Soil Erosion

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ANALISIS POTENSI EROSI PERMUKAAN SECARA KUALITATIF DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE SOIL EROSION STATUS (SES)DI SUB DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI CACABAN KECAMATAN KARANGGAYAM TAHUN 2014.

ANALISIS POTENSI EROSI PERMUKAAN SECARA KUALITATIF DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE SOIL EROSION STATUS (SES)DI SUB DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAI CACABAN KECAMATAN KARANGGAYAM TAHUN 2014.

yang memberikan rahmat dan hidayahNya sehingga penulis dapat menyelesaikan skripsi dengan judul Analisis Potensi Erosi Permukaan Secara Kualitatif dengan Menggunakan Metode Soil Erosion Status (SES) di Sub Daerah Aliran Sungai Cacaban Kecamatan Karanggayam Tahun 2014 (Sebagai Implementasi Pembelajaran Geografi pada Kompetensi Dasar Menganalisis Pemanfaatan Peta dan Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) untuk Inventarisasi Sumberdaya Alam, Perencanaan Pembangunan, Kesehatan Lingkungan, dan Mitigasi Bencana Kelas XII Sekolah Menengah Atas) .

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Runoff and Soil Erosion on Tea Plantation of Gunung Mas PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VIII

Runoff and Soil Erosion on Tea Plantation of Gunung Mas PT. Perkebunan Nusantara VIII

Most of tea plantations in Indonesia are located on sloping land and mountainous areas with high rainfall. It has the potential to cause runoff and soil erosion. In the land of mature tea plantation, however, erosion almost meaningless because the land is completely covered and some erosion may occured after the process of pruning and removal of the tea plant (Hartemink, 2006). In order to maintain area of picking and improve the productivity of the tea plant, Gunung Mas Tea Plantation Management (PTPN VIII) use to do the periodic pruning and the produces (leaves, twigs, and branches) use to be returned surrounding the plants. This research aims to examine the runoff and soil erosion on tea plantation at some age of pruning. This research had applied three plots measurement of runoff where in the size is 2m x 8m. The plots were randomly located in different plantation blocks with age of pruning: T1 = tea plant first year after pruning (17% of slope), T2 = tea plant third years after pruning (18% of slope), T3 = tea plant fourth years after pruning (16% of slope).
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Analysis of Soil Erosion in Agricultural Land Use in Krueng Sieumpo Watershed Aceh Province

Analysis of Soil Erosion in Agricultural Land Use in Krueng Sieumpo Watershed Aceh Province

tillage and cultivation on steep slope have also increased the risk on soil erosion by water [2]. In Krueng Sieumpo watershed, the land capability class are categorized of class II - VIII, In some places, land VI, VII and VIII still used as intensive agricultural without in accordance with land capability and suitability; also none implementing conservation techniques, both in terms of cropping patterns and farming practices [3]. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), Areca (Areca catechu L.) and Cocoa (Theobrema cacao L.) are major crops in Kreueng Sieumpo watershed, which spread more dominant on land with slopes between 9-45% [4]. The land area for oil palm plantations in Krueng Sieumpo watershed have increased rapidly, with 4.644 ha of cultivation under 5 years since 2008 [5]. But today, agricultural cultivation is limited to marginal areas such as hilly sloping lands where they comprise about 60% of the marginal land areas [6](Satriawan and Fuady, 2012).This is due to the consideration of land use only stressed on the economic considerations. The land use pattern like this is very likely to lead to land degradation such as erosion and flooding. At least this condition has lasted over a period of 5-10 years.
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Yield regulation method for eucalypt plantation forest based on optimization of growing stock and soil erosion

Yield regulation method for eucalypt plantation forest based on optimization of growing stock and soil erosion

DARWO. Yield Regulation Method for Eucalypt Plantation Forest Based On Optimization of Growing Stock and Soil Erosion. Supervised by ENDANG SUHENDANG, I NENGAH SURATI JAYA, HERRY PURNOMO, and PRATIWI. The grouping of site quality and controlling of soil erosion in eucalypt plantation forest is very important to be considered in the yield regulation method establishment. The objective of this research is to establish the yield regulation method that can provide the same yield every year with soil erosion constraint that does not exceed determined threshold. To achieve this objective the following stages are required: preparation of site quality class, determination of erosion hazard level and determination of residual stand density so that soil erosion can be tolerated. Data were collected from permanent sample plots and observations in the field. Stand characteristics, soil runoff and erosion were analyzed using regression, clustering site quality and soil erosion hazard level. The research results showed that yield regulation method based on optimization between growing stock and soil erosion control may giving both the optimal sustainable annual wood production and soil erosion control, so that land productivity can be maintained continuously. With this yield regulation method, the site quality is getting better, cutting cycle is getting shorter. Group of site index (Bonita) I and II has a maximum volume increment at the age of 8 years, while the bonita III and IV have a maximum volume increment at the age of 7 years. Soil erosion will increase with the increase of sloping terrain. While increasing stand age will decrease soil erosion. The maximum limit of tolerable soil erosion was at the slope of 33%. Slopes of 34-45%, 46-58%, and more than 58% , require crown cover of 21%, 38%, and 53% respectively which are equivalent to residual stand density of 288 trees/ha, 530 trees/ha, and 735 trees/ha respectively. The study found that the optimum cutting cycle in the eucalypt plantation forest is 7 years. The yield regulation method based on modified Von Mantel formula is AY’ is annual yield based on modified Von Mantel formula, AY is annual yield based on Von Mantel formula, AG is actual growing stock, R is cutting cycle, and FkD is Darwo correction Factor for soil erosion constraint.
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Yield regulation method for eucalypt plantation forest based on optimization of growing stock and soil erosion

Yield regulation method for eucalypt plantation forest based on optimization of growing stock and soil erosion

DARWO. Yield Regulation Method for Eucalypt Plantation Forest Based On Optimization of Growing Stock and Soil Erosion. Supervised by ENDANG SUHENDANG, I NENGAH SURATI JAYA, HERRY PURNOMO, and PRATIWI. The grouping of site quality and controlling of soil erosion in eucalypt plantation forest is very important to be considered in the yield regulation method establishment. The objective of this research is to establish the yield regulation method that can provide the same yield every year with soil erosion constraint that does not exceed determined threshold. To achieve this objective the following stages are required: preparation of site quality class, determination of erosion hazard level and determination of residual stand density so that soil erosion can be tolerated. Data were collected from permanent sample plots and observations in the field. Stand characteristics, soil runoff and erosion were analyzed using regression, clustering site quality and soil erosion hazard level. The research results showed that yield regulation method based on optimization between growing stock and soil erosion control may giving both the optimal sustainable annual wood production and soil erosion control, so that land productivity can be maintained continuously. With this yield regulation method, the site quality is getting better, cutting cycle is getting shorter. Group of site index (Bonita) I and II has a maximum volume increment at the age of 8 years, while the bonita III and IV have a maximum volume increment at the age of 7 years. Soil erosion will increase with the increase of sloping terrain. While increasing stand age will decrease soil erosion. The maximum limit of tolerable soil erosion was at the slope of 33%. Slopes of 34-45%, 46-58%, and more than 58% , require crown cover of 21%, 38%, and 53% respectively which are equivalent to residual stand density of 288 trees/ha, 530 trees/ha, and 735 trees/ha respectively. The study found that the optimum cutting cycle in the eucalypt plantation forest is 7 years. The yield regulation method based on modified Von Mantel formula is AY’ is annual yield based on modified Von Mantel formula, AY is annual yield based on Von Mantel formula, AG is actual growing stock, R is cutting cycle, and FkD is Darwo correction Factor for soil erosion constraint.
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Characterization of Surface Runoff, Soil Erosion and Nutrient Loss on Forest-Agriculture Landscape

Characterization of Surface Runoff, Soil Erosion and Nutrient Loss on Forest-Agriculture Landscape

The study was aimed to quantify volume of surface runoff, soil erosion and nutrient loss from the forest-agriculture landscape (forest margins) in Lore Lindu National Park Central Sulawesi. Surface runoff volume and soil erosion were measured daily on erosion plots. It was installed on several land use types i.e. forest land, maize, young cocoa, medium cocoa, old cocoa, vanilla, shrub and bush and bareland, on the soil Typic Dystrudepts with slope ± 40%. The nutrient content in surface runoff and sediments were analyzed from selected surface runoff and sediment samples. Surface runoff and soil erosion from agriculture land were respectively 2.1 to 3.4 and 3.6 to 5.8 times higher than from forest lands. Meanwhile, surface runoff and soil erosion from bareland were respectively 7.0 and 23.7 times greater than forest land respectively. Sediment nutrient contents from forest land were higher than agriculture land. In the contrary, total nutrient lost from agriculture land were higher than forest land ones. Nutrient losses carried by surface runoff were larger than those losses carried by sediments. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss in surface runoff was 6,1 to 8,0 times higher than total organic carbon (TOC) loss in sediments. Likewise, nitrate (NO3 - ) loss in surface runoff was 1.9 to 12.1 times higher than total nitrogen (TN) in sediments as well as potassium,
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Keywords : Soil Erosion, Besai sub watershed,

Keywords : Soil Erosion, Besai sub watershed,

ABSTRACT Erosion rates at Besai sub watershed have been estimated to obtain a quantitative reason in recommendation for maintain, cure, increase soil fertility and soil function as water regulator. Geographical information system (GIS) approach of RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) is used for the estimation. Erosivity, erodibility, slope length, steepness, conservation and cultivation are 6 parameters for calculating soil erosion in RUSLE method. Land conversion level, especially the protected forest that become plantation and agricultural land, is progressively fast in Besai sub watershed. Besai sub watershed, which is located in Sumber Jaya District, West Lampung Sub-Province is a part of the upstream Tulang Bawang watershed Lampung province. In 30 years (1970 - 2000), this area had already decreased to 48% of forest cover. The change occurred as the effect of activity in annual crop and coffee monoculture farming. Study result indicates that 23.62% of area is categorized to normal erosion, 42.98% area is low, 14.57% area is moderate, 15.38% area is heavy and 3.45% area is very heavy. About 45% of area that covered by coffee plantation has erosion level at low to very heavy for all soil type and slope. It seems that the plantation of monoculture system generates soil surface that is easy to get eroded by runoff because of non-existence soil under the crop canopy.
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PEMODELAN HIDROLOGI LIMBURG SOIL EROSION

PEMODELAN HIDROLOGI LIMBURG SOIL EROSION

PASEKAN KABUPATEN INDRAMAYU SEBAGAI KAWASAN EKOWISATA MANGROVE YANG BERKELANJUTANFull Paper Sodikin 038 POLA SPASIAL PERSEBARAN PENYAKIT TB PARU DI KOTA MALANGFull Paper Endang Surja[r]

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Utilization of near infrared reflectance

Utilization of near infrared reflectance

Soil erosion is a worldwide environmental and public health problem leading to direct losses of soil fertility and other on-site and off-site negative impacts such as dam siltation and biodiversity loss (Pimentel, 2006). It is especially a problem in sloping lands of the tropics which are characterized by rapid biogeochemical cycling. When earthworms are abundant it is clear that they can signi fi cantly affect soil erodibility and erosion through their burrowing activities and especially the creation of vertical galleries that enhance water in fi ltration (Blanchart et al., 2004; Shipitalo and Le Bayon, 2004). Earthworms also produce deposit stable above-ground casts that increase soil surface roughness and then can both decrease runoff water velocity, and increase soil detachment and erosion (Blanchart et al., 2004; Shipitalo and Le Bayon, 2004; Jouquet et al., 2008a). The net in fl uence of earthworms on soil erosion and nutrient losses, however, remains unclear and is probably site speci fi c (e.g., dependent on the earthworm species, soil properties and land slope).
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment:Vol81.Issue3.2000:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment:Vol81.Issue3.2000:

In recent years, scientists working with new approach in agricultural production: farming by soil, precision agriculture, plot specific management or soil tillage research, have provided new research in- formation on pertinent processes related to soil tillage in order to prevent and reduce soil erosion (Robert et al., 1993; Horn et al., 1998). Agricultural manage- ment operations according to spatially varying land characteristics have the added difficulty of trying to satisfy multiple, and often opposing, objectives; the best soil conditions for plant growth (crop yield) may not be the best for erosion concerns (natural resource conservation) or pollution effect (environmental impact) (Voorhees et al., 1993). In topographically
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EVALUASI EROSI BERDASARKAN GIS DAN PENGINDERAAN JARAK JAUH UNTUK MENDUKUNG MANAJEMEN KONSERVASI SUMBER DAYA AIR YANG TERINTEGRASI (STUDI KASUS DI DAS MANJUNTO, BENGKULU-INDONESIA)

EVALUASI EROSI BERDASARKAN GIS DAN PENGINDERAAN JARAK JAUH UNTUK MENDUKUNG MANAJEMEN KONSERVASI SUMBER DAYA AIR YANG TERINTEGRASI (STUDI KASUS DI DAS MANJUNTO, BENGKULU-INDONESIA)

Since a few decades ago, erosion is recognized as a serious problem in water resources. Erosion in the watershed produces sediments that able to reduce not only the storage capacity of lakes or reservoirs (Chow, 1964), but also make worse the quality of downstream water bodies (Clark & Wallece, 2003). In addi- tion, the erosion, which often carries nutrients needed by plants and pesticides, toxic chemicals and other contaminants, generates additional water quality problems (Renzetti, 2006). To reduce and controll of soil erosion such as soil and water conservation activities and improving methods of land management (Barling & Moore) takes a huge cost, especially when dredging should be carried out to reduce a large amount of sediment load in the re- servoir or port (Harringtton, 1985). Various programs and acti- vities to reduce soil erosion in Indonesia did not show significant
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 this  file 5991 11812 1 SM

this file 5991 11812 1 SM

Problems were induced by excessive compaction are runoff, soil erosion, slow infiltration and soil crusting, impaired or delayed internal drainage, decreased soil water storage, shallow and sparse plant rooting, reduced nutrient and water uptake, accelerated denitrification, production of toxic materials due to soil reducing conditions, fewer field days, and more root disease from pathogens such as Pythium, Phytophtora, Aphanomyces, Fusarium and Rhizoctonia spp. Most of these problems are linked to adverse water relations caused by retarded infiltration, less airfilled pore space, and impeded water movement (Allmaras et al., 1988). Soil compaction alters soil microbial structure and function as a result of the limitation of air permeability and oxygen availability, which has implications for soil nutrition and soil- borne disease (Ishak et. al., 2016).
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EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL CONSERVATION TO EROSION CONTROL ON SEVERAL TYPE OF LAND USE

EFFECTIVENESS OF SOIL CONSERVATION TO EROSION CONTROL ON SEVERAL TYPE OF LAND USE

Province, Indonesia, thatwhich was categorized as critical area under unappropriate land and priority to be managementd. and In needs rehabilitation (Fitri, 2011). Viewed from land use, tThe farmers in this area still do not useing their land has not in accordance with land capability and suitability.; also none implementingNo conservation techniques are implemented and , both in terms ofThe cropping patterns and farming practices are inappropriate (Satriawan et.al, 2014). Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), Areca (Areca catechu L.) and Cocoa (Theobrema cacao L.) are major crops in Kreueng Sieumpo watershed, which spread more dominant on land with slopes between 9-45%. The land area for oil palm plantations in Krueng Sieumpo watershed have increased rapidly, with 4644 ha of cultivation under 5 years since 2008 (BKPM, 2013). But today, oil palm cultivation is limited to marginal areas such as hilly sloping lands where they comprise about 60% of the marginal land areas (Satriawan and Fuady, 2012). Similarly to with oil palm, cocoa is one of the main export commodity in Indonesia that many provide foreign exchange, the more cultivated by farmers. The Aarea planted with under cocoa plantation in Bireuen District in 2012 is 6023 ha and it still continues to growing until now with an average productivity of 0.63 t/ha (BKPM 2013). Areca is also main crop of traditional plantation with 7782 ha of cultivation area and productivity of 1.5 t/ha of dry beans. As a result of land use patterns, the predicted rate of soil erosion on cultivated land reaches from 54.6 to 1007.6 t/ha/year (Satriawan and Harahap, 2013), is still higher than the tolerable erosion in this region ranging from 25.1 to 40 t/ha/year (Fitri, 2010).
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment:Vol79.Issue2-3.July2000:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment:Vol79.Issue2-3.July2000:

land vegetable production systems were identified: declining land productivity due to soil erosion, and increasing incidence of diseases and pests. In order to minimize soil and nutrient losses and improve farm productivity and income, a set of alternative technolo- gies to the traditional farmer up-and-down the slope plantings, such as high-value contour hedgerows, contouring, and tree-vegetable intercropping were identified as practices favoured by farmers for exper- imentation. Planting contour hedgerows across the slope was identified as the most acceptable conserva- tion practice. However, most farmer participants did not like the conventional hedgerow species because of the following reasons: (1) reduction in arable land area, (2) shading of vegetable crops due to lateral spread over the field by e.g. Flemingia macrophylla (a leguminous tree), (3) requiring regular mainte- nance, (4) not providing immediate economic return, and (5) unavailability of planting material. Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (K.) Schum.) was not popular because its roots spread laterally. However, one farmer suggested making a ditch around the rows of napier so that roots cannot spread out in the field. Farmers wanted to use high-value crops as hedgerows in their vegetable fields. The following were the crops vegetable growers were interested to test as hedgerows: asparagus, pineapple, pigeon peas, lemon grass, and tea. Results from tree-vegetable intercrops are considered elsewhere (Nissen et al., 1999).
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isprsarchives XXXIX B8 231 2012

isprsarchives XXXIX B8 231 2012

The findings of this study have important policy implication for the soil erosion reduction by participation of all the stakeholders. The soil erosion hot spot is mapped by the stakeholder who helped for the conservation of the soil in watershed. Stakeholders know the physical factors affecting for the soil erosion are slope, type of the soil and conservation practices. The result of the correlation and regression model showed that the soil erosion reduction is significantly influenced by education farm size and family member occupation and membership on the groups like Cooperative, mothers group and forest group. The RUSLE model had showed the soil loss spot which was somehow similar to the participatory GIS map prepared by the stakeholder’s focus group discussion. The generic rule for the finding technical and policy support to the stakeholder and their participation on the mapping make clear concept factors affecting for soil erosion and their participation makes the sustainable soil erosion reduction in Phewa watershed. Reference:
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