sea ice

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antarctic sea ice highlights06

antarctic sea ice highlights06

the extent and concentration of the sea ice surrounding Antarctica increased from the late 1970s until 2015. this increase is not reproduced by climate models, and comes despite the overall warming of the global climate and the region. At a January 2016 workshop, leading scientists gathered to discuss the potential mechanisms driving changes in Antarctic sea ice and ways to better under- stand the complex relationship between Antarctic sea ice and the broader ocean-climate system. A number of hypotheses have been posed to explain the recent expan- sion of Antarctic sea ice extent; more research is needed to make deinitive statements about the mechanisms. improvements in sea ice observations and models would improve scientists’ ability to tease apart the many local, regional, and global processes that inluence sea ice extent and thickness.
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Report in Brief sea ice brief final

Report in Brief sea ice brief final

This report identiies steps that could be taken to advance sea ice prediction over seasonal to decadal time scales. Chief among them is to establish sustained and coordinated collaboration among the sea ice data user, modeling, and observation communities. A commitment to establishing better communication could help to more quickly reveal further gaps in understanding of the Arctic environment, and inform effective research activities to generate more accurate, timely, and useful sea ice forecasts. Some stakeholder data requirements may be beyond existing capabilities, and communication with the scientiic community can help manage these expectations. This approach would also help establish a clear set of priorities in line with stakeholder needs, and would guide the allocation of resources to the most promising avenues to meet those needs.
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isprsarchives XL 7 W3 1049 2015

isprsarchives XL 7 W3 1049 2015

For the first image (2014/04/21), these ice types can also be discerned in the intensity images (see Figure 5, left hand side). The resulting ice chart matches the ice situation on the day before (according to the DMI ice report) quite well. In the open water portion, a low concentration of ice floes is depicted by the sparsely dispersed occurrences of ice in Figure 5. The iceberg detection algorithm automatically detects 3941 icebergs from the image. As can be seen in Figure 5 (on the bottom right) also within iceberg clusters and near to sea ice covered areas, icebergs become detected reliably due to the utilization of the iterative concept. In future work, the false alarm rate of the detector will be investigated.
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isprs annals III 2 99 2016

isprs annals III 2 99 2016

Sea ice plays a very important role on hydrology, atmospheric thermal cycle, ocean currents and ecosystem in high latitudes, especially the Polar Regions (Zhu et al., 2012; Emilio et al., 2010). Sea ice limits shipping in high latitudes and requires special attentions when planning and running offshore activities in the Arctic Ocean and its peripheral seas (Johannessen et al., 2007). Consequently, timely obtaining the information of sea ice in a wide range is becoming more and more urgent for many governments and organizations. With the development of aerospace and aviation technology, remote sensing has proved to be a powerful tool for monitoring sea ice. Compared with the optical remote sensing, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems have been shown to be very useful due to its capability of acquiring data under all weather condition, during day and night, and are widely applied to marine , forestry, environment, agriculture fields (Kerman, 1999).
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Atmospheric Research:Vol52.Issue1-2.Aug1999:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Atmospheric Research:Vol52.Issue1-2.Aug1999:

amounts than the KL & A parameterization experiments 5–9 . Because KL & A’s param- eterization has a cubic dependence on cloud amount, the three sensitivity experiments predict maximum ice thicknesses that range over 0.7 m, depending on the method for determining cloud amount. We thus reiterate that, because the best model for F dn was derived from non-averaged data and depends nonlinearly on cloud amount, sea ice models employing it will be quite sensitive to the method of handling the cloud data. In Table 10, experiments 5, 6, and 9 yield practically the same results. Likewise, experiments 7 and 8 produce almost identical ice thicknesses, but these differ essentially from the results in experiments 5, 6, and 9. Table 11, which shows calculations of long-wave radiation for each winter month on NP-25 based on the KL & A parameteriza- tion, explains the good agreement among these three cases.
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isprs archives XLI B8 469 2016

isprs archives XLI B8 469 2016

The asymmetry in the trends for the two hemispheres has been considered counter intuitive because of direct observations of global warming (Hansen et al., 2010; Comiso and Hall, 2014). The difference in the geographical distribution of land and the ice cover in the two hemispheres likely contribute to the difference in the inter-annual variability in the sea ice distribution as well. It is however important to recognize that a trend in sea ice cover in the Arctic has implications that are different and likely more important than the observed trend in the Antarctic. In the Arctic, the sea ice cover is primarily in the Arctic Ocean basin where the surface temperature is extremely cold in winter and is surrounded by land that restricts expansion of the ice cover beyond the land boundary. In the summer the ice cover in the peripheral seas gets melted and the ones that survive are the thicker ice types that reside in the Arctic basin. The impact of ice-albedo feedback in the region is thus easier to evaluate since as the area of the ice that survives the summer gets smaller, there is more solar heat absorbed by larger areas of open water that in turn cause the mixed layer of water in the Arctic basin to warm up. Increases in the temperature of the mixed layer would cause less ice to survive the summer and the cycle is repeated. The net impact is a warmer Arctic that in turn makes the other components of the cryosphere in adjacent regions more vulnerable to change. This includes more reductions in the volume of the glaciers, less snow cover, thawing of the permafrost and the loss of mass in Greenland.
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isprs archives XLI B8 463 2016

isprs archives XLI B8 463 2016

Basically, the albedo increases as the ice thickness increases. Through the comparison of the in situ ice thickness measurements with data collected by optical sensor on board satellites, the authors have verified that under the less snow cover and cloud free condition, thin sea ice area, where the ice thicknesses are around or less than 20cm, can be identified in MODIS images (Cho et. al., 2012). In this study, the color composite images of MODIS (Band 1 to blue and red, Band 2 to green) were used for identifying sea ice comditions of the test site. In thick ice area, since the albedo of both Band 1 and 2 are high, the area appear in white in the color composite image of MODIS. However, in thin ice area, since the surface and around the thin ice are rather wet, the albedo of Band 2(near infrared) become lower compared with that of Band 1(visible). As a result, most of the thin ice areas appear in purple in the color composite image as sown on Figure 2(b). In this study, we defined these dark purple sea areas in the MODIS images as thin ice areas.
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isprs archives XLI B8 459 2016

isprs archives XLI B8 459 2016

Sea ice dynamics play an important role in climate change and global warming studies by revealing high latitude temperature trends. Sea ice in the Arctic has exhibited a long-term negative trend while sea ice in the Antarctic has been expanding for decades (Parkinson et al., 2012). Sea ice concentration (SIC) is typically estimated using passive microwave data because of the daily revisit cycle, the relatively low sensitivity to atmospheric water content and clouds, and the large contrast in emissivity between open water and sea ice (Comiso et al., 1997, Ivanova et al., 2014).
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isprs archives XLI B8 513 2016

isprs archives XLI B8 513 2016

Snow on sea ice is a sensitive indicator of climate change, it plays an essential role in regulating surface and near surface air temperatures. Given the high albedo and low thermal conductivity, snow is regarded as one of the key reasons for the amplification of the warming in polar regions. The distributions of sea ice and snow depth are essential to the whole thermal conduction in the Arctic. This study focused on the retrieval of snow depth on sea ice from brightness temperatures of the MicroWave Radiometer Imager (MWRI) onboard the FengYun (FY)-3B satellite during the period from December 1, 2010 to April 30, 2011. After cross calibrated to the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–EOS (AMSR-E) Level 2A data, the MWRI brightness temperatures were applied to calculate the sea ice concentrations based on the Arctic Radiation and Turbulence Interaction Study Sea Ice (ASI) algorithm. According to the proportional relationship between the snow depth and the surface scattering in 18.7 and 36.5 GHz, the snow depths were derived. In order to eliminate the influence of uncertainties in grain sizes of snow as well as sporadic weather effects, the seven-day averaged snow depths were calculated. Then the results were compared with the snow depths from the AMSR-E Level 3 Sea Ice products. The bias of differences between the MWRI and the AMSR-E Level 3 products are ranged between -1.09 and -0.32 cm , while the standard deviations and the correlation coefficients are ranged from 2.47 to 2.88 cm and from 0.78 to 0.90 for different months. As a result, it could be summarized that FY3B/MWRI showed a promising prospect in retrieving snow depth on sea ice.
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EFEKTIVITAS PENERAPAN METODE ICE BREAKIN (1)

EFEKTIVITAS PENERAPAN METODE ICE BREAKIN (1)

Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan metode kajian pustaka. Ide- ide penulisan diperoleh dari mengkaji beberapa artikel yang berkaitan (relevan) dengan penggunaan ice breaking sebagai salah satu cara untuk meningkatkan konsentrasi siswa. Menurut Pohan dalam Prastowo (2012: 81) kegiatan penyusunan kajian pustaka betujuan mengumpulkan data dan infomasi ilmiah, berupa teori- teori, metode, atau pendekatan yanng pernah berkembang dan telah didokumentasikan dalam bentuk buku, jurnal, naskah, catatan, rekaman sejarah, dokumen-dokumen, dan lain-lain yang terdapat di perpustakaan.
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Contoh Studi Kelayakan Bisnis Ice Cream

Contoh Studi Kelayakan Bisnis Ice Cream

Usaha ini diharapkan memberi dampak positif terhadap masyarakat bahwa dalam keadaan panas dengan hadirnya ice cream dapat mendinginkan suasana seketika. Adapun manfaat yang dapat dirasakan masyarakat sekitar yaitu dengan berdirinya usaha ini bisa membuka peluang untuk tenaga kerja Tidak hanya itu, supplier pun juga merasakan effect dari penjualan ice cream ini. Selain itu, dengan adanya kotak amal, usaha ini diharapkan mampu membuat pola piker masyarakat untuk membantu sesama yang dalam hal ini membutuhkan bantuan dari orang lain.

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Efikasi Dry Ice terhadap Sitophilus oryzae dan Tribolium castaneum pada Beras Kemasan Plastik di Dataran Tinggi Efficacy of Dry Ice to Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum in The Rice of Plastic Packaging at High Land

Efikasi Dry Ice terhadap Sitophilus oryzae dan Tribolium castaneum pada Beras Kemasan Plastik di Dataran Tinggi Efficacy of Dry Ice to Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum in The Rice of Plastic Packaging at High Land

Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan bahwa dry ice dapat dijadikan fumigan dalam skala lapangan. Kerja dry ice dalam penelitian ini dirasa kurang maksimal karena mortalitas tertinggi belum mencapai 100 % karena beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai penelitian yang sama dengan pengamatan peubah yang lebih baik seperti dosis dry ice, suhu dan kelembaban lingkungan hama, usia hama dan lain-lain. Plastik yang digunakan pada penelitian ini terlalu tipis sehingga terjadi kerusakan mekanis, sehingga ke depannya aplikasi dry ice dalam skala lapangan harus memenuhi syarat fumigasi seperti umumnya yaitu kedap gas oksigen dan kemasan beras yang digunakan harus tebal untuk mengatasi kebocoran fumigan.
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STUDI KELAYAKAN BISNIS ICE CREAM

STUDI KELAYAKAN BISNIS ICE CREAM

Harga yang ditetapkan untuk setiap ice cream adalah Rp 3500,-. Harga dibuat relatif murah agar terjangkau oleh kalangan ekonomi menengah ke bawah. Serta tidak memberatkan bagi anak-anak sekolah yang ingin membeli ice cream dengan uang jajan hariannya. Penetapan harga berdasarkan biaya produksi (cost plus pricing). Cost plus pricing yaitu dengan biaya operasional/produksiyang seminimal mungkin, tetapi juga akan dinaikkan seiring dengan mutu produk. Kami memberikan patokan harga yang murah tetapi mampu bersaing dengan kompetitor. Sehingga harga berkisar antara Rp 3.500,- saja.
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Artikel Seminar UM   Ice Cream 0

Artikel Seminar UM Ice Cream 0

Ice cream is such an irresistible treat because the fat and sugar that provide the distinct texture pleasing mouthfeel and sweetness. However these ingredients are not desirable for those who want to maintain a healthy weight or avoid obesity-related health problems. The appeal of low-fat ice cream is limited because it lacks the essential qualities of indulgent desserts. Removing fat and sugar negatively affects the familiar creamy texture of ice creams. Dietary fibre inulin can be used to reduce sugar and fat while maintaining the pleasurable attributes of ice creams. Its texturising abilities provide an intriguing tool that can be used to create high-quality indulgent products that are also healthy. Inulin is the popular source of prebiotics. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that target certain components within the microbiota of the human large intestine, namely Bifidobacterium sp. Because of their recognised prebiotic properties, inulin is increasingly used in new food product developments. Fat and sugar replacement in ice cream with inulin offers the advantage of not compromising on taste and texture, while delivering nutritionally enhanced products.
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ICE BREAKING MOTIVASIONAL F

ICE BREAKING MOTIVASIONAL F

Kita menjadi sangat lelah Kita kehilangan harapan Kita menyerah Tidak ada lagi semangat berjuang Jangan seperti wortel !!!!!... Kita dapat seperti telor Kita mulai dgn hati lembu[r]

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Ice cream and seaweed

Ice cream and seaweed

The research was purposed to investigate the influence of three different types of Carbohydrate Based Fat Replacer (CBFR E. cottonii puree, carragenan powder and agar powder) to the quality of ice cream based on the examination of overrun, total soluble solid, viscosity, melting rate, fat content, total sugar and total protein. Each different CBFR was applied in 2 concentration of 5% and 10%. The experiment design applied was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with the Factorial 3x2, with type of CBFR as the first factor and CBFR concentration as a second factor. Data on overrun, total soluble solid, viscosity, melting rate, fat content, total sugar and total protein were analyzed with ANOVA. To find out the differences among the treatments, the Honestly Significant Different was applied. A regression and correlation test were applied to investigate the relationship of treatments with the concentration. The hedonic data was analyzed with Friedman test.
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406992401.doc 107.76KB 2015-10-12 00:17:49

406992401.doc 107.76KB 2015-10-12 00:17:49

Pembuatan ice cream ini sama dengan pembuatan ice cream lainnya hanya saja dalam pembuatan ice cream ini ditambahkan daun sirsak yang sebelumnya telah dibuat ekstrak terlebih dahulu. Sebelum memasarkan produk ini, terlebih dahulu melakukan pemilihan lokasi yang strategis untuk menjual ice cream ini agar orang bisa mengetahui produk Ice Eksunsak ini.

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PERAN ICE BREAKING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN  SD NEGERI 2 TEMPURAN KECAMATAN WANAYASA BANJARNEGARA  Peran Ice Breaking Dalam Pembelajaran SD Negeri 02 Tempuran Kecematan Wanayasa Banjarnegara Tahun ajaran 2015-2016.

PERAN ICE BREAKING DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SD NEGERI 2 TEMPURAN KECAMATAN WANAYASA BANJARNEGARA Peran Ice Breaking Dalam Pembelajaran SD Negeri 02 Tempuran Kecematan Wanayasa Banjarnegara Tahun ajaran 2015-2016.

Hasil penelitian berdasarkan hasil wawancara dengan guru kelas dan dokumentasi di SD Negeri 02 Tempuran Memperoleh hasil penelitian bahwa ice breaking sangat berperan dalam pembelajaran di SD Negeri 02 Tempuran. Pembelajaran di SD negeri 02 Tempuran berjalan dengan baik dan lancar, meskipun dalam pelaksanaanya guru tidak selalu sesuai dengan RPP. Dalam proses pembelajaran yang dilakukan di dalam kelas guru fleksibel, dalam prosesnya guru selalu menyesuaikan dengan kondisi siswa dan kondisi di sekitarnya.

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DETEKSI BAKTERI PATOGEN YANG BERASOSIASI DENGAN Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) BERGEJALA PENYAKIT ICE-ICE

DETEKSI BAKTERI PATOGEN YANG BERASOSIASI DENGAN Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) BERGEJALA PENYAKIT ICE-ICE

Penyakit utama yang menyebabbkan penurunan produksi di seluruh pusat pengembangan budidaya makro alga adalah penyakit ice-ice (Aris, et al., 2013).Serangan penyakit tersebut tidak hanya menurunkan hasil panen (60–70%), tetapi dapat juga menyebabkan gagal panen (Hamsah & Patadjai, 2013), seperti di Pulau Pari, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta para nelayan yang membudidayakan K. alvarezii hampir tidak mendapatkan hasil panen dari tahun 2000 sampai 2004 karena terserang penyakit ice-ice(Yulianto dan Mira, 2009). Serangan ice-ice di Nusa Penida menurunkan produksi dari 500 ton (tahun 2007) menjadi 200 ton (tahun 2008). Penurunan ini membuat volume ekspor makro alga Indonesia anjlok sebesar 97,8% tahun 2007 (Widiastuti, 2009).
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Undangan Klarifikasi ICE STORAGE

Undangan Klarifikasi ICE STORAGE

Sehubungan dengan pelaksanaan pelelangan Pekerjaan Pengadaan Ice Storage pada Dinas Perikanan dan Kelautan Kota Bima Tahun Anggaran 2014, dengan ini kami mengundang perusahaan Saudara untuk menghadiri acara klarifikasi dan pembuktian kualifikasi pada :

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