Agus Taryono. K2512012. ANALYSIS METALOGRAFI MATERIALS USING A SCANNING MICROSCOPE ELECTRON (SEM) AND TENSILETEST WELDING CONNECTED USING TIG METHOD ON MATERIALS NICKEL BASED SUPER ALLOY. Mini-thesis, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Sebelas Maret University. June 2016
Assalamualaikum, firstly I would like to thanks God because on his mercy I finally able to complete my final year project of Analysis on Bicycle Crank Arm Using TensileTest. I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my supervisor Mr Asri Bin Yusuff, and also for his invaluable support, guidance, encouragement, criticism, and insight throughout the research. It was a great pleasure for me to work with him. And also to Miss Siti Nor Baya Binti Sahadan as my mentor for helped me to finished up this project.
Salah satu cara untuk mengetahui sifat mekanik dari material adalah dengan cara Pengujian Tarik atau TensileTest. Pengujian tarik akan menampilkan Kekuatan material sehingga bisa merancang suatu konstruksi sesuai dengan karakteristik material. Dari pengujian tarik akan diperoleh benda kerja yang putus karena proses penarikan, juga dihasilkan sebuah kurva uji tarik antara tegangan dan regangan. Kurva ini merupakan gambaran dari proses pembebanan pada benda kerja mulai dari awal penarikan hingga benda kerja itu putus.
Pengujian specimen dalam tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik sifat mekanik (mechanical properties) dari material atau specimen yang telah dibuat. Jenis pengujian yang dilakukan adalah tensiletest (uji tarik). Tensiletest pada material komposit digunakan untuk mengetahui kekuatan daya ikat resin dengan fiber terhadap beban tarik. Tensiletest ini adalah salah satu pengujian tekanan (stress) dan regangan (strain). Dari pengujian tensile ini dapat diketahui beberapa sifat mekanik material komposit yaitu tensile strength dan modulus Young . Pengujian tensile pada komposit ini menggunakan standart pengujian ASTM D 638. Data yang di dapat dari uji tarik (tensiletest) ini berupa perubahan panjang dan perubahan beban yang selanjutnya ditampilkan dalam bentuk kurva stress-strain material komposit, sebagaiaman ditunjukkan oleh gambar 1.2 berikut ini :
The third chapter starting with raw material preparation involved in this research. Then follow with vacuum infusion fabrication technique and composite designs consist of lamination and reinforcement layers arrangement. After that the specimens will be tested with four mechanical tests which are TensileTest, Flexural Test, Impact Test and Hardness Test and the geometry of specimens referring international standard.
temperature. Therefore, there are researches that have been conducted on the uses of different filler for polymer. One of the examples is eggshell reinforced PP. Result shown that composite has higher tensile modulus compared to the original PP. On the other hand, there are just few of them research about the stone wool as reinforced fibers. From their researches, they were stone wool reinforced CMC but not PMC. Thus, this research was aim to investigate the mechanical properties and performance analysis of stone wool reinforced PMC where matrix is PP. Tensiletest, flexural test, hardness test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to analysis performance of stone wool reinforced PP.
This project is done with five main chapters which are introduction, literature review, methodology, analysis and discussion and lastly conclusion and recommendation. Chapter one briefly explained the background, objective, scope, problem statement, rational of research and the expected result. Chapter two is a literature review which consist the definition of vibration, natural fiber, natural rubber and composite. Chapter three is mentioned about the way of project being conducted and stated the method that will be used from the beginning process until the final process. This chapter also included the data of specimen parameters. In chapter four, all the gathered result based on tensiletest, compression test, vibration test and moisture absorption test is attached and also analyzed. Here, the data of young’s εodulus, maximum force, maximum stress and maximum strain is determined. In chapter five, it explained the conclusion for overall of this research and recommendation for the future improvement of this research.
temperature sensitivity of FCMA and HMA might be similar in that they are dependent upon the binder rheology, but their micro-structures and coating details are different. The results of both investigators are relatively similar; increasing the tempera- ture by 10 o C resulted in the tensile stiffness modulus reducing by 12-15% at binder contents around 1.5 – 4.5%, with the highest stiffness having a greater sensitivity. In addition, Nataatmadja found that the indirect tensile stiffness decreased with increasing strain level. The strain sensitivity was greatest at highest stiff- ness. Moreover, Acott (1979) reported that resilient modulus of foam treated sand mixtures (determined using the repeated load indirect tensiletest) was affected not only by stress and tempera- ture but also by loading rate. The moduli were found to increase in loading rate and decrease in stress and temperature. Merill et al (2004) suggested that the choice of bitumen grade is a compromise between foaming ability and stiffness; higher grade bitumen foams easily but has lower stiffness.
In this study, tensiletest specimens are built by a plaster type ZP150 powder, using fixed layer thickness of 0.1mm for all parts on ZPrinter150 system. The three main parameters that have been investigated in the current experiments are thebuilding orientation,the infiltration procedure, and the drying process to study their effects on the tensile properties of the parts.
Salah satu pengujian yang digunakan untuk mengetahui sifat mekanis logam adalah uji tarik ( tensiletest ). Uji tarik merupakan salah satu metode pengujian yang sederhana dan sering dilakukan oleh teknisi, akademisi teknik dan mahasiswa. Untuk mengetahui sifat – sifat mekanik dari suatu material, khususnya kekuatan tarik, kekerasan, keuletan dan ketangguhan maka dilakukan pengujian uji tarik. Selain itu, untuk mengetahui sifat – sifat logam seperti ketangguhan, kegetasan, dan keuletan suatu logam maka dilakukan uji impact.
condition, one should understand the nature of tensile stress developed in such condition. In a structure where the ends of concrete elements are fixed in such a way to form external restraint, tensile stress due to restrained shrinkage may be regarded similar to that occurring in direct tensiletest i.e. the stress is distributed across the area of concrete element. For concrete element subjected to tensile stress due to differential shrinkage between new and old structure in concrete overlays, the flexural strength may be more appropriate. From practical point of view, any methods of test may be used regardless the possible differences in the nature of stress, if the relationship between tensile strength determined from various test methods and between tensile and compressive strength could be esta- blished.
The use of natural fibers for different application has been increase every year due to its advantages. Advantages of using natural fiber include low density, low cost, renewable, environmental friendly, lightweight and high specific mechanical performance. In this thesis, the effects of lalang fiber composition on the physical and mechanical properties of Epoxy Lalang Composite were investigated. Lalang fiber was chosen in preparation of polymer composites because of several advantages such as low cost, eco-friendly, abundance, renewable, and biodegradable. For the first step in preparation of fiber, lalang grass was soaked in 5% Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution. After that, the fiber was then washed with distilled water until it becomes neutral state. When the fiber has become neutral state, then the fiber was dry under the sunlight until it is completely dried. The fiber was crushed using crusher machine and sieved the size of fiber to 1.0μm. The mixture of resin, fiber and hardener was poured into the mold and cure in the oven at 100 . Five different samples were produced using hand lay-up molding technique by varying the composition of fiber between 0.2% and 1.0% weight composition. A few of testing were carried out to investigate the effect of fiber composition on their mechanical and physical properties such as tensiletest, hardness test, density test and microstructure. The tensile strength, mean hardness, mean density, modulus, % elongation and yield strength of the composite were analyzed. The results showed that the tensile strength, modulus and yield strength had their highest values of 38.83 MPa, 1.22GPa and 15MPa respectively at 0.2% of composition .As a conclusion, composition of fiber will give an effect to the mechanical and physical properties of composites if the composition is in the range of 0.8% to 1.0% of weight composition.
The main focus of the research is to assess the effect of the fibre size, fibre/matrix adhesion and fibre loading on mechanical properties of the biocomposites. First of all, the development of biocomposites consisting of a degradable polymer matrix , namely polylactic acid (PLA) and pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) as a reinforcement materials from natural resources. The natural fibres were pre-treated by alkaline treatment using sodium hydroxide (NaoH). This is followed by compression moulding via a Hot Isostatic Press to produce a composite plate. The effect of fibre size in terms of fibre length and orientation (long) as well as fibre loading, which are 0% (plain PLA) and 30% fibre loading, were assessed via mechanical testing. In addition, the effect of pre-treatment were observed. To analysed the effect of fibre size, fibre/matrix adhesion and fibre loading on mechanical properties of the biocomposites, mechanical testing, which are impact test via Charpy Impact Test, Flexural Test as per ASTM D790 and TensileTest as per ASTM D3039 were carried out. Following this, a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to study surface morphology of the biocomposites with different fibre loading and size, as well as to assess the dispersion between the fibre in the composites for both treated and untreated conditions. From the experimental work, it has been proven that treated continuous long fibre exhibit superior mechanical properties in comparison to that of the unreinforced polymer.
The processing of palm oil in the MCC source utilizing energy resource derived from palm oil shell and fiber in which the process of fuel shell and fiber combustion in the boiler combustion chamber producing the remaining results in the form of palm oil fly ash which are quite plenty . This palm oil fly ash is usually left alone in the area of oil palm mills that certainly can cause environmental pollution and inconvenience to workers . Therefore, this study aims to look into the chance of the utilization of fly ash as the strengthening material in the manufacture of metal matrix composite ( MMC ) with wide variety of fly ash composition of palm oil . Palm oil fly ash used in this study were drawn from Palm Oil Factory ( PKS ) in the Deli Serdang, North Sumatra with a size 74 m and before being used, this palm oil fly ash is heated to 850 o C in a furnace to remove moisture and fractions that are still can be burned . In the manufacture of fly ash composition variations MMC are carried out from 2.5 , 5 , 7.5 , 10 and 12.5 % fly ash mixing process is done at the time in which aluminum was melted in a crusibel graphite following the stirring for 5 minutes , addition of about 1.5 % Mg in the fluid to improve wettability of aluminum and casting is done at a temperature of 760 o C . The result of the research shows that the addition of fly ash in the manufacture of MMC can increase hardness , in which 82.6 BHN where the highest hardness was obtained at the composition of 10 % fly ash and the lowest at 2.5 % fly ash composition . The impact test result shows that in general the addition of fly ash does not significantly decrease the impact strength . In the microstructure test result can be seen that palm oil fly ash exists among the aluminum matrix , but the distribution of the fly ash is not uniform in the all parts . The result of the above study shows that palm oil fly ash can be utilized for the manufacture of metal matrix composite with aluminium as the matrix , but the method of manufacture needs to be completed further to obtain optimum results because the stir casting method has not been able to achieve a homogeneous distribution of the fly ash.
Figure 8: Mixture of 90 wt. % LDPE (1000X) In Figure 8, it can be seen that the mixing ratio has started to properly occur and produce a new LDPE/wax properties where the polymer has combined regularly. The wax is found in all the borders and tied the molecules of the polymer. The tensile strength increases, although the pure LDPE properties is still maintain , , . By increasing of the carbon’s percentage up to 81.80 wt. % in this composition, it’s proves that the addition of LPDE in this mixture will strengthen the percentage of carbon in this molecule and the wax will act as the binder for this molecule.
It is realized that a material cannot be tested without also testing the method of preparation of that material. Hence, when comparative tests of materials per se are desired, the greatest care must be exercised to ensure that all samples are prepared in exactly the same way, unless the test is to include the effects of sample preparation. Similarly, for referee purposes or comparisons within any given series of specimens, care must be taken to secure the maximum degree of uniformity in details of preparation, treatment, and handling.
Untuk mengembangkan berbagai jenis plastik Biodegradable perlu diketahui karakteristik dari kandungan pati yaitu Amilosa dan Amilopektin, yakni dengan karakteristik Fisika. Sifat fisik yang menentukan kualitas dan penggunaan plastic Biodegradable antara lain pemanjangan (elongation), kekuatan peregangan (tensile strength) dan ketebalan. Pemanjangan menunjukkan kemampuan rentang plastik biodegradable yang dihasilkan. Penambahan glyserol dapat memperbaiki nilai pemanjangan sehingga kerapuhan plastik biodegradable menurun dan permeabilitasnya meningkat . Kekuatan peregangan (tensile strength) merupakan tarikan maksimum yang dapat dicapai sampai plastik biodegradable tetap bertahan sebelum putus/sobek, yang menggambarkan kekuatan plastik biodegradable .
The scope of this research is to investigate the effect of recycling palm fiber composite (PFC) on its mechanical properties. Polypropylene (PP) will be used as matrices and the palm fiber as the reinforcement with Maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as a coupling agent to produce palm fiber composite (PFC). The composites will be recycled up to six times and characterized using tensile testing, three point bend testing, and hardness testing at each stage of recycling