Rheumaticheartdisease (RHD) is mediated by an abnormal immunological response following a Streptococcus pyogenes infection that induces a disturbance of oxidants and antioxidants balances. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to N-acetylglucosamine, a molecule present on the Streptococcus cell wall and human heart valves. There is a disturbance of oxidant and antioxidant balance in rheumaticdisease. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a marker of oxidative stress and inflammation. This study was aimed to determine the correlation of MBL and MPO levels and severity of valvular regurgitation and heart failure (HF) in RHD patients. A case-control study was conduct using human peripheral blood samples from 32 children aged 6 to 14 years old. The subjects were divided into two groups: 16 RHD patients included in the case group and 16 healthy children as a control group. The level of MBL and MPO was investigated using ELISA method. There were significant differences on MBL and MPO level between patient and control group. The level of MBL and MPO were significantly increased in RHD group, especially on severe valvular regurgitation. There was a strong correlation between MBL and MPO levels and the severity of valvular regurgitation (r = 0.94 and r = 0.88). The least significant diff- erence (LSD) analysis showed that significant difference occurs in the severe heart failure group. Our research revealed that the MBL and MPO levels in pediatric RHD patients were significantly higher than in healthy children. The MBL and MPO levels were signifi - cantly correlated with the severity of valvular regurgitation and heart failure.
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is an illness caused by a reaction to a bacterial infection with group A streptococcus (GAS). It causes an acute, generalised inflammatory response and an illness that targets specific parts of the body, including the heart, joints, brain and skin. Individuals with ARF are often unwell, have significant joint pain and require hospitalisation. Despite the dramatic nature of the acute episode, ARF typically leaves no lasting damage to the brain, joints or skin, but can caus e persisting heart damage, termed „rheumaticheartdisease‟ (RHD).
10. Dillon J, Mohd Azhari Y, Pau KK, et al. Comparative long-term results of mitral valve repair in adults with chronic rheumaticdisease and degenerative disease: Is repair for "burnt-out" rheumaticdisease still inferior to repair for degenerative disease in the current era? J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2014;.
According to McGowan (2001: 3) says that diabetes can be defined as a fasting blood sugar levels higher than 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dl) after going through repeated measurements. So we can say that is diabetes accumulation in the blood sugar exceeds the normal limit of 125 mg / dl. Diabetes disease is also quite dangerous for the survival of man. However, most patients who died diabetes not because of increased blood sugar levels but complications from a heart condition. Diabetes patients also have excessive cholesterol levels due to excess production of triglycerides. Therefore, immediate lifestyle changes for the better can lower blood sugar levels is to exercise, avoiding sugar and alcohol concentrations.
and non CHD patients. Inclusion criteria were ACS patients (UAP and AMI with onset 4-24 hours from start of chest pain and did not obtain thrombolysis therapy yet), chronic CHD and non CHD. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from infection disease, arthritis, renal failure, malignancy, liver disease, rheumatic fever, blood diseases such as leukaemia, patients who received transplantation and pregnant, patients who receving statin drugs, NSAIDs, antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunosuppresive therapy and estrogen. hs-CRP level examination was carried out by using chemiluminescent (Immulite) method with normal value < 1,1 mg/l. Data analysis used was variance analysis (Anova) to find out the hs-CRP levels difference in ACS, chronic CHD and non CHD patients. If the result was significant the analysis was continued with least significant difference (LSD) test. The t independent test was used to find out the hs-CRP levels difference in UAP and AMI patients. The regression analysis was used to find out the relationship between hs-CRP level and CKMB enzyme level in AMI patients.
Woodward, M., Barzi, F., Feigin, V., Gu, D., Huxley, R., Nakamura, K., et al. 2007. Associations between High-Density Lipoprotein Cholestrol and both Stroke and Coronary HeartDisease in the Asia Pacific Region. European Heart Journal; 28: 2653-2660
Sacco, R.L., Kasner S.E., Broderick, S. P., Caplan, L. R., Culebras, A., Elkind, M.S.V., et al. 2003. An Up Date Defenition of Stroke For the 21 st Century : A Statement For Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association. Stroke: 44:2064-2089
This study was conducted from Agustus 2016 to November 2016 , doing in Haji Adam Malik Medan hospital. This research observational analytic with Cross Sectionaldesign .The subject in this research with consecutive sampling, method.The researcher get 96 patients suitable with inclusion and exlucion criterias. The datas were get from medical record Haji Adam Malik hospital Medan. Inclusion criterias: patients with medical record with coronary heartdisease at 2015 and with cholesterol total levels, cholesterol LDL, cholesterol HDL, and trigliserida data completely from result laboratorium test at coronary heartdisease diagnosis , and patients with medical record incompletely rekam were exclusion criterias.
Echocardiography (echo) is an extremely useful, safe, and noninvasive test used for the diagnosis and management of heartdisease. Echo studies, which use ultrasound, provide anatomic diagnosis as well as functional information. This is especially true with the incorporation of Doppler echo and color flow mapping. The M-mode echo provides an “ice - pick” view of the heart. It has limited capability in demonstrating the spatial relationship of structures but remains an important tool in the evaluation of certain cardiac conditions and functions, particularly by measurements of dimensions and timing. It is usually performed as part of two-dimensional echo studies. The two-dimensional echo has an enhanced ability to demonstrate the spatial relationship of structures. This capability allows a more accurate anatomic diagnosis of abnormalities of the heart and great vessels. The Doppler and color mapping study has added the ability to detect easily valve regurgitation and cardiac shunts during the echo examination. It also provides some quantitative information such as pressure gradients across cardiac valves and estimation of pressures in the great arteries and ventricles. Echo examination can be applied in calculation of cardiac output and the magnitude of cardiac shunts. Discussion of instruments and techniques is beyond the scope of this book. Normal echo images and their role in the diagnosis of common cardiac problems in pediatric patients are briefly presented.
20. Solans M, Pane S, Dolors-Estrada M, Serra-Sutton V, Berra S, Herdman M, et al. Health-related quality of life measurement in children and adolescents: a systematic review of generic and disease-specific instruments. Value in Health. 2008; 11(4):742-64.
It is common knowledge that the disease has become over the last few decades, it is one of the most important Malaysian health problem. It is the silent killer that affected among the Malaysian. This is the mainly the result that this explosive increase result that the number of people diagnosed with the disease is definitely increasingly by few decades. As a matter of facts, it is the developing countries that present themselves with the highest rate of the disease. In this research the review of four diseases is a must in finding the large knowledge about it