986; Steele, 1989; Powell and Steele, 1995). Consequently, ecologists continue their active search for guiding principles that would allow them to combine data and mod- els at different spatial and temporal scales, and to extrapolate information between scales and levels (Turner et al., 1989a; Costanza et al., 1997). De- spite the goal of finding interscale models, many scientists working in areas such as physiological ecology (Jarvis and McNaughton, 1986), popula- tion interactions (Addicott et al., 1987), soil pro- cesses (Sollins et al., 1983), vegetation analysis (Getis and Franklin, 1987), aquatic ecology (Steele, 1985), paleoecology (Solomon et al., 1980), and landscape ecology (Meentemeyer and Box, 1987) realize that their predictions are scale and level dependent and that a single mechanism rarely explains patterns found at different levels (Turner et al., 1989a; Menge and Olson, 1990; Wessman, 1992; Gueron and Levin, 1995).
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## Production Of Biogas From Palm Oil Mill Effluent: From Laboratory Scale To Pilot Scale

Nowadays, there are many latest environmental problems on our planet, such as, increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution, climate change, burning forest, and others, which are related to the waste production by several anthropogenic activities. Palm oil industry [1] is one of the activities that contribute those problems 1,2 . The Republic of Indonesia is currently considered as the world's largest [3]

### isprs archives XLI B2 139 2016

To match homonymous entities at different scales, this paper firstly divides scenes into blocks based on road network at small scale, then ARGs at different scales are constructed. Merging procedure is conducted latter, which generates a series of large scale ARG candidates. Then, compare the similarity of small scale ARG with each large scale ARG candidate, the most similar one indicates the corresponding relation between features at different scales. The experiments demonstrate that the method in this paper is efficient and is capable of providing means for spatial data matching, fusion, updating and so on.
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## Production Of Biogas From Palm Oil Mill Effluent: From Laboratory Scale To Pilot Scale

An anaerobic closed system using a pilot-scale digester tank has been developed in recent years at Universit as Sumatera Utara. The system was built for the purpose of producing biogas from the fermentation process of palm oil industry effluent obtained from a wastewater treatment plant of the palm oil mills owned by Sisirau Mill. The digester tank used was a reactor with the type of continuous stirred tank reactor has a volume of 3,000 liters equipped with electrical heaters, insulators, and baffles in it. Feed input was performed intermittently so that the operation occurred continuously. In this research, a series of experiments at pilot scale were conducted with 616 liters palm oil mill effluent/day feed rate, the temperature of feed tank 70 o C, digester tank temperature of 55 o C,
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## 2014.03.04 regus plc annual results announcement year ended 31 december 2013 presentation

No representations or warranties, express or implied are given in, or in respect of, this presentation or any further information supplied. In no circumstances, to the fullest extent permitted by law, will the Company, or any of its respective subsidiaries, shareholders, affiliates, representatives, partners, directors, officers, employees, advisers or agents (collectively “ the Relevant Parties ” ) be responsible or liable for any direct, indirect or consequential loss or loss of profit arising from the use of this presentation, its contents (including the management presentations and details on the market), its omissions, reliance on the information contained herein, or on opinions communicated in relation thereto or otherwise arising in connection therewith. The presentation is supplied as a guide only, has not been independently verified and does not purport to contain all the information that you may require.
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## Taking Moneyless Exchange to Scale Measu (2)

The  primary purpose of a  credit clearing  system is to facili‐ tate  the  exchange  of  goods  and  services  among  its  users  without  the  use  of  political  money or  the  need  to  borrow  money from  a  bank. It  is  an  arrangement  that  enables “re‐ ciprocal  exchange,”  i.e., in  which  each  participant  gives  as  much  value  as  s/he  gets,  and  gets  as much  value  as  s/he  gives  (in  real  goods  and  services).  Commercial  trade  ex‐ changes  (sometimes  called  “barter”  exchanges)  and  grass‐ roots  community  exchange  systems,  like  LETS,  are  exam‐ ples of entities that utilize this credit clearing process.  In order to determine the health and effectiveness of such a  system,  it  is necessary to have  some  indicator(s)  that tells  how well  it  is achieving  that  objective  and  how  likely  it  is  that the system will  be sustainable, as well as scalable. Con‐ trol  mechanisms  must  also  be  in  place  to  assure  that  ad‐ ministrative  policies  established  by  the  membership  are  being  carried  out  and the  principle  of reciprocity  is  being  upheld.
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### 04 Pengukuran dan penskalaan

consumer is asked to sample two different products and select the one with the most appealing taste. The test is done in private and a minimum of 1,000 responses is considered an adequate sample. A blind taste test for a soft drink, where imagery, self-perception and brand reputation are very important

## Chambers Going to Scale with CLTS

For constructive and critical comments on full drafts I am grateful to John Gaventa, Naomi Hossain and Rosemary McGee of the Participation Team’s Writers’ Group at IDS, to Peter Feldman as External Reviewer, and to Petra Bongartz, Mark Ellery and Lyla Mehta. Their various comments and suggestions have led to many corrections and revisions. I thank Kamal Kar for his pioneering, enthusiasm and energy and what I have learnt from his work and our work together. I owe much to IDS colleagues engaged on the DFID-funded CLTS research project, ‘Going to Scale? The Potential of Community-Led Total Sanitation’ – Lyla Mehta, Petra Bongartz, Andrew Deak and Anu Joshi, and to Sammy Musyoki of Plan Kenya whose ideas and experience have informed and helped to reorient my perspectives. I especially thank those many colleagues, partners in research and action learning, in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Kenya and elsewhere, who have shared information and insights. Country information has been supplied and checked by Mark Ellery, Tezera Fisseha, Nilanjana Mukherjee, Sammy Musyoki and Matebu Tadesse. Errors may, however, have crept in through my subsequent editing. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the conference 1 on scaling up CLTS, held
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## ANALISIS TINGKAT EFISIENSI BANK SYARIAH INTERNASIONAL (STUDI KASUS PADA 9 BANK PERIODE 2006 2008)

Penelitian efisiensi bank syariah yang dilakukan oleh Fadzlan Sufian pada tahun 2006, dengan judul penelitian ‘Size And Returns To Scale Of The Islamic Banking Industry In Malaysia : Foreign Versus Domestic Banks’ dilakukan untuk menganalisis tingkat efisiensi perbankan syariah di Malaysia. Penelitian ini menggunakan periode 2001-2004 dengan menggunakan metode Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Variabel yang diteliti dalam penelitian ini adalah, variabel input terdiri dari labor, total deposits, dan assets , sedangkan variabel output terdiri dari income dan total loans. Berdasarkan prinsip ekonomi Islam, pendekatan intermediasi digunakan untuk spesifikasi variabel input dan output . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat efisiensi bank syariah lokal mencapai 83,5% dan bank syariah asing mencapai tingkat efisiensi 71,2%, menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi bank syariah lokal lebih efisien daripada bank syariah asing.
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## Career Persistence Model for Female Engineers in the Indonesian Context

For example, in the US, women make up 20% of engineering graduates, but it is estimated 40% quit or never enter the engineering profession (Silbey, S. 2016). In Indonesia women only represents 5% of engineers (Sakernas BPS, 2015), making the field is still dominated by male engineers; and place woman as minority*. Although various research have proven more diverse leadership leads to increased performance, but in reality, the so-called ‘leaky pipeline’ phenomenon for female engineers is also prevalent in Indonesia, especially as the further a woman advances in her career peran perempuan di dalam keluarga, masyarakat dan tempat kerja, serta mempelajari bagaimana insinyur perempuan yang telah berhasil menavigasi hambatan negatif dalam berkarir untuk tidak keluar dari jalur profesi insinyur. Bertentangan dengan hasil temuan riset sebelumnya, riset empiris ini menunjukkan bahwa insinyur perempuan merasa diperlakukan setara dengan rekan kerja laki-laki di tempat mereka bekerja, walaupun ada beberapa tuntutan pekerjaan yang dapat menjadi penghalang. Pengakuan kuat akan peran seseorang di dalam masyarakat kolektif melampaui pendapat yang menurut hukum Islam (fiqh) perempuan telah terpinggirkan, mengalami ketidakadilan dan diskriminasi. Studi serupa dimasa mendatang perlu mempelajari aspek dukungan sosial di tempat kerja guna mendapatkan solusi yang dapat mempertahankan dan meningkatkan andil perempuan dalam profesi insinyur di Indonesia.
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