For instance, the RECONCILE project (€3.5 million) studies the atmosphere in theArctic in order to better quantify the effects of climate change on stratospheric ozone depletion. Specifically, this project contributed to the recent discovery of the depletion of the ozone layer over theArctic. Another project, PAGE21 (€ 6.9 million) is studying Arctic permafrost and its interplay with climate change, and will shed light on the feedbacks between permafrost melting, atmospheric processes and climate change. The ice2sea project (€ 10 million) meanwhile is addressing the single most important source of uncertainty in projections of future sea-level rise by advancing the understanding of melting continental ice-sheets and glaciers in the polar regions. A different project, THOR (€ 9.3million), is exploring the effects of the melting of the Greenland icesheet on the global ocean circulation patterns. By the end of the project a reliable system to forecast changes in the circulation patterns due to melting ice-sheets will be in place, and estimates of the probability of extreme climate events in the European and North Atlantic region will be produced. Finally, the HYPOX project (€ 3.5 million) is enhancing monitoring of oxygen depletion due to global warming and eutrophication in various water bodies, including theArctic Ocean.
rapid decline of about 11% per decade of the perennial ice cover in theArctic. Such decline has been a concern because the perennial ice (or ice that survives the summer melt) in theArctic has been around and observed in situ for at least 1450 years (Kinnard et al., 2011). The loss of the coverage of the perennial ice has caused a general warming of the region, mainly through ice-albedo feedback, that in turn has led in part to the thawing of the permafrost, melt of glaciers, retreat of snow covered areas, the loss of mass of the Greenland icesheet, and the greening of theArctic (Comiso and Hall, 2014; Bhatt et al., 2013; Luthche et al., 2006; Zwally et al., 2002). Since the continuation of the loss of all these various components of the cryosphere could lead to more serious if not irreversible consequences it is critical that more research is done on the variability of the sea ice cover and related variables. It is also important to look at these changes from a global perspective since the trend in theice cover in the Antarctic is going the opposite ways (Cavalieri et al., 1997). Such asymmetry has been postulated to be caused by various factors including the increase in snow precipitation in the Antarctic, the freshening of water in the region due to increases in the melt of ice shelves (Jacobs, 2006) and the occurrence of the ozone hole that tended to cause a deepening of the lows in the West Antarctic region (Turner et al., 2009). In this study, changes in the sea ice cover, using a sea ice data set that has been enhanced for better consistency and updated for improved statistics, has been evaluated in conjunction with observed changes in surface temperature to gain insight into the phenomenon and improved understanding of the state and future of the sea ice cover.
The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets contain more than 99 % of the freshwater ice on Earth, and thus, they are important contributors to global sea level rise. If they were melted com- pletely, sea level would rise by 66 meters. Rapid warming has caused a dramatic decrease of ice in the Artic region during last few decades. Sea ice extent rapidly declined; glaciers sped up, thinned and retreated, and permafrost warmed up and thinned. Arctic warming is further amplified as surface temperature in- creases due to the melt of the protective snow and ice cover. The Greenland IceSheet (GrIS) has lost an average 250 Gt/yr ice an- nually, equivalent to 0.7 mm/yr sea-level rise, since 2003. There remains much uncertainty in estimating the current mass loss of the Antarctic IceSheet (AIS). While vast regions of the West Antarctic IceSheet exhibit increasing ice loss in its marine-based regions, increasing snowfall or long-term dynamic thickening of the East Antarctic IceSheet might balance this ice loss.
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Eucheuma denticulatum juga dapat ter- serang penyakit ice-ice. Namun, menurut Tisera & Naguit (2009), K. alvarezii dan E. denticulatum memiliki tingkat perbedaan resistensi terhadap penyakit ice-ice berda- sarkan waktu atau bulan terinfeksi dan lokasi. E. denticulatum lebih resisten dan tidak mudah terinfeksi ice-ice. Sementara pada K. alvarezii belum dilaporkan keberadaan gen yang re- sisten terhadap penyakit tersebut. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan penelitian awal untuk melihat perbedaan karakter genetik algae terhadap ketahanan ice-ice pada Kappaphycus.
Requirements and business needs shape type and functionality of software applications made available to SDI consumers. The requirements are analyzed in Phase 1 of theArctic Spatial Data Pilot. Clients (including both humans and machines) use software applications to access data via standardized interfaces and communication protocols that include standardized data information models and encodings. Shared governance and policies are important and orthogonal aspects to a SDI. The focus of this specific pilot - in particular in its next phase - is on the boxes shaded in orange, brown and green, though others shall be addressed as part of the concept development study that this RFI supports.
Generally, ice cream cafés only focus on creating new tastes of ice cream to attract the customers. People usually consume ice cream directly when it has been served or consume it with some toppings either in or on theice cream. Therefore, I want to create a business of ice cream café which is different and can be enjoyed by everyone. My business offers a different way of consuming ice cream because the customers need to dip theice cream into the fondue before they consume it. My business is Ice Cream Fondue. Based on the article of Chocolate Fondue Sets 66, it is explained that “The word “fondue” comes from the French word fondre, meaning to melt ” (par. 2). In my business, fondue is the sauce which covers theice cream and is placed in a pot.
¾ A comprehensive, collaborative, long-term Arctic oil spill research and development program needs to be established. he program should focus on understanding oil spill behavior in theArctic marine environment, including the relationship between oil and sea ice formation, transport, and fate. It should include assessment of oil spill response technologies and logistics, improvements to forecasting models and associated data needs, and controlled ield releases under realistic conditions for research purposes. Industry, academic, government, non- governmental, grassroots, and international eforts should be integrated into the program, with a focus on peer review and transparency. An interagency permit approval process that will enable researchers to plan and execute deliberate releases in U.S. waters is also needed.
Committee on the Future of Arctic Sea Ice Research in Support of Seasonal-to-Decadal Prediction: Jackie Richter- Menge (Cochair), Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory; John E. Walsh (Cochair), University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Lawson W. Brigham, University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Jennifer A. Francis, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; Marika Holland, National Center for Atmospheric Research; Son V. Nghiem, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Robert Raye, Shell Projects and Technology; Rebecca Woodgate (*resigned) University of Washington; Katie Thomas, Study Director, Lauren Brown, Research Associate, and Elizabeth Finkelman, Senior Program Assitant, National Research Council.
Importantly, Germany is also the largest market for dried fruits and nuts in Europe and a very important destination for U.S. walnuts, prunes, and other products. In 2014, Germany imported 440,563 MT of nuts and peanuts worth USD 708 million. Imports from the United States amounted to 102,829 MT at a value of USD 2.8 billion. Given that these ingredients are used in various ice cream flavors, ice cream is an excellent marketing vehicle.
Rime ice as can be seen on Figure 2.1 occurs at a very cold temperature which is -9C and below, where the supercooled drops will freeze almost immediately upon contact to the airfoil. It results in smaller ice accretions on the airfoil. The characteristics of a rime ice are that it exhibits a milky or white appearance because there is a lot of air that is trapped in the crystalline structure. Theice structure that contains trapped air will result in feathered edges with low density. Different from rime ice, glaze ice basically formed at warmer temperatures. The structure of glaze ice is generally clear and smooth surface and it occurs when supercooled droplets did not freeze quickly upon contact to the airfoil, hence the water drops will flow along the airfoil surface and forms a larger and more rigid ice structure. As it could be seen from Figure 2.1, the shape of glaze ice is a double horn or mushroom shapes. It was also stated by Shields that there is a possibility that both types of ice could also form at the same time.
The work of theArctic Council is primarily based on dialogue, cooperation and volunteer- ism. While the recommendations are not binding under international law on the member states, they are politically binding. Nor is there an expectation in the Ottawa Declaration and theArctic Council’s rules of procedure that member states must document the extent to which the recommendations are followed up. The audit shows that extensive eforts are invested in generating the knowledge that underlies the Council’s recommendations. There is little information on how member states follow up the key recommendations, and whether the work has an efect. TheArctic states have a major shared responsibility to ensure the sustainable development of theArctic region. Without some form of follow-up work, it will be diicult in the OAG’s opinion for theArctic Council to develop into an efective body with even greater scientiic and political impact.
Slope and aspect of Antarctic icesheet are important parameters for Antarctic drainage divides, glacier movement, morphometric measurements, and many other studies. Theice velocity increases in the area with steep slope (Zhang et al., 2008). Slope and aspect are usually the secondary products of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Different algorithms for calculating slope and aspect are proposed (Travis et al., 1975; Evans, 1980; Horn, 1981), the difference between most algorithms that compute slope and aspect is the number of grid cell values used and weights given to each of these cell values (Kevin, 1998). Although different algorithms produce different results, the most significant outcome is that slope varies inversely with different resolutions (Zhang et al., 1999).
External Style Sheet atau juga kita dapat menyebutnya dengan istilah Linking Style Sheet. Kita sebut External karena pada teknik ini kita menuliskan semua efek style di dalam sebuah dokumen tersendiri yang kita panggil dengan menggunakan Link. Teknik pemanggilannya kita deklarasikan di dalam tag head.
No single agency, organization, or country can take on all research topics in theArctic. Some research questions are too broad or involve such extensive ield efforts that they cannot be resolved solely by researchers from a single country or supported by a single funding source. In some cases comprehen- sive data sets of numerous ield processes must be collected simultaneously in coordinated expedi- tions or cruises requiring collaboration among many nations. Cooperation is essential: among researchers, between agencies, among nations, across disciplines, between Arctic residents and visiting scientists, and with the private sector.