8. At a policy level, mandating and widely implementing open standards provides Governments with the best possible assurance that products and technologies, present and future, will interoperate with previously deployed systems. When a significant number of systems implement open standards so that users can use the Internet to easily publish, discover, access, and use diverse sources of data and services, then government policy makers can establish policies that reinforce the purchase and use of these standards-based systems. Therefore, the widespread use of interoperable systems makes it easier for public and private sector institutions to reach agreements about data sharing that are based on institutional needs rather than technical limitations.
With the advancements in GIS technologies and extensive use of OGC Web Services, geospatial resources and services are becoming progressively copious and convenient over the network. The application of OGC WCS (Web Coverage Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service) standardsforgeospatial raster and vector data has resulted in an opulent pool of interoperable geodata resources waiting to be used for analytical or modelling purposes. The issue of availing geospatial data processing with the aid of standardised web services was attended to by the OGC WPS (Web Processing Service) 1.0.0 specifications (Schut, 2007) which elucidate WPS as a standard interface which serves for the promulgation of geo-processes and consumption of those processes by the clients. This paper outlines the design and implementation of a geo-processing tool utilizing coverage data. The geo-process selected for application is the calculation of Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI), one of the globally used indices for vegetation cover monitoring. The system is realised using the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) and Python. The tool accesses the WCS server using the parameters defined in the XML request. The geo-process upon execution, performs the computations over the coverage data and generates the NDVI output. Since open source technology and standards are being used more often, especially in the field of scientific research, so our implementation is also built by using open source tools only.
In 1904, much of the City of Baltimore in the United States was destroyed by a massive fire. Firefighters from hundreds of kilometers away were sent to assist Baltimore firefighters during the height of the blaze. They could do little to help because the fire hoses used by different responders were not standardized. The resultant inability to connect hoses to fire hydrants turned hundreds of firefighters into spectators. This analogy rings true not just in respect of the need to share geospatial information, such as post- disaster imagery, during a crisis, but throughout all implementations of geospatialtechnologies. Open standards make uniformity, compatibility and interoperability possible for electronic devices, software applications, and processes in all sectors of a global economy.
In Greening through IT – Information Technology for Environmental Sustainability 53 , Bill Tomlinson writes, "IT compresses complexity … by establishing agreed-on standardsfor the cooperation of devices and people." To be more precise, it is not IT itself that establishes agreed-on standardsfor the cooperation of devices and people; rather, the standards with the widest benefit derive from the tried and proven social processes facilitated by standards organizations to bring IT providers and users together. Dominant IT providers' sometimes open (but not consensus-derived) encodings and interfaces (or Application Programming Interfaces – APIs) often become important standards, but the consensus-derived open standards that provide a foundation for the Internet and the Web ultimately have wider value than the open APIs of any closed proprietary ecosystem. TCP/IP, HTTP and XML provide a foundation for a larger ecosystem of other consensus-derived open standards that extend the capabilities of the Internet and Web. The authors of this paper argue for a concerted and ongoing global effort to first define interoperability requirements for environmental science, business and policy, and then develop and implement consensus-derived, free and open environmental IT standards that meet those requirements while co-evolving with the larger IT standards framework and advances in IT.
Redesigning good learning criteria must be based on the instructional objectives that reflected from individual teacher’s teaching experience with specific students’ common writing problems. From my own instructional objectives I know what I expect to be changed in my students writing products. Therefore, the learning criteria redesigned were focused more on specific rather than holistic criteria and standards explained in more detail, easy and precise language, so that students can articulate and apply them when writing. Under this teaching and learning system, student’s self-assessment ability can be increased. They can always, in their own time, refer to writing criteria when planning and developing and self-assessing the quality of their own work. In the long run, when students who have already attained schemata and strategies of effective writing criteria, they can be expected to perform well in writing essays. In line with this, Phye, (1997) underlined ‘the more met cognitively sophisticated students are, the higher their school learning and achievement is likely to be’.
The OGC core mission is to develop spatial interface and encoding specifications that are openly available and royalty free. Products and services that conform to OGC interface specifications enable users to freely exchange and process spatial information across networks, computing platforms, and products. Interoperability in such an environment is facilitated by the use of a system of persistent identifiers that are global in scope. The OGC is the only standards organization whose mission is specifically focused in interfaces and encodings forgeospatial content and services.
IVM/IVF are based on technique of gaining access to the very large numbers of immature eggs (oocyte), present within the ovaries female animals. Typically, 20-30 oocyte can be collected from a pair of ovaries (Anonymous, 1992). The oocytes can also be collected from animal after slaughter (Anonymous, 1993). The method developed is transvaginal ultrasound gained puncture of follicles, which uses ultrasound to guide a hollow needle via vagina into the follicle to extend to the oocyte. Immature oocyte can be matured in laboratory within 24 hours culture period and subsequently fertilized (Kruip and Spaan, 1992). This method has become possible to improve animal production and animal breeding. The future progress will rely on development of synthetic media or growth factor for cultivation oocyte (Robinson and Mc Evoy, 1993).
Use data about learning to reflect on and assess student learning Use data about learning to reflect on and evaluate teaching practice Use evidence to reflect on and identify areas for professional growth Table 2 Dimension 2: Professional Practice with its Components and Elements
Mathematical activity which explained in previous section is represented with various contexts. Such contexts are necessary for developing the ways of thinking, engaging in mathematical process to use and develop mathematics, and appreciating the values of mathematics through reflection. Those context will be simplify the following three processes: developing mathematics, argumentation for understanding others and sophistication through critique, and applying mathematics through modeling and replacement. Extension and generalization are a key for developing mathematics. Producing understandable explanations are usually related with understandable representation such as diagram and materials for showing simple structure. Example is used for demonstration by the specific case and counter example is used for checking generality. Process of modeling usually include problem formation, solving mathematically, and explain the meaning. On those three contexts, values of mathematics such as recognizing beautifulness of pattern are learned through the appreciation of mathematical experience. Appreciation of others’ idea which includes understanding ideas with sense such as usefulness or not-usefulness of learned.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) has also had a major influence on geospatial development. Geospatial data for streets and other man-made and natural features used to be an expensive and tightly-controlled resource, often created by scanning aerial photographs and then manually drawing an outline of a street or coastline over the top to digitize the required features. With the advent of cheap and readily-available portable GPS units, as well as phones which have GPS built in, anyone who wishes to can now capture their own geospatial data. Indeed, many people have made a hobby of recording, editing, and improving the accuracy of street and topological data, which is then freely shared across the Internet. All this means that you're not limited to recording your own data or purchasing data from a commercial organization; volunteered information is now often as accurate and useful as commercially-available data, and may well be suitable for your geospatial application.
IBM System/370 architecture. This architecture was first introduced in 1970 and in- cluded a number of models. The customer with modest requirements could buy a cheaper, slower model and, if demand increased, later upgrade to a more expensive, faster model without having to abandon software that had already been developed. Over the years, IBM has introduced many new models with improved technology to replace older models, offering the customer greater speed, lower cost, or both. These newer models retained the same architecture so that the customer’s software invest- ment was protected. Remarkably, the System/370 architecture, with a few enhance- ments, has survived to this day as the architecture of IBM’s mainframe product line. In a class of computers called microcomputers, the relationship between archi- tecture and organization is very close. Changes in technology not only influence or- ganization but also result in the introduction of more powerful and more complex architectures. Generally, there is less of a requirement for generation-to-generation compatibility for these smaller machines. Thus, there is more interplay between or- ganizational and architectural design decisions. An intriguing example of this is the reduced instruction set computer (RISC), which we examine in Chapter 13.
(d) faculty (Andrews, Roe, Tate, & Yal- lapragada, 1994). Accreditation is a hall- mark of quality and provides students and other business-school stakeholders with an objective, third-party assurance that the business school is conforming to sound academic management practices and a somewhat accepted curriculum. The AACSB accreditation process, like other service-provider accreditation pro- grams, is similar in purpose to the indus- try’s ISO9000 and ISO14000, which are voluntary global certification standardsfor quality and environmental manage- ment (Munilla, Bleicken, & Miles, 1998). In 1991, as a response to increased social and business concerns about corporate behavior, the AACSB developed new standardsfor accreditation that related specifically to ethical, global, political, social, legal/regulatory, environmental, and technological issues. Although these changes were primarily curriculum dri- ven (Munilla, et al., p. 58), they were designed to shore up the academic stand- ing of management education (Slone & LaCava, 1993).
NOTE There is no precise definition of "bug". It refers to an inadvertent error in the implementation, where it deviates from the intention expressed in the prose of the specification document, or is technically invalid for some reason, but may encompass other kinds of error. A judgement from the document editor and OGC technical committee chair is required to determine if a proposed revision may be deemed a "bug-fix" or corrigendum. Bug-fix revisions may not be backward compatible, and in general will not be since there was judged to be an error in the previous version. However, a bug-fix revision should not be used as a back door to add new features.
encourage school cultures that promote student success. Assuming collective responsibility in areas of school leadership, planning special projects, pursuing professional growth, mentoring or developing curriculum outcomes, for example, will be appropriate to the interests, needs, perspectives and the responsibilities of College members’ roles.
NBPTS hopes that advanced certification will act as a catalyst to transform teaching as a career by enabling states and schools to recognize outstanding teaching professionals, offer them better compensation, provide them with increased responsibilities, and place important decisions about teaching policy and practices in their hands. NBPTS is also concerned with education policy and reform issues such as teacher preparation recruitment (particularly among minorities) and the role NBPTS-certified teachers will play in schools. The standards grow out of a central policy statement: What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do. The five core propositions of NBPTS are: (1) teachers are committed to students and their learning; (2) teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students; (3) teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning; (4) teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience; and (5) teachers are members of learning communities (NBPTS, 1994). Key components of this certification process are that candidates complete portfolios and participate in on-demand tasks at assessment centers.
Brunton, S. & Iannini, P., 2014. Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: Clinical Implications for the Empiric Treatment of Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections. [Online] Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/514388 [Diakses 21 Januari 2014].