Ricebran is one of the Indonesian agricultural resources obtained from rice milling. The advantages nutrition value of ricebran are the source of nutrient which have a high protein and also not caused an allergic, have a higher fiber than other flours. The purpose of this research is to find the right proportion of wheat flour and mung bean flour and the effect of ricebran substitution to the physical and the proximate of biscuit. This research uses Nested Design with 2 factors, the first factor is proportion of wheat flour:mung bean flour in 3 level (3:1 ; 1:1 ; 1:3), second factor is subtitution ricebran in 2 level (10% ; 20%). Data analysed using ANOVA continued with Least Significant Difference 5%.The best treatment was determined by Multiple Criteria Decision Making.The best treatment is the biscuit with the proportion of wheat:mung bean 3:1, substitution with ricebran 10%.
Mean while, results of analysis of variance showed that vitamin E of ricebranflour is significantly different (p <0.05) based on drying technique, rice varieties, and their interaction (Figure 6). Drying of ricebran using microwave oven with a power of 20% (200 watt) for 15 minutes was able to maintain vitamin E branflour content. The average content of vitamin E branflour using the oven technique of Ciherang variety is about 0.24 mg/100g, Cigeulis varieties and Inpari-13 at about 0.79 mg/100g and 0.48 mg/100g respectively. While the content of vitamin E for using microwave oven drying technique for Ciherang is 0.74 mg/100g, Cigeulis 2.05 mg/100g, and Inpari-13 of about 0.69 mg/100g. The use of high temperature in the drying process has caused a decline in the amount of vitamin E, because vitamin E is very easily oxidized by heat (Morris et al., 2004). Similar results were also reported by Hassanein et al. (2003); Yoshida and Kajimoto (1989), that heating soybean oil using a microwave oven at high temperature at long time caused a decrease in tocopherol content of soybean oil.
Ricebran is one of Indonesian agricultural resources obtained from rice milling which has high fiber content. Majority of fiber in ricebran is insoluble fiber that has high ability to absorb and evaporate water. The aim of this research was to get the best instant noodles formulation and also to inverstigate the influence of the ricebran addition on physical, chemical and organoleptic in the making process of instant noodles. The experimental design used randomized block design with one factor that is mix of wheat and tapioca flour (Wheat flour Tapioca flour 80% and 20%) with the addition of ricebranflour that consists of 6 levels (5%,10%,15%,20%,25% and 30%). The resulted data of observation is analyzed by ANOVA with DMRT test using trust value 5%. The best treatment (using Multiple Attribute method) was obtained on instant noodles treatment with the addition of 5% ricebranflour.
The usage of gembili and ricebran is limited, whereas the nutrition content in gembili and ricebran is very high. Gembili and ricebran has contain fiber which can lowering the incidence of chronic disease. The aim of this research was to know the best proportion of wheat flour : gembili flour with the addition of ricebran in making a dry noodle and the influence on physical, chemical and organoleptic properties of dry noodles.The experimental design used randomized block design (RBD) with two factor. Factor I was a proportion of wheat flour : gembili flour that consists of 3 levels (80:20 ; 70:30 ; 60:40) and factor II was the concentration of ricebran addition that consists of 3 levels (10%, 20%, 30). The resulted data of observation is analyzed by using ANOVA with test by DMRT ( Duncan’c Multiple Range Test) and Less Significant Difference (LSD) with trust value 5%. The determination of the best treatment by Effectiveness Index method. The best treatment was obtained on proportion of wheat flour : gembili flour 80:20 with the addition of 20% ricebranflour.
The biodiesel (FAME) content in oil phase was determined using gas chromatography (GC) (HP 6890, Hewlett- Packard Inc., Avondale, PA, USA) equipped with a FID detector. Separation was carried out on a HP 1 crosslinked methyl siloxane column (60 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 1 µm film thickness, Hewlett-Packard Inc., Avondale, PA, USA). The sample (0.02 g) was diluted in n-hexane (1 ml) and then was injected (0.5 L) to the GC column. The injector and detector temperatures were set initially at 125 °C and were increased at a rate of 15 °C/minutes. After reaching 275 °C, the temperatures were held constant for 10 minutes. The flow rate of carrier gas (helium) was set at 28 ml/minutes at 200 °C. External calibration standard curve was obtained using 0.2 – 20 mg methyl ester linoleic acid. The yield of FAME was determined as the weight ratio of FAME to that of oil in ricebran as follows:
Free radical-induced oxidative stress is the root cause for many human diseases. Naturally occurring antioxidant supplements from plants are vital to counter the oxidative damage in cells. The main objective of the present study was to explore and compare the antioxidant activity of ricebran and rice husk extracted from rice milling waste. N-hexane extracts of ricebran and rice husk were used to study their in vitro antioxidant activities using metal chelating activity (iron (II)-phenanthroline complex). Vitamin E was used as standard material. The ability of the sample to chelate metal ion (ferrous ion) was calculated relative to the control and expressed as % inhibition. % inhibition of two samples were analyzed with student test (P=0.05). The results have shown that at the same concentration (10 ppm), rice husk extract, ricebran extract and vitamin E have the different activity, i.e.: 0.51%, 2.27% and 5.55% in inhibition of chelat formation, respectively. In conclusion, metal chelating activity of rice husk extract is smaller than ricebran extract. Activity of ricebran extract is almost a half from vitamin E, so this extract is still potential to be developed as source of antioxidant compounds.
Ricebran is a feedstuffs widely used for both ruminants and non ruminants. The main problem of using ricebran as feedstuff is adulteration that quite often exists during dry season. Therefore, application of rapid test technique is essential to assess the quality of ricebran quickly. The aim of this study was to predict nutrient content of ricebran through measuring its physical characteristics. Twenty one standard samples made from mixture combination of 0-100% husk and ricebran were analyzed their chemical composition (proximate analysis) and physical characteristics (density test, density compaction test, total solubility test and fluoroglucinol test). The data were analysed with the least square method of regression, and the equations obtained were then validated on 61 ricebran samples to know standard of prediction (SEP) and coefficient variable (CV) values. There were correlations (P< 0.05) between physical characteristics and nutrient content of ricebran. The content of ash, crude protein, crude fibre, and crude fat could be predict with total solubility equation y (ash) = 28.81-0.624x (total solubility), y (crude protein) = - 5.012+ 0.657x, y (crude fibre) = 72.31- 2.058x, and y (crude fat) = -10.42 + 0.982x. The SEP and CV values from those equations are respectively 2.52%, and 23,62%; 2.53% and 23.50%; 8.20% and 56.91%; and also 3.80% and 35.49%. Fluoroglucinol test could also be used to predict crude protein with the equation y (crude protein )= 12.86 - 0.1046x (prediction of rice husk), with CV and level of acceptance (0.05%) were 19.13% and 28.57%. Multiple regression model showed that crude protein could be predict with the equation y (crude protein)= -3.03 + 9.4x 1 – 9.9x 2 + 0.629x 3 , r =
do not contain a functional compounds e.g. natural antioxidant compounds. Therefore, this researchhas been done to find ice cream formulation which has functional benefit. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of vegetarian ice cream by using black soybean milk and black rice extrudates flour as the source of antioxidants. In making this ice cream, black soybean milk and black rice were used as the source of the antioxidants, Ryoto Sugar SP as synthetic emulsifier and sucralose as the low-calorie sweetener. Different concentration of emulsifier added, i.e. 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of the total weight while the other ingredients used the same concentration. Methods that being used including: the making of black soybean milk, black rice extrudates flour, ice cream, and the sensory analysis of ice cream. It was found that the sensory color of ice cream with the addition of an emulsifier 25% was the most preferred by the panelists with a score of 3.9 + 0.7, the flavor of ice cream with the addition of emulsifier 15% was the most preferred by the panelists with a score of 4.1 + 0.8, the texture of the ice cream with the addition of emulsifier 20% was the most preferred by the panelists with a score of 4.0 + 0.6 and the overalls were ice cream with the addition of emulsifier concentration 15% which was acceptable by the panelists.
Pada analisa bilangan peroksida, 5 gram ricebran oil yang sudah disiapkan dalam Erlenmeyer dicampur dengan pelarut yang terbuat dari 60% asam asetat glasial dan 40% kloroform. Larutan kalium iodida jenuh sebanyak 0,5 ml ditambahkan sambil dikocok. Setelah kurang lebih dua menit, ditambahkan 30 ml air. Kelebihan iod dititrasi dengan larutan natrium thiosulfat 0,1 N atau 0,01 N, tergantung dari banyaknya iod bebas. Analisa kandungan γ-oryzanol dengan Kromatografer GC-MS.
Bekatul merupakan hasil samping pengolahan padi atau gabah yang terbentuk dari lapisan luar beras pecah kulit dalam penyosohan untuk menghasilkan beras putih atau beras kepala (Houtson, 1984). Gabah padi terdiri dari 2 bagian yaitu endosperm atau butiran beras dan kulit padi (sekam). Kulit padi memiliki dua lapisan, yaitu hull (lapisan luar) dan bran (lapisan dalam). Penggilingan padi bertujuan memisahkan beras dengan sekam yang kemudian dilakukan proses penyosohan dua kali. Penyosohan I menghasilkan dedak dengan tekstur kasar karena masih mengandung sekam dan penyosohan II menghasilkan bekatul (ricebran) yang bertekstur halus dan tidak mengandung sekam. Penggilingan padi ini menghasilkan beras sekitar 60 – 65% dan bekatul sekitar 8 – 12% (Rizqie, 2011). Bekatul mengandung protein relatif tinggi yaitu 11,3 – 14,9%, kadar serat diet 7,0 – 11,4% dan kaya akan vitamin B1 (11,1 – 12,9 mg/100 g) dan vitamin E (1,9 – 2,9 mg/100 g), asam lemak bebas 2,8 – 4,1 % dan mineral (Santosa dkk, 2007).
Ricebran chicken nuggets is expected to become alternative of food functional in the presence of dietary fiber, unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and vitamins. Brice bran will be used as a substitute for wheat flour in the formulation of chicken nuggets. Beside of being cheaper, ricebran is easier to obtain compared with wheat flour and has a high nutritional content. Ricebran chicken Nugget, will be analyzed the chemical and Sensory Characteristics (acceptability).
Bekatul adalah hasil samping penggilingan padi. Setelah beras dipisahkan dari sekam (kulit luar gabah), kemudian dilakukan penyosohan. Proses penyosohan dilakukan dua kali, penyosohan pertama menghasilkan dedak (seratnya masih kasar), sedangkan penyosohan kedua menghasilkan bekatul (rice brand) yang bertekstur halus. Namun seringkali di penggilingan antara dedak dan bekatul tidak dipisahkan dan difungsikan hanya sebagai pakan ternak. Untuk istilah dedak dan bekatul ini dibedakan oleh FAO (Food Agriculture Organization). Dedak adalah hasil sampingan dari proses penggilingan padi yang terdiri dari lapisan sebelah luar dan butiran padi, termasuk sebagian kecil endosperm berpati (Anonumous c , 2008).
In rice agribusiness system of Indonesia, rice milling industry has an important role. This industry plays role as connector between paddy producers (farmers) and consumers of rice. The industry is dominated by small scale and old machine used. There are three types of rice miller business management, namely makloon, non-makloon, and combination of both. This study aims to describe characteristics and determine relative efficiency of rice milling industry. The study was conducted in Gekbrong and Warungkondang, Cianjur Regency as one of largest paddy producer in West Java. 94 rice millers were selected purposively as sample. Mostly, owner of rice millers were male, rice miller business as main job, and ownership of rice miller was private. Rice milling industry was dominated by makloon type. This type offered milling service to consumers and had small capacity. Variable return to scale DEA output orientated model was used to determine relative efficiency of rice milling industry. This study concluded that rice milling industry in study site was inefficient.
Figure 3 shows that the performance of bran suppliers, who are Mr. H, Mr. Z, and Mr. N are yellow-colored which means that the performances of those suppliers are relatively good but they haven’t met the predetermined target. Suppliers should improve their performance and prepare themselves for any possibility that could hinder their performance.
Hera, E.de la.; C.M. Rosell; M. Gomez. (2014). Effect of Water Content and Flour Particle Size on Gluten Free Bread Quality and Digestibility. Food Chemistry 151 : 526-531. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24423566 Diakses pada 18 Juli 2017
Biodiesel merupakan bahan bakar yang renewable. Biodiesel dihasilkan dari trigliserida dapat berupa minyak atau lemak yang direaksikan dengan alkohol dan bantuan katalis pada reaksi transesterifikasi. Dalam penelitian ini, digunakan minyak dedak padi (ricebran oil) dengan FFA 1,2225% sebagai bahan baku. Katalis yang digunakan adalah katalis heterogen KOH/zeolit alam. Adapun metode pembuatan katalis ini adalah dengan proses impregnasi dengan larutan KOH. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan variasi jumlah larutan KOH. Pada reaksi transesterifikasi variabel yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah jumlah katalis (2-4%), waktu (1,5-3,5 jam), dan rasio mol metanol dengan minyak (8:1-12:1). Biodiesel dihasilkan dengan reaksi transesterifikasi. Yield biodiesel terbaik didapatkan dari kondisi operasi jumlah katalis adalah 2%, waktu reaksi 2 jam, dan rasio mol metanol dengan minyak 10:1. Produk biodiesel ini dianalisis dengan GC (Gas Chromatography) untuk memperoleh komposisi biodiesel. Kualitas biodiesel seperti, kemurnian metil ester, densitas, viskositas, dan titik nyala yang diperoleh telah sesuai dengan Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa katalis heterogen zeolit alam yang dimodifikasi dengan KOH dapat dijadikan sebagai katalis dalam reaksi transesterifikasi pembuatan biodiesel dengan perolehan yield biodiesel terbaik adalah sebesar 98,78%.