One of the soap opera targeted to the Islamic society is religious soap opera genre. This soap opera is generally packaged and supported with Betawi culture or symbols. Religious soap opera appeared on national television along with other soap operas with mystical television program (horror movie) as trends in the early 2000s. The commodified Islamic symbols in this soap opera has followed the requests of the market, such as: Rahasia Ilahi & Takdir Ilahi (TPI), Kuasa Ilahi (SCTV), Titipan Ilahi (Indosiar) and many others. The use of religious and cultural symbols is related to the potensial market of Muslim audience, even these programs become excellent program in every month of Ramadhan. The early emergence of religious soap opera tended to be more mystical. But this mystical religious soap opera hasbeen shifted and changed to be religious soap opera that tells the story of dailylife, such as: Kiamat Sudah Dekat (SCTV), Para Pencari Tuhan (SCTV), Munajah Cinta (RCTI), Ketika Cinta Bertasbih (RCTI) and others. The change will occur continually where in it is just a cover for the television industry to follow the market trends in attracting audiences.
human rights - Human rights were defined in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations in 1948. It was a historic step brought about in response to the horrors of World War 11. Article 1 of the declaration states, "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood." Article states, "Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status." President Jimmy Carter's administration (1977-81) made human rights an important aspect of American foreign policy; those countries that violated human rights were less likely to have good relations with the U.S. than those who observed those rights. Human rights continue to be an important factor in U.S. relations with the rest of the world. Today, for example, the debate over U.S. relations with China revolves around China's poor human rights record, and whether this is reason enough to cancel China's Most Favored Nation trading status with the U.S.
And the last is scienceand technology aspect, Mauk and Oakland, 1997: 237 stated “in the late twentieth century, technical advance is influenced by expansion, which is based on natural resources, iron, steam and electrical power. This expansion affected the invention of the internal combustion engine, the telegraph and telephone, radio and typewriters.” Figliola (2010) states that “today the internet has evolved even further and many people are using newer tools, such as blogs, social networks, video sharing sites, and other aspects of today’s communications technology to express their political ideals, many times in conflict with the political opinions and outlook espoused by their governments.
Yet the growth and consolidation in the early 2000s of the sub-discipline has also presented it with a particular paradox. On one hand, because it has often been a literature defining itself against, and deriving analytic leverage from its difference from, Bcapital-P politics,^ it has not preoccupied itself with definitions de novo as much as differences from extant definitions. At the same time it has attempted to normalize itself and claim its jurisdiction in sociology (be it via edited issues, conferences, or the coinage of specific and particular concepts), while keeping itself open to new litera- tures, such as the pragmatic turn in cultural sociology, or Actor Network literatures in social studies of science. This, to a certain extent, has meant that all scholars have been able to be in a common conversation, while keeping the referent of that conversation sufficiently vague. While providing common terrain, the disadvantage of that ambigu- ity has been that authors often actually talk past each other because the B it^ of political is something completely different. And the attempt at normalization has also had other consequences: it has, to a certain extent, pushed out of the conversation fellow travelers who have either worked on domains not explicitly labeled as political but from which similar theoretical and methodological lessons could have been taken, such as contem- porary Burban ethnographies^ (Kasinitz 1992), from non-ethnographic approaches that clearly share important concerns as in comparative-historical sociology (Brubaker 2006; Ikegami 2005); or from non-sociological ethnography less concerned with defining itself as working on Bpolitical^ topics. (Wedeen 2008; Gutmann 2005; or Li 2007).
After analyzing the literature elements of the drama, the researcher continues the study in the next step, which is discussion. Anna Christie drama contains several aspects, namely social aspect, technology aspect, science aspect, political aspect, economic aspect, cultural aspect, and religious aspect. It. is a way to relate all elements one another and put them into unity. It is related to the author’s origin and his environment. It shows how the society can give a contribution in creating a literary work. According to Swingewood and Laurenson(1972: 13) the most popular adopts the documentary aspect of literature, arguing that it provides a mirror of the age. The major sociological study of the subject is linkage between the text and its background.
Based on the facts obtained from the life of society was the dominance of materialism that is the view of a better life was able to change the human civilization that ultimately leads to the creation of environmental crisis. The composition of various ethnic and uniqueness of political, economic and socio- cultural history in Indonesia has caused the pattern of supervision and management of the environment to have special meaning. This historical background may make it difficult to advance the national development of the industrial sector. Thus, the use of environmental monitoring and management strategies is expected to continue economic progress that is balanced with the development of the environment.
he information technology (IT) in Indonesia has gained its momentum to developed since 1990s. In 1995 the Internet had enter to this country and the government also purchased the satelite for supporting the national IT in 1997. he information low was dramatically increased and strated to take a part in politics (Woodier, 2009). he IT then contribute to 1998 political reform when activist groups organizing movement through the mailing list so that information could be disseminated to various NGOs since 1996 (Hill & Sen, 2005: 47). Political reform followed by the birth of political act package which regulate political parties, elections, and the arrangement position of the MPR, DPR, and DPRD (Hidayat, 2007). In addition, the government also enacted Act No. 40/1999 which guarantees freedom of the press (Wibowo, 2009). hrough thos set of acts, democratization has been strarted in all socialpolitical life. People were free to formed political parties, exercised transparent elections, the power restructured based on people sovereignty, and the freedom of speech.
major reforms of government have a predominantly economic and business frame. Notwithstanding the economistic government theorising, whereby government failure is akin to market failure (see C. Wolf 1995, Cordes 1997, Grand 1991), the treatment of government, in particular bureaucratic reforms, has rendered the efficiency paradigm to be central. As Le Grand notes, such things as the ‘disjunction between costs and revenues’ and the emphasis on the ‘internalities and organizational goals’, means that there is scrutiny of public agencies and their performance, they have to ‘develop their own standards and goals’ (Le Grand 1991: 429). For Cordes, it is a matter of ‘recon iling normative and positive theories of government‘, that is, ‘what government should do’ and evaluating the ‘effects of particular government actions’ (1997: 172). In this, as the author continues, economists contribution lies in the examination of public policies and whether they are ‘truly in the “public interest” (ibid). Likewise, politicalscience contributions are, as to be expected, significant in exploring the ‘political manifestations’ (Levi 2006). But here too, there is a trend toward a jump away from theories of the state to theories of government is pronounced. The study of government, as the ‘organization and individuals who establish and administer public policies and laws’, however, can pose its own challenges. Notwithstanding that as Levi notes, the ‘officials who staff the government are the moving parts of the state. They are selected and deselected; they can be responsive or innovative’ (2006: 6). Further, that there has been a concerted effort by some to distinguish state from government, to fence the act of executing as opposed to constructing reform agendas is
HIV/AIDS-related S&D are also linked to gender-related stigma. The impact of HIV/AIDS-related S&D on women reinforces pre-existing economic, educational, cultural, andsocial disadvantages and unequal access to information and services (Aggleton and Warwick 1999). In settings where heterosexual transmission is significant, the spread of HIV infection has been associated with female sexual behavior that is not consistent with gender norms. For example, prostitution is widely perceived as non-normative female behavior, and female sex workers are often identified as “vectors” of infection who put at risk their clients and their clients’ sexual partners. Equally, in many settings, men are blamed for heterosexual transmission, because of assumptions about male sexual behavior, such as men’s preference or need for multiple sexual partners.
This study found that social media campaigning generated labor that requires the political campaign industry to manage. The finding contradicts the assertion that social media campaigns which supported candidates were generated by genuine social media volunteers, or, to put it differently, that all social media users were volunteers of the candidates (Suaedy, 2014). The main concerns of this section are the ways in which social media campaigning has enabled new players to enter the campaign consulting business. The industry is a ‘fluid” one, which welcomes new players with the necessary expertise (Hamburger, 2001; Thurber & Nelson, 2001). However, the findings of this chapter also suggest that the fluid nature of the industry not only accommodates regular players, such as ICT or communication professionals, but also the likes of unidentified ‘buzzers’ or influencers running pseudonymous social media accounts to conduct smear campaigns against the candidates.
The purpose of the study was: 1). To study the factors that encourage informal sector workers participated in Governor election of North Sumatra in 2013 in Kisaran, 2). To determine the political consciousness of workers in the informal sector to participate in Governor election of North Sumatra in 2013 in Kisaran, 3). To determine the correlation between the political understanding and the political consciousness of informal sector in Kisaran.
values. Knowledge is competency and understanding on an amount of information and ideas. The objective of knowledge is to help the students to learn more about themselves, their physical andsocial world. For example, the students are introduced with the concept of natural environment, artificial environment, family, neighbor, and etc. Skill is the development of certain abilities from the knowledge acquired. Some skills existing in SocialScience are: (a) thinking skill, the ability of describing, defining, classifying, hypothesizing, generalizing, predicting, comparing and contrasting, and bearing new ideas; (b) academic skill, the ability of reading, studying, writing, speaking, listening, reading and interpreting map, outlining, charting and recording; (c) research skill, the ability of defining problem, formulating hypothesis, finding and collecting data relevant to the problem, analyzing data, evaluating hypothesis and drawing a conclusion, receiving, rejecting or modifying the hypothesis appropriately, and (d) social skill, the ability of cooperating, contributing to group assignment and discussion, understanding non-verbal signs conveyed by others, responding to in the ways of helping others solving the problem, reinforcing others’ advantage,
Post New Order Regime Soeharto, the media took rule as a four estate of Indonesian democracy. How are the local dynamic between press freedom and public interest in Province of Nangroe Aceh Daarussalam (NAD) facing the Qonun Media Islam? This paper will elaborate on dynamic contestation of press freedom and public interest based on local study case in Province of Nangroe Aceh Daarussalam challenging the three important thing: (1) the contestation of press freedom as a part modern democratic values in the field of decentralization and special autonomy of Province NAD; (2) the dynamic contestation of press freedom and public interest’s concept between goverment’s actor, political parties, media and civil society; (3) the contesta- tion between press freedom as part of modern democratic concept and local Islamic law as well as regulated by UU PA. Based on case method, I concluded that the root contestation of press fredom and public interest based on; (1) different intrepretation of democratic values and local Islamic Law among local government, political parties, media and civil society; (2) paradoxs between the regulation of democratic decentralization and special authonomy of Nangroe Aceh Daarussalam Province and National Media Regulation System.
Each candidates can start their political marketing program by the Internet andsocial media-based political marketing and traditional political marketing. Furthermore, they should enable to generate a strategy in order to stimulate and to obtain the free publication of the commercial/private mass media. If their political marketing activities can be crafting as public interest maintreaming issues which produces various kind of newsworthy based on human interest or another social, cultural or political issues, the commercial/private mass media will be intererested to cover their political marketing activities. While implementing both traditional political marketing activities and the Internet andsocial media based political marketing of candidates, the chief campaign strategies of political marketer of candidates should enable to predict and generate the newsvalues of the candidates activities based on the private/commercial media logic. By developing the insight view of political journalist or infotaintment producer of television broadcasting, the chief strategiest political marketer of candidates should enable packaging all of campaign activities based on thematic events and framed-issues which fulfill the public interest and met with the demand of the mass media logic. If they fail to do this, the paid mass media publication and buying space for political advertising of the candidate can be the alternative ways. However, the rest strategy will need spending more campaign finances. Therefore, the mixed-mediated political communication can be alternative way to form the effective political marketing model of candidates and parties, if they have not huge campaign finances.
In Europe, the British movement for women’s suf- frage led the way. The Women’s SocialandPolitical Union, founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters, quickly learned how to call attention to its demands by using publicity stunts. Its mem- bers, called “suffragettes” by the press, pelted gov- ernment officials with eggs, chained themselves to lampposts, burned railroad cars, and smashed the windows of fashionable department stores. British police answered with arrests and brutal treatment of leading activists. These suffragists, as they were more generally known, had one basic aim: the right of women to full citizenship in the nation.