The parents are also introduced to giving stimulation correctly to the children with the basic principles of correct stimulation based on the 2006 instruction of Indonesian Health Department so that they do not carelessly give stimulation to their children. One of the good and correct stimulation principles is that the stimulation should be given pleasantly without pressure. It can be done through games and singing songs so that parents in the training are asked to practice role playing with the children. According to Manorom and Pallock (2006), role play method is a teaching method which is useful to develop skills as well as academic potentials through environmental stimulation processes so that the parents are expected to practice giving the stimulation to the children directly and the children feel no burden. Moeslichatoen (1999) also says that the advantage of playing games for children is that it fulfills their demands and needs for their motoric, cognitive, creativity, language emotion as well as their social needs and attitudes of life. Through playing activities children can get a chance to choose the activities they like, to experiment with different materials and instrument, to imagine and to solve problems, to converse freely, to work together in a group, and to get joyful experience.
ABSTRACT. Purpose of this research were (1) to identify family’s and child’s characteristics, (2) to identify mother’s knowledge on nutrition and child’s growthdevelopment, mother’s access to information on nutrition and child growthdevelopment, psychosocial stimulation, and child’s cognitive development, (3) to analyze relationship between family’s characteristics and mother’s knowledge on nutrition andgrowthdevelopment, (4) to analyze relationship of family’s characteristics, mother knowledge, child’s characteristics and psychosocial stimulation, (5) to analyze relationship between mother’s knowledge, psychosocial stimulationand child’s cognitive development. A cross sectional design was assigned for this research. Population of this research were children aged 2-5 years old that located at Sub capital East Bogor and Kedungbadak were selected by random proportional from 297 children’s to 100 sample which consist of aged 2-3 years old (37 children), 3-4 years old (50 children), and 4-5 years old (33 children). A correlation test of Rank Spearman was applied to test the correlation among variables. Results showed that there were significant and positive relationship among three variables which were family’s characteristics (family’s income and mother’s education) and mother’s knowledge. Meanwhile, mother’s and father’s educational attainment and family’s income had a positive and significant correlation with psychosocial stimulation.. The study also found that psychosocial stimulationand mother’s knowledge had a significant and positive relationship with child’s cognitive development.
Six, seven and eight. Physical growth is slow but still grow, strength and ability of muscles begin to grow and develop properly. Motor coordination develops extraordinary special when playing as throwing a ball, playing soccer, running and games that require hand-eye coordination. Children this age have the ability berpkiri and learn better, both in logic and nalarsistematis. Children learn to concentrate and focus of attention will be longer than when under the age of six years. Language developmentof the child's verbal skills towards the developmentof writing skills. Language developmentof children aged six years old child more able to accept the vocabulary not only hear but also reading, and language evolved from verbal to written language. (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997). Seefeldt and Barbour (1998) says, "They develop the ability to see things from another person's perspective and have more empathy, but on the other hand also develops sensitivity and feeling irritable." At this age needs adults who can guide and direct the development khsuusnya social and emotional.
A further complication in the identification of mis- reporting of dietary intakes is the possibility that differ- ences in physical activity between individuals are distorting associations between diet and biological out- comes. 31 At age 13 years, assessment of both diet and physical activity with reasonable objectivity was avail- able; therefore, an investigation was made of whether the inclusion of measured physical activity in equations used to assess diet plausibility would provide clearer re- lationships. 31 Three methods for predicting energy re- quirements were used: one allowed for standard low physical activity, the second calculated an individual’s physical activity from prediction equations, and the third used measured minutes of MPVA; all methods in- cluded an allowance for the age, sex, and size of the child. The frequency of plausible reporting was very similar among the methods ( 40%), but the use of measured physical activity gave much lower estimates of under-reporting (37.1%) and higher estimates of over-reporting (20.4%) compared with the first 2 meth- ods (under-reporting 51.5% and 51.8%; over-reporting 7.7% and 10.3%, respectively). For all 3 methods, un- der-reporters had higher mean BMI and waist circum- ference than plausible or over-reporters, as well as a higher percentage body fat (all P < 0.001). Conversely, percentage lean body mass was lowest in under- reporters and highest in over-reporters (all P < 0.001). 31 Because these 13-year-old children were mostly respon- sible for reporting their own diet with minimal parental help, it is very likely that they missed some foods; there- fore, high frequency of under-reporting would be ex- pected. The fact that using the measured physical activity to assess misreporting resulted in a shift toward over-reporting suggests that total physical activity was underestimated with this method. Further work should find ways of incorporating assessment of light physical activity, as well as moderate to vigorous physical activ- ity, into this method to improve estimates of total physi- cal activity.
Khattak, A. M. dan Pearson, S. 1997. The Effect of Light Quality and Temperature on The GrowthandDevelopmentof Chrysanthemum cvs Bright Golden Anne and Snowdon. Acta Press, Inc., New York. 636 p. Khobragade, R. K., Bisen, S., dan Thakur, R. S. 2012. Effect of Planting Distance
Based on the preliminary observations of researchers, there are fundamental issues in the implementation of inclusive education in SD NegeriPulutan 02 KecamatanSidorejoSalatiga ever since it was established as an inclusive school. The first issue is that SD NegeriPulutan 02 Salatigahas never held a thorough evaluation of the inclusive education programs they have run for two years. Evaluation of the current run is still focused on the results of teaching and student learning activities, but not exhaustive on the input, process and output of the program. There are various underlying reasons for not having run a thorough evaluation of inclusive education programs, one of which is the unavailability of time and instrument evaluation to see the developmentof the school. The second issue lies on the discrepancy of the school’s adaptability to maximize its resources to achieve the predetermined goal of inclusive education. The main doubt is on the management of the inclusive program school itself--not so much on the ability of the learners. As an already “established” school, as opposed to a new inclusive school, SDN Pulutan 02 develops a tendency to approach their program just like the general primary school education. This becomes both a strength and weakness of the school that needs further investigation.
Drugs are able to influence the activity of the sympathetic nervous system by several means, for example they can mimic the transmitter, they can block the actions of the transmitter or they can prevent transmitter inactivation. The predominant effect of any such drug would depend on the adrenoceptor subtypes affected. Drugs which act di- rectly on the adrenoceptors are called direct-acting sympathomimetics, these are class- ical agonists of the receptors. Noradrenaline and adrenaline are able to stimulate all types of adrenoceptors, although their relative efficacies differ: noradrenaline has a predomi- nantly α -adrenoceptor effect, unlike adrenaline which is equally effective at stimulating the α - and β -adrenoceptors. For therapeutic use, drugs with more selective actions are of greatest benefit because they are less likely to cause unwanted (‘side’) effects. Ex- amples of such agents are phenylephrine and methoxamine, which are selective agonists of α 1 -adrenoceptors. These drugs are administered locally to the nose to induce vasoconstric- tion, they are therefore useful as decongestants. If they were to be given systemically, the widespread vasoconstriction would induce an increase in blood pressure followed by a reflex decrease in the rate and force of contraction of the heart (see Chapter 4). There are also selective agonists of α 2 -adrenoceptors, but none of these are used therapeut- ically; clonidine, an α 2 -adrenoceptor agonist with some α 1 -adrenoceptor agonist pro- perties is used in the treatment of migraine, menopausal hot flushes and hypertension, but these uses may owe more to effects on central (brain) α -adrenoceptors than on peripheral receptors.
4 Traditional CALL programs presented a stimulus to which the learner had to provide response. In early CALL programs the stimulus was in the form of text presented on screen, and the only way in which the learner could respond was by entering an answer at the keyboard. Some programs were very imaginative in the way a text was presented, making use of color to highlight grammatical features and movement to illustrate points of syntax. Discrete error analysis and feedback were common features of traditional CALL, and the more sophisticated programs would attempt to analyze the learner's response, pinpoint errors, and branch to help and remedial activities (Gillani, 2003).
Sticklebacks are small, bony fish in the family Gas- terosteidae that rarely exceed 3 in (8 cm) in body length. Instead of scales, these fish have bony plates covering their body. Sticklebacks are found in North America and northern Eurasia. The name stickleback is derived from the sharp, thick spines arising in the first dorsal fin. The number of these spines forms part of the basis for the identification of the different species of sticklebacks. Sticklebacks provide a good example of male domi- nance in mating and nesting behavior. At the beginning of the breeding season, a male stickleback selects a suit- able spot in quiet water, where he builds a nest of plant parts stuck together by a sticky fluid produced by his kidneys. The fish shapes the nest by his body move- ments. A male three-spined stickleback is normally blue- green, but it develops a bright red color for the breeding season. The male ten-spined stickleback becomes brown, while the 15-spined stickleback changes to a blue color. Breeding male sticklebacks are aggressive during the breeding season and will readily fight with other males. The male performs a courtship dance to entice a female into the nest, but if this is not successful he attempts to chase the female into his nest, where she deposits her eggs. The male then expels sperm (milt) over the eggs to fertilize them. The male will then search for another fe- male, repeating the process until his nest is filled with eggs. The male aerates the eggs by using his pectoral fins to set up a water current. He guards the eggs until they hatch, and then continues to guard the brood afterwards, maintaining the young in the nest until they are able to obtain their own food.
This study aimed to determine the immersion frequency of recombinant common carp (CcGH) and giant gourami (OgGH) growth hormone in the growthstimulationof giant gourami juvenile. A total of 50 larvae at second day after first feeding, were immersed in 30 ppt salt water for 2 minutes, then transferred into 200 mL of 9 ppt saline water containing 30 mg/L CcGH in inclusion bodies form. Immersion was performed for 60 minutes with a frequency of 2, 3, 4 and 5 times at interval 7 days. The results showed that the highest (p<0.05) average body weight of giant gourami juvenile (2.232±0.190 g) was obtained at 4 times immersion treatment. The total dosage of 4 times immersion (120 mg/L OgGH) from the first experiment was then used in the second experiment to determine whether immersion frequency could be minimized. Fish larvae were immersed once a week, twice a week, and once a week for 2 weeks. The results showed that the highest (p<0.05) biomass (5482.58±110.70 g), and survival rate (87.38±8.84%) were obtained by once immersion time. Hence, both CcGH and OgGH could improve growthof giant gourami juvenile. The IGF-I mRNA expression level was increased significantly at 24 hours after OgGH immersion, and this suggested that IGF-I was involved in growthstimulation. Lower plasma cortisol levels in OgGH- treated fish after 180 minutes may also plays important role in growth induction. Thus, immersion of juvenile once a week in 120 mg/L OgGH solution can be applied to enhance the growthof giant gourami with a high survival rate.
Pertumbuhan ikan gurami relatif lambat, sehingga waktu yang diperlukan untuk mencapai ukuran konsumsi adalah relatif lama (SNI 2006). Alternatif metode cepat yang dapat ditempuh untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan ikan gurami secara signifikan adalah aplikasi hormon pertumbuhan rekombinan (HPr). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan frekuensi optimum penggunaan hormon pertumbuhan rekombinan dari ikan mas dan ikan gurami dalam memacu pertumbuhan, dan tingkat kelangsungan hidup benih ikan gurami. Karena kerja hormon pertumbuhan dalam memacu pertumbuhan terkait dengan Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-I) dalam hati. Pada penelitian ini juga dilakukan analisis ekspresi gen IGF-I. Selain itu, perbedaan frekuensi perendaman berpotensi menyebabkan perbedaan tingkat stres ikan gurami. Oleh karena itu, pada penelitian ini dilakukan pengukuran kadar kortisol plasma tubuh untuk menganalisis tingkat stres ikan yang diberi hormon pertumbuhan rekombinan dengan frekuensi berbeda. Hasilnya diharapkan dapat memberi kontribusi terhadap peningkatan produksi budidaya ikan gurami.
Section 10-13 mentions the qualifications to be the SC members who shall be an individual and have qualification or possess necessary knowledge, expertise or experience in Islamic jurisprudence (Usul al-Fiqh); or Islamic transaction or commercial law (Fiqh al-Mu'amalat). At this point, the guidelines provides that the SAC has the authority to decide which view it sees best on any issue on Islamic finance either it is in line with the principles of the shariah or not. In fact, a court and an arbitrator may refer to the SAC on any dispute involves shariah issues whereby the former just as a matter of taken into consideration and the latter is absolutely binding.
Peranap Coal Field is one of the coal field in Indragiri Hulu with coal reserves measured ± 1.04 billion tons , including coal and lignite type or types of sub-bituminous highvolatile approached with a heating value of 4,600 kcal / kg , so it can be used for the power plant . Peranap coal mine development as a new economic activity in Indragiri Hulu will have an impact on the social , cultural , economic and environmental positive or negative . This study aimed to ( a) identify the influence of the coal field development activity plan Peranap either positive impact or a negative impact ( b ) To put forward suggestions on alternative business and activities needed to enhance the positive effects and reduce the negative effects of coal Peranap field development plan so as to improve the region's economy Indragiri Hulu in Riau Province in particular and in general , and ( c ) As a baseline in the preparation of Community development Program Peranap Coal Field development . Expected results of this study can be input for local authorities , companies and communities in formulating strategies in the utilization of mineral resources for sustainable development in Indragiri Hulu Regency
2 The first website is designed to enrich English teachers with teaching materials to be implemented in class along with the methods. This website offers free downloadable teaching materials. The second and the third provide resources for students to do self study online. In these websites, the students only interact with the materials provided in the web. These websites offer free exercises and leaning materials for students to study in their own time. With the recent programming language, facilities for interaction and tasks which require interaction can be developed so that the students have the opportunity to practice using the language learned. Facilities to communicate with their teacher should also be provided for students to ask questions when they encounter problems.
Before talking about education first will be discussed about early childhood. As for the meaning of early childhood is as follows: (Depdiknas: 2002) Early childhood is a group of people aged 0-6 years (in Indonesia based on Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System), as for berdasrkan the experts of education children, the group of people aged 9-8 years. Early childhood is a group of children who are in the process ofgrowthanddevelopment that is unique, in the sense of having a pattern ofgrowthanddevelopment (fine and coarse motor coordination), intelligence (thinking power, creativity, emotional intelligence, and spiritual intelligence), emotional social (attitudes and behaviors and religion), language and communications that are specific to the child's growthanddevelopment. Based on the uniqueness ofgrowthanddevelopment, early childhood is divided into three stages, namely (a) the period of birth to 12 months, (b) toddler (toddler) age 1-3 years, (c) preschool age 3-6 years , (d) the initial grade of SD 6-8 years. The growthanddevelopmentof early childhood needs to be directed to laying the right foundations for the growthanddevelopmentof the full human being, namely the growthanddevelopmentof physical, intellectual, creative, emotional, social, language and balanced communication as the basis of intact personal formation.(Bambang Hartoyo:2004)
To tackle these questions, each city–Surat, Indore, and Gorakhpur–formed a City Advisory Committee (CAC), which consists of representatives from the municipal government, academia, the private sector, civil society, and the public. Surat and Indore also participated in a series of "Risk to Resilience" (R2R) workshops. By taking into consideration analyses to date, R2Rs identified the axis of critical uncertainties that the city could face, identified possible early indicators to address them, and yielded a range of technical, management and policy intervention options. The third R2R workshop presented the framework of the city resilience strategy to the CAC members and city stakeholders.
Forty eight gilts with average body weight of 107.83 + 5.08 kg were used in experiments to study the use of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as superovulation agent in gilts to increase piglet production. Four groups of twelve gilts were injected with PMSG dan hCG dose levels of 0, 600, 1200, and 1800 IU/gilt. Injections were conducted three days before estrus. During gestation, gilts were placed in colony pigpens. On days 15, 35, and 70 of gestation, gilts were slaughtered in order to measure the number of corpus luteum, growthanddevelopmentof the uterus and placenta. Blood samples were collected to determine progesterone and estradiol concentrations. The resuts showed that superovulation dose levels of 600 to 1200 IU/gilt increased progesterone and estradiol secretions, growthanddevelopmentof the uterus and placenta in gestation ages of 15, 35, and 70 days. It is concluded that superovulation with dose of 600 to 1200 IU can improve the gilts reproduction.
In the realm of anthropology, holistic as well as comparation becomes a very central concept. In this context, holistic is the totality or interrelationship between various aspects in explaining about human and society. In the realm of social science, holistic begins with ideas that thrive in biological disciplines. The English social scientist, Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) built a holistic analogy on biology and applied to see society. His thinking is often referred to as an organic analogy. He says that social progress is a consequence of the evolution of the social system. Spencer sees growing societies like animals or plant organisms.
This research is motivated by learning to develop the overall capability of children group B TK pearl mother of fifty cities that still need to be improved learning. It is still seen that many children are still not fully developed. Therefore, developing children's overall capability in the right way, one of them by using holistic integrative approach. The purpose of this research is to know how to develop early childhood in an integrated and holistic with holistic integrative approach. Data were collected by interview in learning and documentation support.
Between the 1970s and 2002, Indonesia experienced several distinct episodes ofdevelopment, including the oil boom from 1972 to around 1981; the rice boom of 1978–83; a period of wide-ranging liberalisation throughout the mid- to late 1980s (Woo, Glassburner and Nasution 1994; Hill 2000); a second period of more cautious liberalisation (Hill 1997) – and some back-sliding on reform – during the ﬁ rst half of the 1990s; the ﬁ nancial and economic crisis of 1997–98; and, ﬁ nally, recovery after the crisis, beginning in 1999. There is no clear consensus on when either of the two liberalisation periods started. One strand of the literature refers mainly to microeconomic reform – especially trade liberalisation – commencing in 1986 (Woo, Glassburner and Nasution 1994: 115) or 1987 (Hill 2000: 17), fol- lowing a sharp decline in world oil prices in 1986. Several liberalisation packages were introduced in 1986 to ease import and export procedures. They included a duty exemption and drawback scheme that allowed export-oriented ﬁ rms to purchase imported inputs at international prices – the initial step towards an export-promoting path of industrialisation. But in addition to trade liberalisa- tion there had been some earlier ﬁ scal reforms (such as tax reforms in 1983 and 1985) and exchange rate reforms (a devaluation in 1983). Soesastro (2006) dis- cusses these, and identi ﬁ es liberalisation as commencing in 1982. Aswicahyono and Feridhanusetyawan (2004: 13) too have argued that microeconomic reform began in the period 1982–85, although they note that this reform was slower and less effective than the liberalisation of the mid-1980s. 4