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THE SOUTH CHINA SEA UNCLOS TRIBUNAL AWARD 2016: WHAT IT HAS CHANGED AND WHAT IT DOES MEAN TO INDONESIA

THE SOUTH CHINA SEA UNCLOS TRIBUNAL AWARD 2016: WHAT IT HAS CHANGED AND WHAT IT DOES MEAN TO INDONESIA

Since The Permanent Court of Arbitration issued its award on 12 July 2016 it have raised many controvertion. Almost all Submissions are decided in favour of the Philippines. The Award, as expected by many scholars, is not intended to solve the core dispute of the South China Sea ‘what maritime features belong to whom’, since the very nature of this kind of dispute is not under the Tribunal competence. The sovereignty over disputed features shall be left to the claimant States for the resolution. Nevertheless, the Tribunal Award has not only clarified the dispute but also partially solve the core dispute. The legal clarification is expected to contribute to future negotiations among the claimant States concerning the core (sovereignty) dispute. This Article attempts to identify and describe what has been changed by the Tribunal Rulings and what has been solved. The implication of the Ruling on Indonesia’s legal interest is also briefly discuss.
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this PDF file Maritime Sovereignty and Propaganda on South China Sea | Wijaya | IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 1 PB

this PDF file Maritime Sovereignty and Propaganda on South China Sea | Wijaya | IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 1 PB

However, that policy has severely affected Jakarta – Beijing diplomatic relations. Although Indonesia has scuttled 234 foreign vessels, Chinese vessels have enjoyed a special approach compared to other offenders. )n December , a large ship filled with Chinese crews was arrested by custom officers in Merauke and Papua, far from the South China Sea. When the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Susi Pudjiastuti, decided that the vessel should be scuttled as an effort to enforce sanctions, her ministerial colleagues argued not to sink the vessel to avoid problems with China. Although the vessel was finally scuttled in May 2015, without any media coverage, this action was postponed until six months after the fishermen were captured. Indonesia has, meanwhile, had to manage its own tensions with Beijing regarding its behaviour in the South China Sea in the waters off Natuna (Connelly, 2015).
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Indonesia’s Maritime Vision and the Prospect of Cooperation in the South China Sea | Ramadhani | Jurnal Hubungan Internasional 2255 6147 1 PB

Indonesia’s Maritime Vision and the Prospect of Cooperation in the South China Sea | Ramadhani | Jurnal Hubungan Internasional 2255 6147 1 PB

Indonesia will increase its defense budget to IDR200 trillion (USD15 billion) by 2020 as it becomes a commitment to reduce its part dependency on sourc- ing military procurement funds from foreign military aid (Grevatt, 2015). In 2014 the Indonesian Minister of Defence Purnomo Yusgiantoro said that the govern- ment was planning to build a combat helicopter base on Natuna Island to strengthen Indonesia’s military power in the territory that borders the South China Sea (Tempo, 2014). It displays Indonesia’s willingness to increase their self-defence strategy amidst uncer- tainty in international affairs more importantly in the South China Sea dispute. In addition, one of the most important points of the GMN concept concern- ing the South China Sea dispute is stated by The Indonesian Minister for Foreign Affairs, Retno Marsudi, who signalled the intention of Indonesia to make more of a contribution through a bilaterally driven and self-interested approach to diplomacy. It will be applied through continual pressure on the completion of the code of conduct in South China Sea between China and ASEAN (Kemlu, 2015). This vision can be considered as Indonesia’s strategy to play a more active role in regional basis, while pursuing national interests at the same time. As ASEAN leaders, Indonesia is a strategic place for any sort of international commerce. In order to apply this policy, there have to be coordinating policies from ministries to articulate the grand design of GMN, for instance the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Ministry of Transportation, and the Indonesian Navy. Neverthe- less, 9 months since inauguration, none of the minis- tries involved in that vision have released any official blueprint in regard to GMN implementation. In order to respond to the challenges, four broad tiers of decision-making are particularly important: policy making at the level of grand strategy, grand strategy making, military policy and strategy making, naval policy and strategy making (Till, 2015).
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Indonesia’s Maritime Vision and the Prospect of Cooperation in the South China Sea | Ramadhani | Jurnal Hubungan Internasional 2255 6146 1 PB

Indonesia’s Maritime Vision and the Prospect of Cooperation in the South China Sea | Ramadhani | Jurnal Hubungan Internasional 2255 6146 1 PB

United Nations Conventions on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is thus expected to become a legal guideline for all claimants to comply with the peaceful dispute settlement. It is stated that every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit of 12 nautical miles, measured from baselines determined in accordance with this convention (UNCLOS, 1982). However, China has made new claim over the ‘’nine-dashed line” which embraces some 80% of the South China Sea is described as China’s historic waters. This claim has raised the awareness of its neighbors such as the Philippines and Vietnam as they believe that they too are entitled to benefit from the natural resources and other potentials of the region. Sovereignty claims and energy vulnerabil- ity become the two major factors which exacerbate the dispute. As a sea which holds a huge amount of potential energy resources, it becomes potentially one of the most protracted conflict zones in Asia Pacific, where both regional and international players try to assert their unequivocal primacy over the disputed area. There are at least six countries with interests at stake in the competing territorial and jurisdictional claims of the South China Sea; China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, and the Philippines. Among all claimants, China persistently displays the most aggressive behaviour proven by the military build-up and public statement by Chinese officials in regard to their reluctance to engage with external parties in the dispute such as the U.S. On the other hand, the U.S. argued that they have underwritten regional security for decades, patrolling Asia’s sea lanes and preserving stability, therefore their presence in playing a more contributing role in the region is needed (Clinton, 2015). Notwithstanding the fact that
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Inquiry to the Use of ASEAN Way: China Increase Posturing and Indonesia’s Role in South China Sea Disput

Inquiry to the Use of ASEAN Way: China Increase Posturing and Indonesia’s Role in South China Sea Disput

As the tension in South China Sea has risen, pundits and scholars quickly forgot how manageable it was once during the period after the Asian Financial Crisis until before the Global Economic Crisis of 2008. This paper will identify and elaborate the reasonof South China Sea tension to re-escalate after a decade of sustained peace while trying to assess the effectiveness of ASEAN Way in defusing the conflict and understand the role of Indonesia in South China Sea territorial dispute. The findings of this study explained what motivates China to take tougher stance in this matter. First is the internationaliza- tion of South China Sea dispute with the submission through International Court of Jus- tice by Malaysia and Vietnam; second is the growing international power and influence China gained after the global economic crisis of 2008; third, while China’s growing naval capabilities since a decade ago has made possible for China to extend its power projec- tion far reaching its coastline; fourth the growing interdependence of regional trade from Southeast Asian countries with China through the full establishment of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area in 2010; fifth, ineffectiveness of the U.S. rebalancing strategy in Asia due to its stance on South China Sea, and sixth, disunity of ASEAN to converge on a common course of action towards China’s behavior in South China Sea, this evidence also concurs how ineffectiveness of ASEAN Way to come to agreement what are the Code of Conduct should look like. Meanwhile Indonesia tried hard to push this agenda in various formal and informal meetings in East Asia, although the noise its making still cannot lured parties involved reluctantly revert back to the old balancing power game. Keywords: South China Sea, ASEAN Way, Indonesia
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Media Propaganda Techniques in the South China Sea Dispute

Media Propaganda Techniques in the South China Sea Dispute

This study is a quantitative content analysis. Ker- linger (1973) defines it as a systematic, objective and quantitative process for the purpose of variable of measurement. In this study, the author wants to find out propaganda techniques performed by the mass media in Indonesia (Harian Kompas) and China (Xinhua News Agency). The population in this study is the entire news relevant to the South China Sea, including the problem of illegal fishing in Natuna Is- lands published in Harian Kompas and Xinhua News Agency in a two-month period from May 30 until July 30, 2016. This period is chosen because there was an illegal fishing carried out by Chinese boats at the end of May. The keywords used are “the South China Sea” and “Indonesia.” This study uses a total sam- pling, namely the entire population of the news from May 30 to July 30, 2016. There are 66 news articles from Harian Kompas and another 10 from Xinhua News Agency.
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BAB III HASIL PENELITIAN PEMBAHASAN A. Isi Tuntutan Dan Putusan Dari The South China Sea Arbitration Award - 13.20.0016 Indra Tri Prabowo Sutiyarso BAB III

BAB III HASIL PENELITIAN PEMBAHASAN A. Isi Tuntutan Dan Putusan Dari The South China Sea Arbitration Award - 13.20.0016 Indra Tri Prabowo Sutiyarso BAB III

15. Dengan berulang kali menegaskan kembali bahwa negosiasi atau berunding sebagai sarana untuk menyelesaikan perselisihan, dan dengan menekankan bahwa negosiasi akan dilakukan oleh negara yang bersangkutan secara langsung, ketentuan yang dikutip di atas instrumen bilateral dan ayat 4 dari DOC jelas telah menimbulkan akibat tidak termasuknya setiap penyelesaian menggunakan pihak ketiga. Secara khusus, yang disebutkan di Joint Statement between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of the Philippines concerning Consultations on the South China Sea and on Other Areas of Cooperation of 10 August 1995 menetapkan di butir 3 bahwa "proses bertahap dan kerjasama harus diadopsi dengan tujuan akhir yaitu negosiasi sebagai penyelesaian sengketa bilateral ". Istilah "akhir" dalam konteks ini jelas berfungsi untuk menekankan bahwa "perundingan" adalah satu-satunya cara yang dipilih untuk penyelesaian sengketa, dengan mengesampingkan cara lain termasuk prosedur penyelesaian pihak ketiga;
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PERAN PEMERINTAH INDONESIA DALAM MENGELOLA KONFLIK LAUT CHINA SELATAN THE ROLE OF INDONESIAN GOVERNMENT IN MANAGING OF SOUTH CHINA SEA CONFLICT

PERAN PEMERINTAH INDONESIA DALAM MENGELOLA KONFLIK LAUT CHINA SELATAN THE ROLE OF INDONESIAN GOVERNMENT IN MANAGING OF SOUTH CHINA SEA CONFLICT

Melihat dinamika konflik yang terjadi di Laut China Selatan seperti yang ditunjukkan di atas maka tantangan Pemerintah Indonesia saat ini adalah bagaimana memainkan Perannya melalui pengelolaan konflik. Saat ini sebetulnya Pemerintahan Joko Widodo telah menunjukkan komitmennya untuk melakukan hal tersebut yakni melalu diplomasi membumi. Diplomasi membumi ini adalah diplomasi yang berorientasi pada kepentingan rakyat dan lebih berorientasi ke dalam negeri. Hal ini tentu saja berbeda dengan gaya kepemimpinan presiden terdahulu yaitu Soesilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY), dimana diplomasi yang digunakan pada saat itu dikenal dengan istilah “thousand friends zero enemy”. Oleh karena itu, menurut Prof. Dewi Fortuna Anwar untuk memainkan peran strategisnya, Pemerintah Indonesia sebagai negara terbesar di ASEAN sekaligus negara dengan penduduk terbesar keempat di dunia tidak cukup hanya menggunakan diplomasi membumi saja melainkan perlu ditambah dengan visioner, kapasitas intelektual, pemimpin yang
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Concentration of Selected Radionuclides in Sediment and Surface Seawater in Belitung Island, Indonesia

Concentration of Selected Radionuclides in Sediment and Surface Seawater in Belitung Island, Indonesia

The Indonesian Through Flow (ITF) is the connection between two oceanic basins in the tropical region, Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean. There are three Indonesian Through Flow (ITF) branches: the flow through the Makassar Strait; through the South China Sea; and through the eastern Indonesian basins (Du & Qu, 2010). In the South China Sea, the water exchanged between the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea within the depth range of the thermocline, later observations revealed that there is a Kuroshio branch toward the South China Sea both winter and summer and the intrusion of the North Pacific Tropical Water seems to occur during most. The South China Sea connects in the south with the Sulu and Java Seas through the Shallow Mindoro (-200 m) and Karimata (50m) straits dan in the north with East China Sea through the shallow Taiwan Strait (<100m) and with the Pacific Ocean through the deep Luzon Strait (>2000m) (Qu et al., 2009).
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THE STRENGTHENING OF JAPAN-PHILIPPINES STRATEGIC COOPERATION IN 2015

THE STRENGTHENING OF JAPAN-PHILIPPINES STRATEGIC COOPERATION IN 2015

70 In the vital needs of Japan to maintain its “Economic Well-being”, South China Sea serve as the main route of Japan’s energy imports from the Middle East and other country, which needs to pass South China Sea in order to reach Japan in the Eastern part of Asia. The abundant natural resource and potential hydrocarbon deposits in the area of South China Sea also become one of the consideration why Japan needs to involve in securing the South China Sea Region. Many of Japan’s off-shore and on-shore oil production assets were located in the claimed area of China’s 9-dashed line, thus China’s assertiveness in South China Sea poses a significant threat towards Japan’s economy. By supporting the countries that have been currently participating in the disputes with China, especially Philippines, Japan is actually securing is economy in indirect way and also maintaining the already established economic cooperation between Japan and the Southeast Asia Countries.
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THE SYNERGY OF INDONESIA’S MARITIME POWER INSTRUMENT TO FACE CHINA’S CLAIM OVER SOUTH CHINA

THE SYNERGY OF INDONESIA’S MARITIME POWER INSTRUMENT TO FACE CHINA’S CLAIM OVER SOUTH CHINA

The absence of guidelines that objectively and comprehensively express attitudes that must be demonstrated in harmony by all instruments of maritime power in Indonesia can telegraph to other countries (especially China) that Indonesia does not have a firm attitude towards the issues at hand. One example is the journal "Indonesia in the South China Sea: Walking Alone" which states that the instrument of power in Indonesia has been walking separately in conducting protest, between the MoMAF, MoFA, and the MoD – all of which showed a lack of synergy within the Government of Indonesia. 14
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Detection of Aedes albopictus pre imagin

Detection of Aedes albopictus pre imagin

he mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse and Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus) are vectors of dengue, chikungunya, and other arboviruses and are widely regarded to undergo pre-imaginal development only in freshwater habitats. As there is no vaccine or speciic drug for dengue, eliminating or larviciding the freshwater habitats of the vectors are important strategies for controlling dengue worldwide. However, such measures have failed to eradicate dengue from Brunei Darussalam, with an incidence of 73 cases per 100,000 persons in 2010, and other Southeast Asian countries with extensive coastal areas (Arima and Matsui 2011, Chun et al. 2007). hey also did not prevent recent epidemics of chikungunya in Asia (Lobo et al. 2011, Surendran et al. 2007, Weaver and Reisen 2010). Two- iths of the world’s population is now at risk from dengue, which shows an increasing incidence and global spread. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were recently shown to oviposit and undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water (fresh, brackish, and saline waters are deined as containing <0.5, 0.5 to 30, and >30 parts per thousand (ppt) salt, respectively) in discarded plastic and glass containers, abandoned boats, and wells in coastal areas of Sri Lanka in South Asia (Ramasamy et al. 2011, Surendran et al. 2012). Such brackish water habitats are potential sources of vectors that may contribute to the transmission of dengue and other arboviral diseases in coastal areas. We therefore investigated the possible presence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae in brackish water collections along the South China Sea coast of Brunei Darussalam, a dengue-endemic Southeast Asian country where dengue is known to occur in coastal areas (Chun et al. 2007).
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HI DI ASIA TENGGARA Paper Brunei Darussa

HI DI ASIA TENGGARA Paper Brunei Darussa

In the case of the South China Sea dispute, since most of the claimants are reluctant to resolve the sovereignty issue through any of the approaches, a permanent peace is unlikely to achieve for the time being. However, temporary peace is possible. Peace can be obtained when claimants’ interests are attended to. Comparing to the interest of sovereignty, the other two interests are comparatively easier to accomplish, namely security of sea lanes and exploration of natural resources. First, stability and security of the South China Sea are necessary for the economic development of all claimants. Second, previous efforts of all claimants have laid foundation to further carry on negotiations cooperation on issues except territorial claims. In this regard, China’s proposal of setting aside dispute will be a wise choice for all claimants. Due to the complexity of the dispute, no single approach can achieve the permanent peace.
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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study

Nowadays, people tend to choose online news media to get news. One newspaper that is often used as a source of reading is Tribunnews. As a form of discourse, news articles are part of the text. Van Dijk (1988) argues that discourse structures have a special role in the making of the text, since it produces continuity, which exists between one part of the text and another. This study aims to reveal the use of discourse structure in reporting South China Sea dispute in Tribunnews Online Media in two articles, Indonesia Patut Bersyukur Beryukur Atas Kekalahan China Terkait Laut China Selatan and Australia Berniat Patroli Bersama Indonesia di Laut China Selatan, Beijing Diprediksi Akan Meradang. This study uses qualitative approach, in way to get the objective of this research. This research uses discourse structure theory, which has two steps. First, global structure is dealing with the overall or larger segments of discourse. Then, superstructure related to the overall framework of the text structured in a news report. The superstructure analysis only focused on schematic that focuses on scheme, a framework of a text, such as the introduction, contents, closing, and conclusions. Second, local structures concerns about the smallest or linguistic elements including the semantic, syntactic, lexical, and rhetorical styles. It focused on several key factors, which are particularly sensitive in framing. As the result, this study found that in the period of four months, Tribunnews described Indonesia as inconsistent regarding Indonesia’ s position in the South China Sea dispute.
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90sr condition in the east china sea and north pasific

90sr condition in the east china sea and north pasific

In addition, the high concentration of 90 Sr at station 6, it may be that station was much more supported from Taiwan with through processes of the Taiwan-Tsushima Warm Current System (Fig. 4, Isobe, 1999). He found that there are two different schools of thought with regard to the origin the Tsushima Warm Current. One school of thought believes that it comes from the Taiwan Strait, while the other believes that it enters the East China Sea from the Kuroshio region southwest of Kyushu Japan, crossing the steep shelf slope.
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South–South Cooperation, Agribusiness, and African Agricultural Development: Brazil and China in Ghana and Mozambique

South–South Cooperation, Agribusiness, and African Agricultural Development: Brazil and China in Ghana and Mozambique

In recent years China, Brazil, India, and other so-called ‘‘ris- ing powers ” are playing new roles in development cooperation in Africa. They have challenged the dominant narratives of mainstream, northern development aid, and economic exper- tise. They depict the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Commit- tee (DAC) framework as imposing conditionalities based on unequal international relations and the legacies of colonialism. They contrast their approach as SouthSouth Cooperation (SSC), rooted in third world solidarity, horizontal exchange, mutual respect, and complementarity (Alden, Morphet, & Vieira, 2010; Golub, 2013). Detractors characterize SSC as a new form of imperialism promoting a scramble for resources on the African continent to meet the needs of the rapidly expanding industries and consumer markets of rising powers (see Carmody, 2011 for a comprehensive discussion of debates around this theme). Others argue that these new forms of development cooperation undermine governance reforms, transparency, and sustainable development (see Alden, 2007, chap. 4). However, there is also a recognition that these new forms of development cooperation can both facilitate and com- plement other sources of aid and trilateral initiatives are becoming common (Abdenur & da Fonseca, 2013). Thus, development cooperation is becoming increasingly multilateral and multipolar.
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China Threat Perceptions in Southeast Asia: Problems of Bilateral Interactions

China Threat Perceptions in Southeast Asia: Problems of Bilateral Interactions

Another reason is regional maritime conflicts in South China Sea, particularly conflicts in Spratly and Paracel Islands that involve China, Vietnam, Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Taiwan. xxiv Regarding the involvement of China in this conflict, Southeast Asian countries see there is a possibility that China will use its forces to solve the dispute because China has been active and engaged its military force in the conflict area. Additionally, tensions have frequently happened between China and others countries that also claim Spratly Islands as part of their territory. xxv In 1998 former the Philippines Defense Secretary Orlando S. Mercado described the Chinese occupation and enlargement some structures in the Mischief Reef, Spratly Island as a strong indication of China’s “creeping invasion” of the “disputed South China Sea chain. xxvi Consequently, these all situations highlight Southeast Asian countries to give more attention over PLA’s modernization and see it as a potential threat for security in Southeast Asia.
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T1__Daftar Pustaka Institutional Repository | Satya Wacana Christian University: Strategi Militer Jepang dan Cina dalam  Kedaulatan Wilayah: Studi Kasus Perebutan Wilayah Sengketa Kepulauan SenkakuDiaoyu Tahun 20122016 T1  Daftar Pustaka

T1__Daftar Pustaka Institutional Repository | Satya Wacana Christian University: Strategi Militer Jepang dan Cina dalam Kedaulatan Wilayah: Studi Kasus Perebutan Wilayah Sengketa Kepulauan SenkakuDiaoyu Tahun 20122016 T1 Daftar Pustaka

Drifte, Reinhard. 2008. Japanese-Chinese territorial disputes in the East China Sea between military confrontation and economic cooperation . London UK : Asia Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science

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REAKSI JEPANG DAN KOREA SELATAN TERHADAP

REAKSI JEPANG DAN KOREA SELATAN TERHADAP

Sebagai bentuk dukungan terhadap Jepang, AS mengirimkan 2 pesawat tempur pembom B-52 Dua pesawat pembom B-52 tanpa bermuatan bom itu diterbangkan dari pangkalannya di Guam ke sekitar kepulauan Senkaku/Diaoyou tanpa memberitahu Cina (Http://Jakartagreater.Com/Zona-Pertahanan-Udara- China-Macan-Kertas). Adapun juga 2 buah pesawat maritim bertenaga turbin P- 8 Poseidon di kirimkan dari pangkalan udara Jacksonville, Florida ke pangkalan udara AL AS di Kadena, Okinawa, Jepang. Bahkan jika ekskalasi memuncak, AS memiliki beberapa asset militer berharga yang di simpan di pangkalan AL AS di Okinawa. Asset tersebut berupa jet tempur pengganti generasi V, F-22 Raptor. AS juga mempersiapkan Jepang dengan memberi pesawat tempur F-35 dengan kemampuan stealth (anti radar).
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Index of /enm/images/dokumen

Index of /enm/images/dokumen

Value of Indonesia export is relatively smaller than that of import. Export value showed decline during 2004-2005, 42% decline in export quantity and 65% decline in export value. Import also experienced decline during the same period with 37% and 33% decline in import quantity and value respectively. Import figure tends to fluctuate with annual average growth of 58% in quantity and 120% in value. Rice cookers come mainly from China, followed by Thailand, South Korea, Singapore and Japan.

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