A few studies have investigated speciescomposition and AGB in the pine forest in GGPNP, with most studies of forest composition and structural patterns concentrating on the mountainous and lowland vegetation of natural forests (Abdulhadi et al., 1998; Sadili et al., 2009; Yamada, 1975; Helmi et al., 2009). Measurement of permanent sampling plots at certain intervals and over a one-year period is required to understand the process in which changes occur at individual and even species levels. However, there are no data on balance between growth, recruitment and mortality. Thus, the objective of the present study is to provide information on composition and AGB of pine forests over a three year period in Bodogol, GGPNP.
Gunungkelir stream is located in Jatimulyo village, western part of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Province. The ecosystem that surrounds Gunungkelir stream looks natural and unpolluted, it is possible for good living environment of amphibians. However, the database about diversity of Amphibians in Gunungkelir stream has not been revealed. This research was done to study species diversity, species richness, speciescomposition and distribution of amphibians in Gunungkelir stream as an effort to support the sustainability of amphibians live from extinction. The research was done on January-May 2009, at night. The VES (Visual Encounter Survey) method with line transects 250 m were used. A total 11 species of amphibians from 6 different amphibia families were identiied. Phrynoidis aspera, Leptobrachium hasseltii and Hylarana chalconota are dominant species. The higest percentage of amphibians population was tadpole (38%), followed by male (35%), female (21%), and the least were juvenile (6%). During the survey, different species of amphibians were observed with their own range of spatial distribution.
Trophic level is position of a species or a group of species within a food chain or food web, where it showed phases of transfer energy and material inter and intra on each group. This study aimed to analyze speciescomposition and trophic level of lift net catch in ohoililir village water, southeast maluku regency. Observation variables on this research were, speciescomposition, length and weight of fish also trophic level of catch by using lift net. Experimental fishing was the methodology for data collecting. Results shows that, trophic level of fish which catch by lift net was categories included to trophic level three (TL3), means most of fish catch by lift net dominated by omnivorspecies, as the result the fish structure community and pyramid become unstable. In order to prevent this matter, better conservation of fish around the area based on trophic level by considering various ecosystem components like fish and its food chain.
Forest is an ecosystem that combines the interaction between biotic and abiotic factors. Ecologically, the formation of forest community formed gradually through the changing of the vegetation and habitat. Community of forest is a dynamic and always changing until it reaches a optimum stage. The growth of a tree species in a forest community is influenced by several factors, including climatic factors, edaphic, physiological and biotic factors. The changing in the factors mentioned previously will take effect on the vegetation structure and composition. Forest with a variety functions and benefits provide a tremendous influence both directly and indirectly to several aspects such as ecology, economic, and social. Utilization of forests can be well manage and reach the sustainably if the information about the forest condition are available.
Extensive surveys of vegetable, ornamental and weedy plant species were conducted in highland and lowland vegetable production areas in Indonesia with the aim of recording leafminer species present and their associated natural enemies. The most common dipterous species reared from samples was the pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). This introduced pest was particularly serious in highland vegetables in Java, Sumatra and South Sulawesi, causing yield losses as high as 60-70%. Another alien species, the vegetable leafminer, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, contributed to problems in lowland areas on the north coast of West Java, where cucumbers were heavily damaged. An Asian leafminer species, Chromatomyia horticola Goureau, was more common in snow peas (Pisum sp.). Intensive sampling of leafminer-infested leaves from surveyed host plants yielded 11 species of hymenopteran parasitoids: 10 eulophids (Asecodes sp., Chrysocharis sp., Cirrospilusambiguus (Hansson and LaSalle), Closterocerus sp., Hemiptarsenusvaricornis (Girault), Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood), Neochrysocharis sp., Pnigalio sp., Quadrastichus sp., Zagrammosoma sp.) and 1 eucoilid (Gronotoma sp.). The most abundant parasitoid species was H. varicornis. Levels of parasitism varied among crops and growing seasons, but were usually low, especially on potato (< 3%). Surveys revealed that most farmers (63%) attempted to control leafminers by applying insecticides twice weekly although these applications were neither effective nor economical according to responses of about 72% of the farmers. An integrated pest management approach is suggested that emphasizes IPM training for vegetable farmers and includes reductionor elimination of broad spectrum chemicals that would adversely affect parasitoids that may already be present as well as those that may be introduced. The initiation of a classical biological control programme is recommended to enhance the limited parasitoid complex present in Indonesia and increase levels of biological control.
All tree specimens were collected and identiied in the herbarium collection of the Samboja Forestry Research Institute. A list of species was compiled at each measurement. Shannon's diversity and Pielou's evenness indices were calculated for each occasion (Magurran, 1988; Ludwig and Reynolds, 1988). Stand density (number of trees), basal area, and aboveground biomass were also calculated at each occasion (Husch et al. 2003). he aboveground biomass was estimated using allometric equations developed by Yamakura et al. (1986) for undisturbed tropical lowland rain forests in Sebulu, East Kalimantan province. he site of their study was considered to have similar characteristics with this study site in terms of forest type, topography, climate, soil type, and dominant family in the forests. Changes in the speciescomposition, stand density, basal area, and aboveground biomass were analysed and then compared at each assessment. he diferences of diameter distribution between the two occasions were also tested using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov two sample test (Zarr, 2006).
Meru Betiri National Park (MBNP) is one of the nature conservation area that has the potential of flora, fauna, and ecosystems that could develop as a nature-based tourism attraction. The existence of certain indicator species was related to estimation of stress level and disturbance on ecosystem stability for making strategic decisions about the restoration in this area. One of the important indicator species at forest ecosystem were soil arthropods. Aim this research were analyzed composition and diversity of soil arthropods at Rajegwesi, MBNP areas. The methods in this research used pitfall trap, measurement of distribution structure and soil arthropods composition based on the Shannon - Wiener index, Morisita similarity index and Importance Value Index (IVI). The number of families and individuals of soil arthropods found in the coastal area of Rajegwesi consists of 10 order with 21 families (702 individual). The number of individuals of the order Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Collembola and Araneida was more widely found. Soil arthropods diversity index on each land use indicated that soil arthropod diversity in these areas were moderate. Soil arthropod community of orchards and forest had a similarity of speciescomposition, whereas soil arthropod community of savanna had a similarity of speciescomposition with paddy fields.
However, none of these restoration and rehabilita- tion approaches have shown significant positive effects on degraded grassland black-soils in alpine areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (Shang and Long 2007). This is largely a consequence of the special and extremely degraded conditions of these soils (Shang and Long 2007; Shang et al. 2008). Favorable natural restoration approaches have been found to be difficult to establish. Black-soil-type degraded grass- lands, which range from 10 to 15 cm in depth, occur after complete removal of surface layer by intensive grazing and activities of rodents leaving the sub-soil uncovered (Shang and Long 2007). In the cold season especially, it is not covered with vegetation, which leaves the soil bare and prone to erosion, while in the warm season grasslands are covered by toxic weeds, inedible for livestock (Shang and Long 2007). This not only leads to ecological problems, but also greatly reduces the productivity of those grasslands. The common restoration and rehabilitation approach to this degradation is an establishment of artificial and semi- artificial grassland (Shang and Long 2007; Shang et al. 2008). Although more recent studies focus on effects of different restoration and management on plant speciescomposition and diversity, soil properties and soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics (Smith et al. 2000; Burke 2001; Wright et al. 2004; Shang et al. 2008; Wu et al. 2009), relatively little information is available on artificial grassland establishment, which may be seen as a stronger disturbance on natural grassland, affecting soil properties and the soil carbon-sink function in a black-soil-type degraded grassland ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
In Table 3 the mean values of three single years are presented to compare the speciescomposition of above-ground vegetation and soil seed bank. The ef- fect of N-fertilization (N0 versus N1) and of differ- ences in soil N-content (G1 versus G2) differed with species. Nitrophilous weeds with high indicator values for N (Ellenberg, 1992) gained from a high N-supply, particularly Galium aparine, Solanum nigrum, Urtica urens. The majority of species with low indicator val- ues showed a clearly reduced coverage and soil seed bank, such as Euphorbia exigua, Anagallis arvensis and Silene noctiflora. Despite low indicator values coverage of Descurainia sophia and Lithospermum arvense was higher in N-rich plots.
Crosses of banteng and zebu produce viable offspring, but male hybrids are not fertile . However, the mixed banteng zebu species origin is not supported by breeding records, while only sporadic molecular data are available , , , , , . Via an analysis of the maternal, paternal and autosomal species origin of five zebu breeds and five populations of Bali cattle, we show here that the speciescomposition of Indonesian zebu breeds is unique and varies from mainly zebu to completely banteng. This information is of direct relevance for the genetic management and conservation of Indonesian cattle breeds.
In order to determine the species richness, the speciescomposition, height, diameter class structure and tree species diversity were examined in a 1-ha area in lowland tropical rain forest in Sungai Lalang forest reserve, Selangor, Malaysia. However, some of trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) of 5 cm and above were measured and recorded to be analyzed. As a result, all species at the study site were compared with some results which were found equaled abundant according to Evenness Index that gave a value of 0.922; Margalef’s Index reflected a value of 17.01. Chaetocarpus castanocarpus (Euphorbiaceae) was the most important species with an IVI (Important Value Index) of 4.643%, while Euphorbiaceae was the dominant family for the study area with IVI of 14.02%. The study is recommended that this study area should be managed and protected in the right way to ensure the continued existence and conservation of Malaysia natural resource.
Diversity and speciescomposition of hemipteran predator in oil palm plantations were not affected by distance of oil palm plantation from natural habitats. The presence of natural habitats also did not affect the recolonization of hemipteran predators in oil palm plantations. Abundance of dominant hemipteran predators showed decline in different observation times especially for Eocanthecona sp. and Reduviidae sp5, but not for Sycanus sp. Sycanus sp. was allegedly able to rapidly recolonize and its presence was influenced by flowering vegetation in oil palm plantation.
The existence of Cassava under the Teak stand, in Ngawi Forest District, have change the undergrowth speciescomposition and their ecological structure. Based on the research results of the different age class of teak plantation forest (II – V) could be concluded that the speciescomposition of undergrowth tend to decrease either species number or individual number of each species. Only 4 species from 21 species of undergrowth that were found in all of the research compartments those are Hoplismenus burmani, Clitoria ternatea, Eupatorium odoratum and Synedrela nudiflora; and their distribution were horizontally aggregated. For vertical structure of the undergrowth community were not different for each compartment with Cassava. The nutrients rate information of the soil under teak stand with cassava showed low enough.
To study the influence of grazing on the grass- land vegetation, six sites with varying slopes ranging from 0–8% were selected to represent the area where the livestock of the community grazed. Each site had 10 m × 10 m plots where (a) grazing was totally pre- cluded (NOG), (b) moderately grazed (MDG — 1.8 Tropical Livestock Unit Month — TLUM/ha) and (c) very heavily grazed (VHVG — 4.2 TLUM/ha) (see also Mwendera et al., 1997). The NOG and MDG plots were enclosed by barbed wire fences and there was no fencing around VHVG plots. The door of the fence around MDG was opened for 3 days in a week for the free grazing livestock of the farming commu- nity. Grazing took place during all days of the week in VHVG. Data on speciescomposition, per cent cover of three most dominant species and bare ground were collected at 30 days interval from the second week of September to the second week of December. This pe- riod is shortly after the summer rain season when plant growth rate is maximal and most plants bear inflo- rescence. During the long dry period (January–May) and the summer rain period (June–September) most species in VHVG and some in MDG and NOG are not identifiable. Data were collected for three consecutive years from 1995–1997.
The abundance of the family Amathusidae decreased in SFs and PFs, preferring more heavily disturbed, open areas, like AFs and TAs. For example, Faunis canens occurred with similar abundance in all habitats, whereas Thaumantis odana, Amathusia taenia, and Zeuxidia leuxerii occured at similar abundances in SF and PF habitats. Elliot (1992) expected that adult amathusids butterflies to show a conspicuous preference for the understory layer of closed forests (Barlow et al. 2007). In Borneo, most amathusids species were recorded near the ground, and 87.9% of the specimens were trapped in the understory at 0 to 10 m above ground level (Schulze 2001). Amathusid butterflies might be constrained to understory layers of tropical forests by their food resource requirements. First, their larva are typically bound to grasses (mainly Poaceae), palms (Arecaceae), and others monocotyledonous (Ackery 1988; Elliot 1992). Secondly, the adult butterfly exclusively uses fruits and related food sources that are generally more common on the closed forest floor. Butterfly species restricted to undisturbed forests often have narrower geographical ranges than species found in disturbed habitats (Posa et al. 2008).
Crude protein percentage was signi®cantly different among plant species (Table 2). L. leucocephala had the highest value (25.2) and O. lindehimieri had the lowest percentage (4.2). Only plants such as A. rigi- dula (16.5), C. boisieri (14.4), D. virgathus (17.8), L. texanum (14.0), O. lindehimieri and Z. obtusifolia (15.7) had lower CP values than M. sativa hay (18.1). In general, CP content in browse plants is high com- pared with grasses, and it is relatively constant throughout the year (Norton and Poppi, 1995). There- fore, browse is often referred as a protein supplement for livestock. However, our data and those reported by RamõÂrez (1996) shows a wide range in CP content among browse species. The mean of 277 browse species reviewed from 22 literature reports showed a value of 17% and they were within a range of 2.0± 42.0% CP (RamõÂrez, 1996). Moreover, 44% of the browse species had CP values from 13% to 19%, 26% were within 5±12%, 24% were within 20±26% and only 6% were between 27% and 42%. In this study, with exception of O. lindehimieri, all evaluated shrubs had CP percentages in excess of those proposed as the minimum requirement for lactation (12% CP in diet) and growth(11.3%CPindiet) inruminants (ARC,1984). Cell wall (CW) percentage was different (P < 0.001) among evaluated plant species (Table 2). O. lindehimieri resulted with the highest value (57.1) and C. macrum had the lowest percentage (24.8). With exception of A. rigidula (52.3), L. tex- anum (44.5), O. lindehimieri and P. glandulosa (47.1), all plants had lower CW percentages than M. sativa hay (42.2). Browse plants with relatively low CW content have consequently higher nutritive value com- pared with grasses (Lowry et al., 1992). Immature growth has lower CW contents than mature growth and pasture legumes leaf is generally more digestible than stem (Minson, 1990).
The general low species richness found at Mount Slamet in comparison to other parts of Java might also due to the sampling methods used. Net capture methods were used as described by Corbet (1941). One limitation of this method is the restriction to capture of understorey butterflies only, as indicated by the fact that the most abundant species captured were understorey species within the families of Satyridae with 3,924 individuals, followed by Nymphalidae (with 3,737 individuals), Lycaenidae (with 1.290 individuals), and Amathusidae (with 969 individuals). Some canopy fliers might be present but were possibly not captured, as shown by the low abundance of the family Danaidae with 406 individuals and Papilionidae with only 306 individuals. The higher number of individuals of species belonging to family Pieridae might be explained by the fact that several species usually come down to the ground in open habitats. Tropical butterfly communities are divide naturally into two adult feeding guilds (De´ Vries et al. 2012). One guild is composed of species that obtain the majority of their nutritional requirements from flower nectar and include most species of the families Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, and some groups within Nymphalidae. The second guild is composed of certain genera within Nymphalidae, Satyridae, and Amathusidae, whose adults gain virtually all of their nutritional requirements by feeding on juices of rooting fruits and plant sap (Luk et al. 2011). As the numbers of flower-visiting butterflies increased, fruit-feeding butterflies decreased in abundance towards the canopy. A significant negative relationship between trap height and abundance, as well as the number of recorded species, was found among Satyridae and Nymphalidae (Houlihan et al. 2013). Both the Satyridae and Nymphalidae families were showed decreasing abundance and species number with trap height (Schulze et al. 2001; Fermon et al. 2000). Compared to the count walk method, kite netting results in lower species abundance during research done in Brazil (Caldasa and Robbins 2003).
Dapat dilihat pada data tersebut bahwa species tumbuh tidak sama cepatnya. Dengan kata lain terdapat variasi dari species A ke species D. Untuk menentukan apakah variasi tersebut disebabkan oleh species itu sendiri, variansnya harus dihitung. Analisis varians membedakan antara variasi karena blok, karena pengaruh perlakuan dan karena kesalahan (error) eksperimental.,
The use of browse species as fodder for ruminant is increasingly becoming important in many parts of the tropics. Generally, tree fodder is richer in crude protein (CP), minerals and digestible nutrients than grasses (Devendra, 1990; Topps, 1992). The use of tree legume fodder as supplement has improved intake, digestibility and animal performance (Norton, 1994; Abdulrazak et al., 1996). In Kenya, there is limited information on the nutritive value of tree shrubs fed to livestock (Abdulrazak, 1995). Moreover, studies on native tree species are limited than those of the introduced tree species like Leucaena, Gliricidia, Calliandra and Sesbania. The recent infestation of Leucaena leucocephala by the pest Heteropsylla cubana (Reynolds and Bimbuzi, 1993) and the low palatability of Gliricidia sepium (Abdulrazak, 1995) suggests the importance of screening other browses for further use in farming system. Acacia trees dominate in many parts of the arid and semi arid areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, and have multiple uses. They provide food, medicine, fodder aside from being resistant to diseases and the harsh climatic conditions (Le Houerou, 1980). The presence of phenolic compounds in acacia species has a negative affect on their nutritional value and also on their intake by livestock (Degen et al., 1998). Tannins have been attributed to be one of the major causes of their limited use as livestock fodder (Makkar, 1993). Generally, tannins in fodder tree are known to have a negative effect on intake and digestibility (Kumar and D'Mello, 1995). Studies on some acacias have shown them to have either a positive (Ben Salem et al., 1999) or a negative effect (Degen et al., 1998) on animal performance. This variable effect could be attributed to the type of species, season and nutritive value. In vitro gas production (Siaw et al., 1993; Khazaal and érskov, 1994) and in sacco rumen degradability (Kibon and érskov, 1993; Apori et al., 1998) has been used to assess the nutritive value of browse species. These rapid and less expensive methods have been used to screen feed resources before making them available to livestock (Larbi et al., 1998). The objective of this study was to assess the potential nutritive value of some selected species of acacia from Kenya based on their chemical composition, polyphenolic concentration, in vitro gas production and in sacco degradability.