The Arctic ice sheet

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ion Policy towards the Arctic Region pro

ion Policy towards the Arctic Region pro

For instance, the RECONCILE project (€3.5 million) studies the atmosphere in the Arctic in order to better quantify the effects of climate change on stratospheric ozone depletion. Specifically, this project contributed to the recent discovery of the depletion of the ozone layer over the Arctic. Another project, PAGE21 (€ 6.9 million) is studying Arctic permafrost and its interplay with climate change, and will shed light on the feedbacks between permafrost melting, atmospheric processes and climate change. The ice2sea project (€ 10 million) meanwhile is addressing the single most important source of uncertainty in projections of future sea-level rise by advancing the understanding of melting continental ice-sheets and glaciers in the polar regions. A different project, THOR (€ 9.3million), is exploring the effects of the melting of the Greenland ice sheet on the global ocean circulation patterns. By the end of the project a reliable system to forecast changes in the circulation patterns due to melting ice-sheets will be in place, and estimates of the probability of extreme climate events in the European and North Atlantic region will be produced. Finally, the HYPOX project (€ 3.5 million) is enhancing monitoring of oxygen depletion due to global warming and eutrophication in various water bodies, including the Arctic Ocean.
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isprs archives XLI B8 469 2016

isprs archives XLI B8 469 2016

rapid decline of about 11% per decade of the perennial ice cover in the Arctic. Such decline has been a concern because the perennial ice (or ice that survives the summer melt) in the Arctic has been around and observed in situ for at least 1450 years (Kinnard et al., 2011). The loss of the coverage of the perennial ice has caused a general warming of the region, mainly through ice-albedo feedback, that in turn has led in part to the thawing of the permafrost, melt of glaciers, retreat of snow covered areas, the loss of mass of the Greenland ice sheet, and the greening of the Arctic (Comiso and Hall, 2014; Bhatt et al., 2013; Luthche et al., 2006; Zwally et al., 2002). Since the continuation of the loss of all these various components of the cryosphere could lead to more serious if not irreversible consequences it is critical that more research is done on the variability of the sea ice cover and related variables. It is also important to look at these changes from a global perspective since the trend in the ice cover in the Antarctic is going the opposite ways (Cavalieri et al., 1997). Such asymmetry has been postulated to be caused by various factors including the increase in snow precipitation in the Antarctic, the freshening of water in the region due to increases in the melt of ice shelves (Jacobs, 2006) and the occurrence of the ozone hole that tended to cause a deepening of the lows in the West Antarctic region (Turner et al., 2009). In this study, changes in the sea ice cover, using a sea ice data set that has been enhanced for better consistency and updated for improved statistics, has been evaluated in conjunction with observed changes in surface temperature to gain insight into the phenomenon and improved understanding of the state and future of the sea ice cover.
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isprs archives XLI B8 481 2016

isprs archives XLI B8 481 2016

The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets contain more than 99 % of the freshwater ice on Earth, and thus, they are important contributors to global sea level rise. If they were melted com- pletely, sea level would rise by 66 meters. Rapid warming has caused a dramatic decrease of ice in the Artic region during last few decades. Sea ice extent rapidly declined; glaciers sped up, thinned and retreated, and permafrost warmed up and thinned. Arctic warming is further amplified as surface temperature in- creases due to the melt of the protective snow and ice cover. The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has lost an average 250 Gt/yr ice an- nually, equivalent to 0.7 mm/yr sea-level rise, since 2003. There remains much uncertainty in estimating the current mass loss of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). While vast regions of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet exhibit increasing ice loss in its marine-based regions, increasing snowfall or long-term dynamic thickening of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet might balance this ice loss.
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THE RUSSIAN SLEEP EXPERIMENT BY HOLLY ICE

THE RUSSIAN SLEEP EXPERIMENT BY HOLLY ICE

As one of guide collections to recommend, this The Russian Sleep Experiment By Holly Ice has some strong reasons for you to read. This publication is really ideal with just what you require currently. Besides, you will likewise enjoy this book The Russian Sleep Experiment By Holly Ice to review because this is one of your referred books to read. When getting something new based on encounter, entertainment, and various other lesson, you could utilize this book The Russian Sleep Experiment By Holly Ice as the bridge. Starting to have reading habit can be undertaken from different means as well as from variant types of books
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KARAKTERISTIK GENETIK Kappaphycus alvarezii SEHAT DAN TERINFEKSI PENYAKIT ICE-ICE DENGAN METODE Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP)

KARAKTERISTIK GENETIK Kappaphycus alvarezii SEHAT DAN TERINFEKSI PENYAKIT ICE-ICE DENGAN METODE Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP)

Eucheuma denticulatum juga dapat ter- serang penyakit ice-ice. Namun, menurut Tisera & Naguit (2009), K. alvarezii dan E. denticulatum memiliki tingkat perbedaan resistensi terhadap penyakit ice-ice berda- sarkan waktu atau bulan terinfeksi dan lokasi. E. denticulatum lebih resisten dan tidak mudah terinfeksi ice-ice. Sementara pada K. alvarezii belum dilaporkan keberadaan gen yang re- sisten terhadap penyakit tersebut. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan penelitian awal untuk melihat perbedaan karakter genetik algae terhadap ketahanan ice-ice pada Kappaphycus.
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ArcticSpatialDataPilot | OGC

ArcticSpatialDataPilot | OGC

Requirements and business needs shape type and functionality of software applications made available to SDI consumers. The requirements are analyzed in Phase 1 of the Arctic Spatial Data Pilot. Clients (including both humans and machines) use software applications to access data via standardized interfaces and communication protocols that include standardized data information models and encodings. Shared governance and policies are important and orthogonal aspects to a SDI. The focus of this specific pilot - in particular in its next phase - is on the boxes shaded in orange, brown and green, though others shall be addressed as part of the concept development study that this RFI supports.
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Ice Cloope Cafe : Ice Cream Fondue.

Ice Cloope Cafe : Ice Cream Fondue.

Generally, ice cream cafés only focus on creating new tastes of ice cream to attract the customers. People usually consume ice cream directly when it has been served or consume it with some toppings either in or on the ice cream. Therefore, I want to create a business of ice cream café which is different and can be enjoyed by everyone. My business offers a different way of consuming ice cream because the customers need to dip the ice cream into the fondue before they consume it. My business is Ice Cream Fondue. Based on the article of Chocolate Fondue Sets 66, it is explained that “The word “fondue” comes from the French word fondre, meaning to melt ” (par. 2). In my business, fondue is the sauce which covers the ice cream and is placed in a pot.
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The Dancing Bears of Inuit Art

The Dancing Bears of Inuit Art

Keywords: dancing, bear, bears, inuit, art, carving, carvings, arctic Article Body: Inuit art has been introduced to the non-Arctic world for several decades now and has enjoyed a nic[r]

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Opening Arctic Critical First Step Toward Energy Security

Opening Arctic Critical First Step Toward Energy Security

Title: Opening Arctic Critical First Step Toward Energy Security Word Count: 623 Summary: Opening the Arctic National Wildlife refuge ANWR to oil and gas exploration is more than a fi[r]

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The cro magnum s weight loss diet

The cro magnum s weight loss diet

Within a couple thousands years of the ice sheet retreating, farming started up again and new foods evolved to be the mainstay they are in today’s weight loss diet.. Keywords: weight lo[r]

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Arctic Oil Spill Brief Final02

Arctic Oil Spill Brief Final02

¾ A comprehensive, collaborative, long-term Arctic oil spill research and development program needs to be established. he program should focus on understanding oil spill behavior in the Arctic marine environment, including the relationship between oil and sea ice formation, transport, and fate. It should include assessment of oil spill response technologies and logistics, improvements to forecasting models and associated data needs, and controlled ield releases under realistic conditions for research purposes. Industry, academic, government, non- governmental, grassroots, and international eforts should be integrated into the program, with a focus on peer review and transparency. An interagency permit approval process that will enable researchers to plan and execute deliberate releases in U.S. waters is also needed.
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Report in Brief sea ice brief final

Report in Brief sea ice brief final

Committee on the Future of Arctic Sea Ice Research in Support of Seasonal-to-Decadal Prediction: Jackie Richter- Menge (Cochair), Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory; John E. Walsh (Cochair), University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Lawson W. Brigham, University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Jennifer A. Francis, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; Marika Holland, National Center for Atmospheric Research; Son V. Nghiem, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Robert Raye, Shell Projects and Technology; Rebecca Woodgate (*resigned) University of Washington; Katie Thomas, Study Director, Lauren Brown, Research Associate, and Elizabeth Finkelman, Senior Program Assitant, National Research Council.
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Choosing The Best Ice Cream Maker

Choosing The Best Ice Cream Maker

Keywords: ice-cream, ice cream Article Body: You can make delicious ice cream at home, as good as any premium store brand, if you choose a good ice cream maker and follow a few tips..[r]

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American Food Ingredients are Cool in Berlin Berlin Germany 9 19 2017

American Food Ingredients are Cool in Berlin Berlin Germany 9 19 2017

Importantly, Germany is also the largest market for dried fruits and nuts in Europe and a very important destination for U.S. walnuts, prunes, and other products. In 2014, Germany imported 440,563 MT of nuts and peanuts worth USD 708 million. Imports from the United States amounted to 102,829 MT at a value of USD 2.8 billion. Given that these ingredients are used in various ice cream flavors, ice cream is an excellent marketing vehicle.

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The effects of ice formation on airfoil performance.

The effects of ice formation on airfoil performance.

Rime ice as can be seen on Figure 2.1 occurs at a very cold temperature which is -9C and below, where the supercooled drops will freeze almost immediately upon contact to the airfoil. It results in smaller ice accretions on the airfoil. The characteristics of a rime ice are that it exhibits a milky or white appearance because there is a lot of air that is trapped in the crystalline structure. The ice structure that contains trapped air will result in feathered edges with low density. Different from rime ice, glaze ice basically formed at warmer temperatures. The structure of glaze ice is generally clear and smooth surface and it occurs when supercooled droplets did not freeze quickly upon contact to the airfoil, hence the water drops will flow along the airfoil surface and forms a larger and more rigid ice structure. As it could be seen from Figure 2.1, the shape of glaze ice is a double horn or mushroom shapes. It was also stated by Shields that there is a possibility that both types of ice could also form at the same time.
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WGEA   Home

WGEA Home

The work of the Arctic Council is primarily based on dialogue, cooperation and volunteer- ism. While the recommendations are not binding under international law on the member states, they are politically binding. Nor is there an expectation in the Ottawa Declaration and the Arctic Council’s rules of procedure that member states must document the extent to which the recommendations are followed up. The audit shows that extensive eforts are invested in generating the knowledge that underlies the Council’s recommendations. There is little information on how member states follow up the key recommendations, and whether the work has an efect. The Arctic states have a major shared responsibility to ensure the sustainable development of the Arctic region. Without some form of follow-up work, it will be diicult in the OAG’s opinion for the Arctic Council to develop into an efective body with even greater scientiic and political impact.
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JOB SHEET PERAWATAN WAJAH DASAR THE BASI

JOB SHEET PERAWATAN WAJAH DASAR THE BASI

Gunakan kedua telapak tangan Buat gerakan menggetar secara bergantian pada rahang dari kiri ke kanan dan sebaiknya.. Gambar 1.9 Gerakan Vibratie 12 Gerakan Petrisage.[r]

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isprs archives XLII 2 W7 1579 2017

isprs archives XLII 2 W7 1579 2017

Slope and aspect of Antarctic ice sheet are important parameters for Antarctic drainage divides, glacier movement, morphometric measurements, and many other studies. The ice velocity increases in the area with steep slope (Zhang et al., 2008). Slope and aspect are usually the secondary products of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Different algorithms for calculating slope and aspect are proposed (Travis et al., 1975; Evans, 1980; Horn, 1981), the difference between most algorithms that compute slope and aspect is the number of grid cell values used and weights given to each of these cell values (Kevin, 1998). Although different algorithms produce different results, the most significant outcome is that slope varies inversely with different resolutions (Zhang et al., 1999).
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 Modul Praktikum CSS – Cara Cerdas Belajar CSS

Modul Praktikum CSS – Cara Cerdas Belajar CSS

External Style Sheet atau juga kita dapat menyebutnya dengan istilah Linking Style Sheet. Kita sebut External karena pada teknik ini kita menuliskan semua efek style di dalam sebuah dokumen tersendiri yang kita panggil dengan menggunakan Link. Teknik pemanggilannya kita deklarasikan di dalam tag head.

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arctic anthropocene final

arctic anthropocene final

No single agency, organization, or country can take on all research topics in the Arctic. Some research questions are too broad or involve such extensive ield efforts that they cannot be resolved solely by researchers from a single country or supported by a single funding source. In some cases comprehen- sive data sets of numerous ield processes must be collected simultaneously in coordinated expedi- tions or cruises requiring collaboration among many nations. Cooperation is essential: among researchers, between agencies, among nations, across disciplines, between Arctic residents and visiting scientists, and with the private sector.
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