AND cyclophosphamide. To attain the best evidence, we limit our search only on systematicreviews or meta- analyses article (the highest level in the evidence based medicine pyramid). Based on this search strategy, we found 11 articles. From these 11 articles, 10 articles were written in English, while 1 article written in Hebrew. From these 10 articles, only 9 articles that can be downloaded for free, while 1 article could not be accessed free. Thus, from the searching step, there were 9 articles that go to the next process.
literature by summarizing large bodies of evidence. By conducting systematicreviews, we can learn how to apply scientific strategies, in ways that limit bias, to the assembly, critical appraisal, and synthesis of all relevant studies that address a specific question. This systematic review is found to be useful in understanding a concept by careful reviews of several studies and assist to get the confident of the findings.
We have also omitted a search for technical reports or graduate theses. We make the assumption that good quality grey literature studies will appear as journal or conference papers – particularly now that interest in systematicreviews is increasing. Furthermore, the main reason for grey literature not being formally published is publication bias, which occurs when negative results are not pub- lished. However, this does not appear to be a problem for system- atic reviews in software engineering. For example, two recent meta-analyses reported fairly negative results but were still pub- lished [69,70].
The debate about evidence-based policy and practice begs many questions of definition and intention. Who could be against evidence-based policy? Who would wish to advocate superstition-based practice? The govern- ment’s push for evidence-based development of the public services, and particularly education, is at the rhetorical level at least, irresistible. But exactly what is meant by evidence-based practice remains a contentious issue. The government’s focus on ‘systematicreviews’ of current research findings, being conducted according to a particular set of procedures, and produced as irrefutable evidence of the efficacy of a particular policy, seems to be based on a classic centre-periphery research, development, dissemination (RDD) model which has attracted much criticism over many years for its rigid conceptualization of the process of change (for example, Schön 1971; Havelock 1973). The specific operationalization of such reviews can also be problematic since the procedures are drawn so narrowly that sometimes little relevant research can be discovered on a particular policy issue (Evans and Benefield 2001). The research com- munity may or may not be culpable here, but if new research is then commissioned, it certainly means policy-makers will have a long wait for the dissemination phase. If such a model ever was appropriate, it would hardly seem to be so now, given the pace of change that is being engendered in our social and economic life and which in turn is required of our public services. The current imperative would seem to for much more responsive forms of research and development conducted at local level, though this in turn begs questions of how more formal public knowledge of problems and effectiveness might be built.
Guideline tatalaksana rinosinusitis kronik dengan polip hidung PERHATI-KL (2007) menjelaskan bahwa polip hidung stadium 1 ditatalaksana medikamentosa, stadium 2 ditatalaksana medikamentosa dilanjutkan operasi dan untuk stadium 3 ditatalaksana dengan tindakan pembedahan. Alobid et al (2006) melaporkan pemberian prednison selama 2 minggu efektif memperbaiki kualitas hidup penderita polip hidung. Ukuran polip, gejala hidung tersumbat dan gangguan penghidu terkoreksi secara bermakna. Cochrane Database of SystematicReviews (2010) melaporkan penggunaan prednison oral terhadap 166 pasien menunjukkan pengurangan ukuran polip disertai perbaikan gejala hidung dan kualitas hidup penderita yang bermakna. Kowalski (2011) melaporkan, penggunaan prednisolon selama 2 minggu menunjukkan pengurangan ukuran polip yang bermakna. Hisaria (2006) menggunakan prednisolon 50mg/hari selama 2 minggu tanpa tappering off. Van zele (2010) menggunakan metilprednisolon 32 mg/hari dan di tappering off selama 20 hari. Penelitian tersebut melaporkan penurunan ukuran polip secara bermakna dan memperbaiki gejala hidung. Rasp (2000) menggunakan metilprednisolon 64 mg yang di tappering off sampai 10 mg selama 11 hari. Tuncer (2003) melaporkan penggunaan metilprednisolon 1mg/kgbb/ hari yang ditappering off ¼ dosis selama 16 hari. Woodworth et al (2004) melaporkan penurunan level sitokin IL-5 pada polip hidung setelah terapi dengan prednison oral 60 mg yang diturunkan dosisnya sampai 20mg selama 21 hari. Rudack et al (1999) melaporkan level protein IL-5 signifikan menurun setelah diterapi dengan prednisolon.
The irst review focused on phthalates, a class of ubiquitous environmental contami- nants. Phthalates are known to affect the androgen hormone system, which plays a critical role in the development of the male reproductive tract. The committee con- ducted separate systematicreviews of the animal and human evidence on phthalate reproductive effects and then integrated the evidence to draw conclusions about potential hazards, low-dose effects, and the adequacy of toxicity-testing methods for evaluating those hazards.
Dari hasil analisa disain relayout warehouse dengan systematic layout planning untuk satu kali produksi di lantai produksi layout alternatif 1 menghasilkan jarak terpendek sebesar 121,23 m dan biaya material handling lebih minimum sebesar Rp. 3.381,98. Untuk penataan peralatan dan dokumen di warehouse dengan Class Based Storage dengan konsep ABC layout alternatif menghasilkan jarak terpendek sebesar 9,33 m dan biaya material handling lebih minimum sebesar Rp. 356,08. Maka di usulkan pada PT. ABC untuk menggunakan tata letak sesuai dengan layout alternatif 1 di lantai produksi dan layout alternatif di warehouse.
In this work, we present extraction models respectively for explicit and implicit features according to their characteristics. Using CRF model to mine explicit features and “feature- opinion” pairs in the explicit sentences, then we propose a bipartite graph based on random walk algorithm to extract implicit features, combining features and corresponding opinions into binary collocation that is turning the unstructured or semi-structured text into structured text. At last, we select comment sentences as summary by calculating the cost value. Experimental results show that our method is reasonable and effective, the two models and automatic summarization proposed achieve good results. Opinion mining based on Chinese product reviews is a difficult subject which reflects the flexibility and uncertainty of natural language processing. It can also provide useful information for sentiment analysis with great research value.
Introduction/Objectives: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and tran- scranial direct current stimulation are two powerful non-invasive neuromodulatory thera- pies that have the potential to alter and evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract. Moreover, recent evidence has shown that brain stimulation might be beneficial in stroke recovery. Therefore, investigating and investing in innovative therapies that may improve neurorehabilitative stroke recovery are next steps in research and development. Partic- ipants/Materials and Methods: This article presents an up-to-date systematic review of the treatment effects of rTMS and tDCS on motor function. A literary search was con- ducted, utilizing search terms “stroke” and “transcranial stimulation.” Items were excluded if they failed to: (1) include stroke patients, (2) study motor outcomes, or (3) include rTMS/tDCS as treatments. Other exclusions included: (1) reviews, editorials, and letters, (2) animal or pediatric populations, (3) case reports or sample sizes ≤2 patients, and (4) primary outcomes of dysphagia, dysarthria, neglect, or swallowing. Results: Investigation of PubMed English Database prior to 01/01/2012 produced 695 applicable results. Stud- ies were excluded based on the aforementioned criteria, resulting in 50 remaining studies. They included 1314 participants (1282 stroke patients and 32 healthy subjects) evaluated by motor function pre- and post-tDCS or rTMS. Heterogeneity among studies’ motor assess- ments was high and could not be accounted for by individual comparison. Pooled effect sizes for the impact of post-treatment improvement revealed consistently demonstrable improvements after tDCS and rTMS therapeutic stimulation. Most studies provided limited follow-up for long-term effects. Conclusion: It is apparent from the available studies that non-invasive stimulation may enhance motor recovery and may lead to clinically meaning- ful functional improvements in the stroke population. Only mild to no adverse events have been reported. Though results have been positive results, the large heterogeneity across articles precludes firm conclusions.