Soft system methodology (ssm)

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Perencanaan Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup di Kabupaten Kediri dengan Pendekatan Soft System Methodology

Perencanaan Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup di Kabupaten Kediri dengan Pendekatan Soft System Methodology

Environmental issues are rarely be accounted in development planning, as well as the situation in Kediri. Control of damage and pollution is more focused on the downstream level, without looking at the root of the problem at the level of policies, plans and programs. Background It encourages research, with the aim of: 1) describe and analyze the situation of Environmental Protection and Management Planning in Kediri, and 2) Build a conceptual model for fixing problem situations. Soft System Methodology (SSM) Approaches is selected as appropriate to be applied to examine the complex and unstructured problem situations. Through seven stages in SSM, can reveal problems in planning and making a conceptual model to improve the situation of the problem. Results of the study revealed that the Environmental Protection and Management Planning in Kediri has been following to appropriate national planning system, but has not integrated the substance of the environment as mandated by Law No. 32 of 2009. Planning documents prepared procedural, formative and poor theory, the relationship between SKPD whose role has not been structured , lack of community participation and empowerment of the private sector is not optimal in the context of environmental protection and management. The conclusion of research by SSM acquired two definitions of problems (root definitions) are revealed as the root cause of problems in Environmental Protection and Management Planning. Based on these two definitions of the problem, built a conceptual model consisting of two phases of a system of activities aimed at (Purposeful Activity Models), namely: 1) Conceptual Model of Organizing Protection and Environmental Management and 2) Conceptual Model of Integrated Protection and Environmental Management Systems. Suggestions measures changes resulting from comparing models and the existing situation, expected to be implemented as an action plan to improve planning problems of Environmental Protection and Management Planning in Kediri.
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Institutional Repository | Satya Wacana Christian University: Soft System Methodology Implementation in Extraction of Knowledge about School Tuition Payment Problem

Institutional Repository | Satya Wacana Christian University: Soft System Methodology Implementation in Extraction of Knowledge about School Tuition Payment Problem

Perkembangan dunia pendidikan merupakan bagian dari upaya pembangunan nasional yang sedang dilaksanakan di Timor-Leste. Pembangunan sektor pendidikan berkembang sangat pesat, terlihat dari banyaknya para siswa yang terdaftar di sekolah-sekolah publik maupun swasta. Seiring dengan kemajuan era globalisasi dan perkembangan ilmu teknologi informasi dan telekomunikasi saat ini maka, sekolah swasta membutuhkan sebuah model metode penerapan SSM dalam mengestraksi pengetahuan tentang masalah- masalah pembayaran SPP untuk meningkatkan mutu pendidikan di Timor-Leste. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan dengan membuat gambaran model penerapan SSM untuk mengatasi permasalahan yang ada pada sekolah swasta, untuk mendukung sektor pendidikan, sehingga dapat ikut berkontribusi dalam perkembangan pendidikan di Timor-Leste. Penelitian ini merupakan research action dengan metode Soft System Methodology (SSM) untuk menemukan cara terbaik dalam menghadapi situasi dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Dan juga memberikan knowledge pada sekolah untuk menetapkan suatu keputusan yang terbaik terhadap layanan sistem pembayaran SPP
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Synthesizing a Soft System Methodology Use in

Synthesizing a Soft System Methodology Use in

On the other hand, regarding soft system methodology (SSM), it theoretically is a technique used to solve complex and unclear problems. Its complexity and ambiguity commonly occur as it is associated with human characteristics. According to [8], SSM is appropriate to solve a wicked problem. This method can also be used with multi-discipline by mapping the overall problem. This statement is similarly mentioned by [9]. Primarily, SSM was mentioned in 1981 by [10]; where ideally, it consists of seven stages: define the situation that is problematic, express the situation (e.g. top mapping, rich picture, etc.) possible, select concepts that may be relevant iteration, assemble concepts into an intellectual structure, use this structure to explore the situation, define changes to the situation (i.e. problems to be tackled), and implement change processes [11].
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PERANCANGAN SISTEM PROCUREMENT BERBASIS ODOO DENGAN SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY DI RUMAH SAKIT MUHAMMADIYAH BANDUNG DESIGNING PROCUREMENT SYSTEM USING ODOO WITH SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY IN MUHAMMADIYAH BANDUNG

PERANCANGAN SISTEM PROCUREMENT BERBASIS ODOO DENGAN SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY DI RUMAH SAKIT MUHAMMADIYAH BANDUNG DESIGNING PROCUREMENT SYSTEM USING ODOO WITH SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY IN MUHAMMADIYAH BANDUNG

Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) merupakan kerangka kerja (framework) pemecahan masalah yang dirancang secara khusus untuk situasi di mana hakikat masalah sulit untuk didefinisikan (Sinn, 1998) [4]. SSM telah digunakan di banyak bidang dan konteks termasuk di dalamnya manajemen perubahan, perencanaan sistem kesehatan dan medis, perencanaan sistem informasi, manajemen sumber daya manusia, analisis sistem logistik, dan pengembangan sistem pakar (Maqsood, Finegan, & Walker, 2001) [5]. Gambar 1 merupakan tujuh tahapan dari Soft System Methodology menurut Checkland dan Scholes (1990).
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SISTEM REMEDIAL NILAI SISWA SMA OLAH RAGA NEGERI SRIWIJAYA PALEMBANG MENGGUNAKAN J2ME DENGAN METODE SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY (SSM) - Bina Darma e-Journal

SISTEM REMEDIAL NILAI SISWA SMA OLAH RAGA NEGERI SRIWIJAYA PALEMBANG MENGGUNAKAN J2ME DENGAN METODE SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY (SSM) - Bina Darma e-Journal

Abstrak : Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk memberikan solusi dan dapat membantu siswa untuk mengetahui nilai ujian semester secara cepat dan dapat mengetahui jadual remidial mereka yang sesuai dengan standar kriteria ketuntasan minimal. Akses dapat dilakukan menggunakan aplikasi J2ME (java Mobile) menggunakan handphone. Aplikasi ini diharapkan dapat membantu siswa dalam mengakses informasi dengan cepat tanpa harus datang langsung ke sekolah untuk melihat nilai dan hasil perbaikan setelah di-remidial serta mengetahui jadualnya. Dalam kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan Soft System Methodology (SSM), dengan metode analisis dan pemodelan sistem yang terintegrasi ke teknologi (hard) sistem dan human (soft) sistem yang biasanya digunakan perubahan.
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PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENGADAAN (PROCUREMENT) BERBASIS OPENERP DENGAN METODE SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY (Studi Kasus: RSUD Al Ihsan) DESIGN PROCUREMENT SYSTEM BASED ON OPENERP USING SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY (Case Study : RSUD Al Ihsan)

PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENGADAAN (PROCUREMENT) BERBASIS OPENERP DENGAN METODE SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY (Studi Kasus: RSUD Al Ihsan) DESIGN PROCUREMENT SYSTEM BASED ON OPENERP USING SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY (Case Study : RSUD Al Ihsan)

Panitia pengadaan barang adalah salah satu bagian di RSUD Al Ihsan yang merupakan bagian penting dalam menjaga kinerja dari keseluruhan proses bisnis untuk melakukan pelayanan kesehatan yang baik kepada masyarakat. Terdapat beberapa permasalahan yaitu, tidak terintegrasi RFQ, PO, supplier invoice, recived dan reporting dengan bagian accounting and finace. Sehingga membuat data yang di catat dalam penjurnalan tidak sesuai dan menyebabkan anggaran pengadaan tidak terkontrol oleh bagian akuntansi dan keuaangan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan suatu sistem pegadaan yang berbasis sistem ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) dalam proses pengadaan pada Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Al Ihsan adalah untuk mengintegrasikan sistem pengadaan dengan sistem accounting and finace. Untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan tersebut dibutuhkan sebuah sistem informasi dengan menggunakan konsep ERP. Sistem ERP yang digunakan adalah OpenERP. Modul yang digunakan dalam software ini adalah modul Purchase Management dengan menggunakan metode SSM (Soft System Methodology). Ini akan membantu panitia pengadaan barang RSUD Al Ihsan dalam proses pengadaan barang kususnya pada proses mengelola RFQ, supplier invoice dan pembuatan Purchase Order (PO) yang telah terintegrasi dengan modul accounting and finance.
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SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY PADA PENGEMBANGAN BANDAR UDARA PROVINSI SULAWESI BARAT SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY-BASED ON DEVELOPMENT OF AIRPORT OF WEST SULAWESI PROVINCE

SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY PADA PENGEMBANGAN BANDAR UDARA PROVINSI SULAWESI BARAT SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY-BASED ON DEVELOPMENT OF AIRPORT OF WEST SULAWESI PROVINCE

Moda transportasi yang tersedia saat ini belum mewakili, masih dianggap kurang mengakomodir kegiatan perekonomian masyarakat secara umum. Soft System Metho dology (SSM) dipilih sebagai pendekatan untuk memberikan gambaran secara menyeluruh tentang pengembangan transportasi udara di Provinsi Sulawesi Barat sehingga proses pembahasan dapat dilakukan lebih maksimal. Dalam beberapa penelitian yang telah dilakukan sebelumnya, menunjukkan bahwa SSM cukup tepat diterapkan. Metodologi Soft System Methodology atau SSM yang merupakan bagian dari system thinking. System thinking merupakan sebuah metode yang mampu menggambarkan masalah secara holistik, dimana system thinking merupakan suatu proses untuk memahami suatu fenomena dengan tidak hanya memandang dari satu atau dua sisi tertentu. S ystem thinking berarti bagaimana memahami bahwa suatu fenomena akan dipengaruhi oleh banyak fenomena lainnya, seperti halnya dinyatakan oleh Senge (1990), “systems thinking is a discipline for seeing wholes. It is a framework for seeing interrelationships rather than things, for seeing patterns of change rather thanstatic “snapshots.”
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Pengembangan UKM sentra industri pengolahan kerupuk ikan dan udang dengan pendekatan soft system methodology

Pengembangan UKM sentra industri pengolahan kerupuk ikan dan udang dengan pendekatan soft system methodology

Industry competition currently require the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have competitive advantage. The study aims to formulate a policy alternate for SMEs development of center of fish and shrimp crackers processing industry in Indramayu by soft systems methodology (SSM) approach and new institutionalism in economics and sociology (NIES) with the specific purpose are: to analyze the main problems that occur, to formulate institutional framework, and to develop strategy for SMEs. Considering any problematic situation that needs to be improved, then used three-level analysis of the level of institutional macro, meso, and micro which based on the NIES, and using the SSM-based action research as a methodology. Based on the analysis of the competitiveness of SMEs obtained that the center is low, due to some problems faced at the macro level, (1) organizing, and (2) programs, activities, and budget; the meso level: the role of cooperative institution and associations, and at the micro level, (1) the capacity of human resources, (2) capital compliance, and (3) adequacy of raw material. The NIES framework using for SMEs development in the three levels of overall institutional framework shows (1) regulation, (2) the role of cooperatives institution and associations, and (3) internal constraints/problems in supporting the achievement of competitiveness of the center. These interrelationships form a synergistic relationship in three levels based on the competitiveness of the institutional framework, as follow (1) relationship in a top-down (macro-to meso and micro); and (2) relationships in a bottom-up (micro-to meso to macro). Development strategy for SMEs are improving capacity of the center which competitive supported by appropriate policies from the central and local government, through the strategy as follow (1) the establishment of the secretariat/working group for SMEs development to manage duties and functions; (2) mechanism to accommodate by the aspirations of the community; (3) increasing role of cooperatives institution and associations as a facilitator for SMEs interest in micro level, (4) increasing the capacity of human resources; (5) fulfillment of capital, and (6) adequacy of raw materials.
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Pengembangan UKM sentra industri pengolahan kerupuk ikan dan udang dengan pendekatan soft system methodology

Pengembangan UKM sentra industri pengolahan kerupuk ikan dan udang dengan pendekatan soft system methodology

Industry competition currently require the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have competitive advantage. The study aims to formulate a policy alternate for SMEs development of center of fish and shrimp crackers processing industry in Indramayu by soft systems methodology (SSM) approach and new institutionalism in economics and sociology (NIES) with the specific purpose are: to analyze the main problems that occur, to formulate institutional framework, and to develop strategy for SMEs. Considering any problematic situation that needs to be improved, then used three-level analysis of the level of institutional macro, meso, and micro which based on the NIES, and using the SSM-based action research as a methodology. Based on the analysis of the competitiveness of SMEs obtained that the center is low, due to some problems faced at the macro level, (1) organizing, and (2) programs, activities, and budget; the meso level: the role of cooperative institution and associations, and at the micro level, (1) the capacity of human resources, (2) capital compliance, and (3) adequacy of raw material. The NIES framework using for SMEs development in the three levels of overall institutional framework shows (1) regulation, (2) the role of cooperatives institution and associations, and (3) internal constraints/problems in supporting the achievement of competitiveness of the center. These interrelationships form a synergistic relationship in three levels based on the competitiveness of the institutional framework, as follow (1) relationship in a top-down (macro-to meso and micro); and (2) relationships in a bottom-up (micro-to meso to macro). Development strategy for SMEs are improving capacity of the center which competitive supported by appropriate policies from the central and local government, through the strategy as follow (1) the establishment of the secretariat/working group for SMEs development to manage duties and functions; (2) mechanism to accommodate by the aspirations of the community; (3) increasing role of cooperatives institution and associations as a facilitator for SMEs interest in micro level, (4) increasing the capacity of human resources; (5) fulfillment of capital, and (6) adequacy of raw materials.
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STUDI GLOBALISASI DENGAN SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY PADA TAMBANG RAKYAT

STUDI GLOBALISASI DENGAN SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY PADA TAMBANG RAKYAT

Tahap-tahap dari Soft Systems Methodology adalah sebagai berikut :Tahap (1) yaitu problem situation considered problematic adalah tahap dimana masalah terlihat tidak berstruktur dengan jelas, masalah tersebut begitu kompleks ada begitu banyak messy didalamnya, masalah tersebut memliki banyak perspertif atau view. Tahap (2) problems situation expresed, dalam tahap ini masalah telah diungkapkan secara tersetruktur melalui tiga analisis. Pertama adalah analysis one berupa intervention anaysis yaitu menentukan client (orang atau sekelompok orang yang menyebabkan intervensi terjadi), problem solver atau partitioners (orang atau sekelompok orang yang akan melakukan transformasi), problem owner (orang atau sekelompok orang yang berkepentingan atau mendapat pengaruh dari masalah maupun mendapat pengaruh dari penyelesaian masalah atas transformasi yang nantinya dilakukan). Kedua adalah analysis two berupa social systems analysis yaitu menginvestigasi tiga hal penting dalam diri problem owner yaitu roles, norms and value. Ketiga adalah analysis three berupa political systems analysis yaitu untuk menginvestigasi kuasa atau power yang ada dalam situasi tersebut, kekuasaan dari problem owner seperti apa harus diketahui dengan jelas.
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Jurnal Perencanaan Pembangunan dalam Per

Jurnal Perencanaan Pembangunan dalam Per

Penyusunan dokumen Rencana Kerja Pembangunan Daerah (RKPD) masih belum berdasarkan kebutuhan masyarakat, belum mempunyai alur perencanaan yang jelas dan tepat sebagaimana mengacu kepada Surat Edaran Menteri Dalam Negeri No.50 Tahun 2008 dan belum ada keterkaitan substansi antar dokumen perencanaan yang satu dengan dokumen perencanaan yang lain, guna merespon paradigma dan pendekatan perencanaan pembangunan, misalnya dari top-down planning ke bottom-up planning, dari budaya petunjuk ke budaya partisipasi. Padahal didalam proses menyusun dokumen RKPD ada beberapa tahapan-tahapan atau sub sistem-sub sistem yang merupakan bagian yang tersistem dalam menyusun RKPD. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan penyusunan RKPD Pemerintah Kota Malang dengan menggunakan pendekatan soft system methodology. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif. Dengan teknik pengumpulan data dari wawancara, observasi, dan studi dokumen serta menggunakan analisa data kualitatif. Kesimpulan yang didapat bahwa proses penyusunan RKPD menunjukan masih terdapat kompleksitas permasalahan. Kompleksitas yang dimaksudkan adalah tahap penyusunan mulai dari musrenbang tingkat kelurahan, musrenbang tingkat kecamatan, forum SKPD, sampai musrenbang tingkat kota. Pendekatan soft systems methodology mengelompokan kompleksitas tersebut dalam tiga tahap. Strukturisasi permasalahan, mendefinisikan sistem permasalahan dan mendefinisikan sistem permasalahan dan membangun model konseptual.
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Car Security Alert System.

Car Security Alert System.

Arduino is an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board. Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs[8]. For this project, Arduino used the ultrasonic sensor as the input and for the output, LED, LCD display, and buzzer was used. There are many type of Arduino such as Arduino UNO R3, Arduino Mini, Arduino Mega, and Arduino nano etc. For Car Security Alert System, the Arduino Uno R3 was used due to easier to get in the market. Arduino projects can be stand-alone, or they can communicate with software running on computer. The analog output pins are located on the bottom- right six-pin female connector labelled as “ANALOG IN 0-5”. The digital-only pins are located on the top labeled “DIGITAL 0-13”. For this project, the all the digital pin was used except the Tx, Rx, and GND pin. [5]
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RPP IML XI gasal 2017 9-12

RPP IML XI gasal 2017 9-12

4. Menjelaskan tindakan pengamanan motor listrik dengan kecepatan variable system kendali mula jalan motor non programmable logic control (Non PLC)dengan jelas dan santun. Disediakan peralatan praktik listrik siswa didik akan dapat :

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METHODOLOGY  RACKING SYSTEM SELECTION FOR THE COLD STORAGE OF PT. BERNOFARM.

METHODOLOGY RACKING SYSTEM SELECTION FOR THE COLD STORAGE OF PT. BERNOFARM.

This research methodology uses some data collected from material handling books and research techniques alike Apple (1972) which develop information for the project. The required data are collected by evaluating some suppliers which produce the racking system to be installed in the cold storage. The dimension and technical specifications will be compared to the cold storage of PT. Bernofarm based on the cold storage’s engineering layout. The inventory level will be maximized based on not only the old warehouse layout, but also the warehouse dimension and aisle. Details of the step in the project are explained below.
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Application Of XY Table Continuous Motion Programming With PC Based Control.

Application Of XY Table Continuous Motion Programming With PC Based Control.

This chapter discusses about literature discourse and review of the application of XY table continuous motion programming with PC based control. Throughout the world, there have been many researches about the concept, designs and implementation of many types of XY table positioning system.

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DEVELOPMENT CUSTOMER KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (CKM) MODELS IN PURBALINGGA HOSPITALITY USING SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) Nur Chasanah1 , Dana Indra Sensuse1 and Jonathan Sofian Lusa 1, 2

DEVELOPMENT CUSTOMER KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (CKM) MODELS IN PURBALINGGA HOSPITALITY USING SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM) Nur Chasanah1 , Dana Indra Sensuse1 and Jonathan Sofian Lusa 1, 2

Suggestions for further research is to create Customer Knowledge Management system which is used by the hospitality that all knowledge, knowledge both hotel guests and hotel employees can be has to be better. And also from the model that has been generated can be developed for the hospitality with a wider coverage and a more in- depth method on the development of Customer Knowledge Management Model.

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this PDF file An Application of Soft Systems Methodology | DARMANTO | Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan 1 PB

this PDF file An Application of Soft Systems Methodology | DARMANTO | Jurnal Studi Pemerintahan 1 PB

achieving coordination and control are formally carried out in two ways: First, vertically; coordination activities are conducted through a command mechanism, supervision, policy, rules, plan- ning, and a control system; secondly, laterally; coordination ac- tivities are carried out through meetings, task forces, standing committees, special coordinating roles, or matrix structures. With regard to the role of a person in coordinating within an organi- zation, Stewart et al. (1999) state that there is no formal guid- ance on the duties of a coordinator, but a coordinator behaves more in keeping with social conventions than structured rules. The main role of public servants is not simply to respond to the demands of society, but to focus on building trust and coopera- tion relationships with and among citizens (Denhardt & Denhardt, 2007). The program will run well if all the individu- als involved in the implementation of the program know the basic purpose of implementing the program. Therefore, social- ization is very important for the members involved in the imple- mentation of the program so they know the purpose of program implementation (Osborne & Gaebler, 1992).
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Tourism Based on the Model of Strategic Place Triangle (A Case Study in Wisata Bahari Lamongan)

Tourism Based on the Model of Strategic Place Triangle (A Case Study in Wisata Bahari Lamongan)

Tourism is a very promising prospects to support the economic development of a region. We assess Wisata Bahari Lamongan (WBL) as a tourism object. WBL was having significant decreased visitors in the last six years, thus a strategic plan is need to re-increase the number of visitors. This study used Strategic Triangle Place (SPT) model as an analysis tool to assess the strategic planning in WBL. SPT is an approach that includes three key components, namely: Positioning, Differentiation and Brand (PDB). This research used Soft System Methodology (SSM) which relevant to analyze the strategic plan model which is expected to be recommendations from tourists on problems in WBL. The result of this showed that the strategic planning of WBL did not completely accordance with the SPT model. Positioning and differentiation elements were still weak, and the brand was not well developed. Therefore, we recommend WBL to set targeted segmentation of all social backgrounds and ages, especially children. WBL should made the sea as main differentiated factor, thus it has marine tourism potential. WBL should build an image by providing best service quality, security, comfortness, cleanliness, and best quality rides.
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PENINGKATAN KINERJA OHMS (ORDER HANDLING MANUFACTURING SYSTEM) MELALUI SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM)

PENINGKATAN KINERJA OHMS (ORDER HANDLING MANUFACTURING SYSTEM) MELALUI SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM)

Tahapan inti metodologi untuk meningkatkan kinerja OHMS ini, mengadopsi metodologi yang dikembangkan oleh Checkland (1991) yang awal berkembangnya dipicu oleh kegagalan pendekatan System Engineering (SE) dalam menyelesaikan kasus-kasus yang kompleks, sekitar tahun 1970-an. Secara konvensional ada model yang terdiri tujuh tahapan, namun dalam perkembangannya model empat tahap sering digunakan, yang meliputi: memahami situasi permasalahan, merumuskan beberapa model-model aktivitas yang relevan, “debating the situation” dan mengambil langkah-langkah untuk peningkatan sistem.
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PENINGKATAN KINERJA OHMS (ORDER HANDLING MANUFACTURING SYSTEM) MELALUI SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM)

PENINGKATAN KINERJA OHMS (ORDER HANDLING MANUFACTURING SYSTEM) MELALUI SOFT SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY (SSM)

Tahapan inti metodologi untuk meningkatkan kinerja OHMS ini, mengadopsi metodologi yang dikembangkan oleh Checkland (1991) yang awal berkembangnya dipicu oleh kegagalan pendekatan System Engineering (SE) dalam menyelesaikan kasus-kasus yang kompleks, sekitar tahun 1970-an. Secara konvensional ada model yang terdiri tujuh tahapan, namun dalam perkembangannya model empat tahap sering digunakan, yang meliputi: memahami situasi permasalahan, merumuskan beberapa model-model aktivitas yang relevan, “debating the situation” dan mengambil langkah-langkah untuk peningkatan sistem.
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