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135121 EN genetic diversity and population structu

135121 EN genetic diversity and population structu

The genetic diversity plays a crucial role in supporting many plant breeding program, including the rubber trees. Such genetic diversity may be estimated either at phenotype or molecular levels. Unlike those phenotype-based characterizations, molecular marker-based evaluations of genetic diversity are more accurate since the molecular markers are not affected by environmental factors. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) or microsatellites is one of the markers widely distributed throughout the nuclear genome of eukaryotes (Bhargava & Fuentes, 2010). SSR marker is highly polymorphic and often use as genetic markers for population genetic analysis (Guichoux et al., 2011). Several genetic analysis has been done using SSR markers, such as in coconut (Larekeng, Maskromo, Purwito, Matjik, & Sudarsono, 2015; Maskromo et al., 2015) and oil palm (Tinche, Asmono, Dinarti, & Sudarsono, 2014). Scientists have also done the evaluation of rubber tree genetic diversity analysis using RAPD or SSR markers (Besse et al., 1994; Saha, Roy, & Nazeer, 2005; Lam, Thanh, Chi, & Tuy, 2009; Gouvêa, Rubiano, Chioratto, Zucchi, & de Souza Gonçalves, 2010). Diversity analysis using SSR markers is more beneicial than using other dominant markers since SSR markers can differentiate the homozygous and the heterozygous individuals and exhibit high polymorphism. Moreover, SSR markers are highly reproducible and transferable among related species, and they can differentiate closely related accessions (Mantello,
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First Insight into a Nationwide Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Previously Treated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Benin, West Africa 3276240

First Insight into a Nationwide Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Previously Treated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Benin, West Africa 3276240

over a period of one year. In total, 40 diferent spoligotypes were found, corresponding to a genotypic diversity of 40.0%. his percentage was higher than the 19.1% found by Ouassa et al. in previously treated cases in Cˆote d’Ivoire but was quite similar to 35.1% obtained on the genetic diversity in a mixed population of new and previously treated cases in Rwanda [15, 16]. A genotypic diversity of 49.0% was reported in 2005 among new cases in Cotonou, the biggest city in Benin, suggesting that genetic diversities were similar among new and previously treated cases [6]. However, the previous study among new cases was carried out 10 years ago and distribution of spoligotypes in new cases might have changed over time. In addition, the national igure might be diferent from what was obtained in Cotonou.
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Characterization of genomic variation in Indonesian soybean (Glycine max) varieties using next-generation sequencing

Characterization of genomic variation in Indonesian soybean (Glycine max) varieties using next-generation sequencing

To investigate whether some of the exon sequence changes are unique to Indonesian accessions, data on 80,630 SNPs that could be mapped to the 20 soybean chromosomes were compared with SNP data obtained from resequencing 31 Chinese accessions (Lam et al., 2010). There were 57,009 SNPs that matched the SNPs from the Chinese accessions, while 23,621 were unique to the five Indonesian cultivars. These mutation data could comprise a valuable resource for dissecting genetic adaptation to the tropical climate of Indonesia. Using these mutation data, we then assessed the genetic diversity of the five cultivars compared with the Chinese accessions, which were expected to have greater diversity as they originated in the area where soybean was initially domesticated and some wild accessions were also present among these 31 acces- sions. A neighbour-joining tree based on 1000 bootstrap replicates was then constructed from the polymorphism data of 1400 genic SNPs that exhibited polymorphism among the Chinese and Indonesian accessions and had a sequencing depth of at least three reads in all the five Indonesian cultivars (Fig. 1). As expected, the five Indonesian accessions were clustered relatively close to each other within the cluster of cultivated accessions from China, even in the case of the Tambora cultivar, which is a recent introduction from the Philippines. The closest relative to Tambora is C16, a Taiwanese cultivar that originated from a Japanese cultivar and is also the closest relative to two other Indonesian cultivars, Malabar and Davros. Malabar is the result of a recent breeding programme that crossed superior local cultivars, while Davros was purified from landraces commonly planted in Garut District (West Java). B3293, a landrace from Kediri (East Java), belongs to a different group and was shown to be most similar to C17, a landrace from Sichuan, in Southwest China.
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assessment of genetic diversity and differentiation of camel eksotype

assessment of genetic diversity and differentiation of camel eksotype

The main objective of this study was to determine, using mi- crosatellite markers, the genetic diversity and the relationship of two major camel ecotypes inhabiting the eastern (Butana) and western (Darfur) regions of Sudan. Butana and Darfur are considered the major entities of camel populations in Su- dan (Eisa and Mustafa, 2011). All 12 analysed loci displayed a large range of polymorphisms, and so their use should re- duce the danger of overestimating genetic variability (Wim- mers et al., 2000). They produced low F ST values, which in turn are useful for cluster analysis and capable of indicating genetic variation in terms of observed alleles (Rosenberg et al., 2001).
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microsatellite based genetic diversity among the three water buffalo bubalus bubalis populations in turkey

microsatellite based genetic diversity among the three water buffalo bubalus bubalis populations in turkey

In this study, twenty microsatellite loci were used to define genetic diversity among 56 water buffalo samples. Their somatic tissues (the skin and cartilage tissues from ears) and DNAs were deposited in Turkish Gene Banks. Samples of healthy animals were collected from three different geographic regions: Northern Turkey, North-Western Turkey and Eastern Thrace. Three (loci CSSM57, ETH3) to ten (locus CSSM47) different alleles were identified per micro-satellite locus in a total of 103 alleles. PIC values for the micro-satellite loci analysed ranged from 0.14 (CSSM32) to 0.82 (CSSM47) with a mean of 0.4945. In all of the populations for each of the loci, the observed heterozygosities (H O ) were greater than the expected heterozygosities (H E ), indicating that populations suffered from bottleneck. H E per population ranged between 0.5359 in the Black Sea Region and 0.5208 in the Aegean-South Marmara Region. Within the population, inbreeding estimates (F IS ) was positive in only four of the 20 loci analysed. Individuals of the different geographic populations did not cluster on the neighbour joining tree which was constructed on the basis of allele sharing distances. Population differentiation was further visualized by Factorial Correspondence Analysis and determined by the pairwise estimations of fixation index (F ST ) and Nei’s standard genetic distance (D a ). The results revealed that populations have inertia (as depicted by Factorial Correspondence Analysis), they are differentiated significantly but little (by pairwise F ST values) and the least genetic distance is between Black Sea Region and Thrace Region. Comparative studies indicated that the genetic diversity of water buffalo harboured in the Gene Banks of Turkey is at the lower end of the diversity spectrum. This study thus highlights the usefulness of heterologous bovine microsatellite markers to assess the genetic variability in Anatolian water buffalo breeds. Furthermore, the results can be utilized for future breeding strategies and conservation.
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genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among five endemic pinus taxa pinaceae of china as revealed by srap markers

genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among five endemic pinus taxa pinaceae of china as revealed by srap markers

Numerous examples in previous studies showed that species with a small geographic range generally maintain less ge- netic diversity than geographically widespread species (Gitzendanner and Soltis, 2000; Wu et al., 2004; Zheng et al., 2012). However, our data suggest that the taxa restricted to narrow populations (P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis and P. henryi) were more diverse than P. tabulaeformis and P. massoniana, two species that are widely distributed. Hamrick and Godt (1989) concluded that the primary factors in fl uencing the genetic diversity of plant populations include breeding system, distri- bution range, and habit. Plant species with higher genetic variation are usually characterized by long life span, wide geographic distribution, predominant outcrossing, anemophily, good fecundity, and a late stage of succession. Thus, the higher level of genetic diversity observed within P. tabulaeformis f. shekanensis and P. henryi may be related to their late stage of succession. Additionally, in this paper, each taxon, no matter its distribution, selected only in one population may be another reason.
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genetic diversity and population structure analysis in wild

genetic diversity and population structure analysis in wild

Germplasms resources of wild strawberry are rich in Motuo country of Tibet, China. In this study, we assessed genetic diversity of seventy wild strawberry germplasms from different geographical regions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The genetic diversity of wild strawberry was demonstrated by 189 polymorphic SSR-PCR bands obtained using ten selective primers. Additionally, the average polymorphic information content (PIC), total gene diversity and population diversity were 0.941, 0.331 and 0.214, respectively. At the population level, variation of strawberry accessions among population was higher than that within population. Based on arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram method, all samples were clustered into 6 groups and two subgroups. Combined with the results of UPGMA and Principle coordinate analysis, wild strawberry accessions tended to group by geographic origin. Thus, these findings will benefit for the protection and exploitation of wild strawberry, and provide theoretical basis for further study in the origin and phylo- genetic systematics of wild strawberry.
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12 genetic diversity and conservation of animal genetic resources in

12 genetic diversity and conservation of animal genetic resources in

The buffalo contributes effectively in the agricultural economy and food security in the countries of the Indian Subcontinent and South East Asia, through meat, milk, leather and labor. It is well known that the buffalo was domesticated very early in history, but when and where is unknown (Cockrill, 1974). The water buffalo emerged in East Asia (Potts 1996) and mainland South East Asia. It spread north and west to China and to the Indian subcontinent (Lau, 1998). The buffalo has been present in the valley of the Indus River in the Indian subcontinent since about 4000-5000 years ago, but there are areas of independent domestication of water buffalo in Mesopotamia and China earlier than this-about 2500-7000 BC (Haynes et al., 1991; Payne, 1991 and Bradley, 2006). Macgregor (1939) classifi ed buffalo into two types according to formal criteria and behavior: the river buffalo in the Indian subcontinent and westerly to the Balkan region and the swamp buffalo in Southeast Asia, India, Nepal and northeast to the valley of the Yangtze River in China. Barker et al. (1997) was the fi rst to analyze the genetic diversity of buffalo breeds in South Asia using protein coding spatial microsatellites. They noted a clear distinction between these two types: river and marsh buffaloes, the latter being raised mainly in the swamps of Southeast Asia, and this distinctiojn was confi rmed later by Zhang GENETIC DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION OF ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES IN
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FORDA - Jurnal

FORDA - Jurnal

The significant effect of individual tree selection method was not revealed in this study. Even though the selection was done intensively, only 7.1% of genetic diversity was reduced. In other words, the selection activity did not reduce the genetic diversity of seed orchard significantly. Thus, in order to reduce inferior trees in the seedling seed orchard, any kind of selection method can be used. Since the seedling seed orchard contained mostly trees from Papua New Guinea and Cape York populations, hence relatively low genetic variation among populations, the selection should be concentrated to individual selection instead of population selection. Another method to enrich the genetic base of the seedling seed orchard is by introducing new trees (infuse) from other regions (El-Kassaby, 1996), especially from Townsville or Daintree and Ceram or Sidei populations (Butcher et al., 1998).
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:B:Biochemical Systematics and Ecology:Vol28.Issue7.Aug2000:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:B:Biochemical Systematics and Ecology:Vol28.Issue7.Aug2000:

% The presence of high levels of genetic variation and relatedness is pointed to (Table 3) was observed at these sites. a common, well distributed ancestry prior to its present decline due to mainly habitat destruction for agriculture, urbanisation, bush"res, deliberately lit "res and over collecting. Pterostylis gibbosa has the potential to extend its geographical range to adjacent similar habitats as (a) seeds are wind blown (b) very high genetic variability and (c) seed viability is also high. However, despite these obvious attributes P. gibbosa is currently con"ned to only four relictual sites. This can be attributed to the suitable ecological and microenvironmental factors being maintained in those areas. Further- more the outcrossing nature of this species through specialised pollination system (Dressler, 1981), high fecundity, wind dispersal of seeds and high level of gene #ow could also be responsible for the presence of high genetic variation in P. gibbosa. However, the presence of high genetic variation in endemic endangered taxa is not
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Phenotypic, Metabolic, and Genetic Diversity of the Indonesian Isolates of Rhizopus oligosporus

Phenotypic, Metabolic, and Genetic Diversity of the Indonesian Isolates of Rhizopus oligosporus

Regardless of some weaknesses, the AFLPs may provide the most determinative in term of genetic resolution produced (Mueller and LaReesa Wolfenbarger 1999; Brugmans et al. 2003). In our experiment, there is no single isolate that has the same pattern with others. It is interesting to note that the AFLP fingerprints of isolates FB-01, FB-05, FB-06, and FB- 08 differentiated these isolates accordingly to their phenotypic (morphology and temperature tolerance) differentiation. Isolates FB-05 and FB-08 are morphologically similar, but isolates FB-01 and FB-06, each of them is morphologically different to the others. The AFLP result revealed that isolates FB-05 and FB-08 have similar genetic fingerprints. On the other hand, isolates FB-01 and FB-06, each of them has dissimilar AFLP fingerprints to the others. Unlike the rDNA ITS regions, AFLP result may also evidence the phenotype, because AFLP fingerprints the whole genome. Reliable genetic resolution greatly depends on appropriate primers and PCR methods selections. The use of TGA bases extension in combination with specific touch-down PCR method has proven to generate sufficient genetic resolution.
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THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

THE USE OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS TO STUDY GENETIC DIVERSITY IN INDONESIAN SHEEP

These results showed high average number of alleles (10.6) in all Indonesian sheep population breeds, while the number of alleles between population is lower (6.4) than all populations. The average number effective of allele is high (3.7) in jember sheep population, but low (2.7) in garut sheep of fight type population. The average number of alleles in each population is not different significantly (6.2 to 6.5). The average and standard deviation of the observed heterozygosity (H o ) and expected heterozygosity (H e ) in Indonesian sheep populations are 0.5749±0.1236 and 0.6878±0.1065, respectively (Table 5). The average heterozygosity value was high in Indonesian sheep population based on the observed (H o ) and the expected heterozygosity (H e ) values. This result indicated that the genetic diversity within population of Indonesian sheep were still high.
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Genetic Diversity of Isolates of Phytophthora palmivora from Cocoa in Indonesia

Genetic Diversity of Isolates of Phytophthora palmivora from Cocoa in Indonesia

Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is an analysis technique for genetic variations of plant pathogen, which is known quite efficienty, ac- curate and informative. RAPD analysis was used to differentiate isolates of Phytophthora palmivora collected from 6 main cocoa growing provinces in In- donesia, namely North Sumatera, Lampung, West Java, East Java, South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi. These 20 isolates of P. palmivora showed high ge- netic similarity ranging from 88% to 98%. This result showed that there is a chance of developing of new strains of the P. palmivora of pod rot pathogen of cocoa in the future is very low, among 2% till 12%.
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Genetic diversity and microevolution of pyricularia grisea from grasses

Genetic diversity and microevolution of pyricularia grisea from grasses

Alhamdulillahirobbil alamin, penulis lafadkan atas segala rahmat dan karunia dari ALLAH SWT yang telah diberikan kepada penulis selama melakukan penelitian hingga penyelesaian penulisan disertasi ini. Disertasi yang berjudul Keragaman Genetik dan Mikroevolusi Pyricularia grisea Asal Rumput memuat hasil penelitian tentang keragaman cendawan blas pada beberapa spesies rumput yang tumbuh di sekitar pertanaman padi, dan perubahan genetik cendawan blas yang mengalami pergantian inang secara buatan. serta hubungan filogenetik antara cendawan blas pada rumput Digitaria ciliaris, Panicum repens, dan padi. Hasil yang diperoleh diharapkan dapat berkontribusi informasi pada manajemen penyakit blas pada padi di Jawa Barat. Bagian dari disertasi ini telah disajikan pada Seminar Sains III di Bogor pada bulan November 2010 yang diselenggarakan oleh FMIPA IPB dengan MIPAnet, dengan judul Keragaman Genetik Hasil Pergantian Inang Pyricularia grisea Asal Rumput Digitaria ciliaris. Selain itu sebuah artikel telah dipublikasikan di Jurnal Microbiology Indonesia 2011 berjudul Diversity of SCAR Markers of Pyricularia grisea Isolated from Digitaria ciliaris Following Cross Infection to Rice, 5(1):1-8. Melalui tulisan ini, penulis menyampaikan terima kasih dan penghargaan yang sebesar-besarnya kepada Dr.Ir. Utut Widyastuti, M.Si. selaku ketua komisi pembimbing, Dr.Ir. Gayuh Rahayu, MS., Prof.Dr.Ir. Alex Hartana, M.Sc. selaku anggota komisi pembimbing, atas segala curahan waktu, pikiran, nasihat dan arahan selama penelitian dan penulisan hasil disertasi. Terimakasih kepada bapak Dr.Ir. Muhammad Jusuf (Alm) atas bimbingan serta nasihat kepada penulis. Penulis juga menyampaikan terima kasih kepada seluruh jajaran pimpinan Institut Pertanian Bogor, yaitu Rektor yang telah mengizinkan penulis melanjutkan studi program doktor. Dekan Sekolah Pascasarjana IPB, Dr.Ir. Dedy Duryadi Solihin, DEA selaku Ketua Program Studi Biologi Sekolah Pascasarjana, Ketua Departemen Biologi FMIPA, dan Direktur Pusat Penelitian Sumberdaya Hayati dan Bioteknologi (PPSHB) yang telah memfasilitasi studi S3 ini.
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Genetic diversity and microevolution of pyricularia grisea from grasses

Genetic diversity and microevolution of pyricularia grisea from grasses

, AFLP and rep-Pot2 phenotypes, as well as pathotype. On the other hand, no new variation revealed their ITS sequences. Moreover, the cross infection to another grass in different genus (P. repens) also caused genetic variation in AFLP and rep-Pot2 phenotypes, and ITS sequences. These results indicated that the cross infection might induce microevolution of Pyricularia d4. Sequences of ITS and 5.8S rDNA of Pyricularia all of from D. ciliaris (d4), and from rice pathogen (ok6, ou6.S4) were similar. Whereas those of Pyricularia from P. repens (pr10.a.S4) had only one nucleotide different in their 5.8S rDNA sequences to those of Pyricularia d4. BLAST analysis of ITS and 5.8S rDNA sequences from five isolates showed 99% identical to Magnaporthe oryzae pathogen of rice, cereals and cultivated grasses. The ITS sequences of the non-rice isolates were similar with isolates of the rice blast disease, so there might be gene flow among the pathogen on grasses and rice. Based on nomenclatural priority, the specific name for Pyricularia from D. ciliaris, P. repens, and rice were Pyricularia grisea as the anamorphic of Magnaporthe grisea.
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:J-a:Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology:Vol243.Issue2.Jan2000:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:J-a:Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology:Vol243.Issue2.Jan2000:

Consequently, our results support the conclusions of Lively (1986a,b), that predation by the gastropod A. angelica is an inductive factor that results in a phenotypic conversion of shell morphology of C. anisopoma barnacles. Nevertheless, on an evolutionary scale, some degree of selection may still take place. That is, individuals which do not possess the genetic potential to convert to the bent morph, may be selected against where A. angelica is abundant. However, such selection is expected to be very restricted spatially, because of the limited distribution of A. angelica near crevices. The influence of A. angelica on C. anisopoma morphology proved significant at a distance of up to 20 cm from crevices, but was insignificant at distances exceeding 40 cm from the snail’s places of refuge (Lively, 1986a). Additionally, Lively (1986b) found that bent C. anisopoma grew more slowly and were less fecund than the conical ones, leading to the interpretation that the ‘cost’ of being bent probably balanced out with the ‘benefit’ of surviving predation.
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Genetic Diversity | Suhardi.Universitas Mulawarman.Kalimantan Timur.Indonesia A82759858323

Genetic Diversity | Suhardi.Universitas Mulawarman.Kalimantan Timur.Indonesia A82759858323

Domestic goats in Syria may provide an interesting source of genetic variability due to its proximity to the centers of domestication. This study aimed to assess the morphological variation, genetic diversity and population substructure of the Syrian goat populations. Commonly, three goat genotypes are distinguished in Syria, namely Jabali or mountain goat, Baladi or local goat and Shami or Damascus (a well-known dairy goat). A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used in recording both qualitative (coat color, eye color, horn length, horn orientation, nose profile) and quantitative (height at wither, chest girth, cannon length, body length, ear length and ear width) morphological data. Data from a total of 5,730 individual goats of the three goat populations reared in ten representative provinces of Syria were collected and analyzed using GenStat version 14 statistical packages. Results of the morphological analysis confirmed that there were clear morphological variations among the three goat populations. The three goat populations are mainly distinguished by their straight (Baladi, 71.1% and Jabali, 82.8%) and curved (Shami, 89.5%) nose profiles. Substantial phenotypic variability was found among and within the breeds suggesting that these goat breeds have not yet undergone an organized breeding program. The genetic variability and population substructures from 398 individual animals of the three breeds were genotyped using 12 DNA microsatellite markers from Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) panel. All microsatellites typed were found to be polymorphic and a total of 41 distinct alleles were detected on Baladi, Jabali and Shami goat populations. The Syrian goat populations had observed and expected heterozygosity values that ranged from 0.50 to 0.62 and 0.74 to 0.85, respectively, and an average of 13.97 alleles per locus across breeds. For all loci, an average inbreeding values (F IS ) of low to moderate level was obtained across the three goat breeds, which
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11 first cloned swamp buffalo produced from adult ear fibroblast cell1

11 first cloned swamp buffalo produced from adult ear fibroblast cell1

It is generally accepted that oocyte quality has an impact on early embryonic survival, establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, foetal development and even adult disease (Hossein et al ., 2009). Buffalo ovaries are often obtained from a slaughterhouse and the genetic background of the oocytes is unknown. The frozen-thawed buffalo adult fi bro- blast cell was successfully used for cloning in this study. Our results demonstrate that the frozen buffalo ear skin fi broblast cells could support the development of matured oocytes into the embryos, and the subsequent establishment of preg- nancy to full term. It has been reported that factors such as age, type and treatment of donor cells, as well as embryo culture methods in fl uence survival rates in the fi rst trimester, and neonatal viability at term (Hill et al ., 2000).
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the genetic diversity of bangladeshi buffaloes

the genetic diversity of bangladeshi buffaloes

REFERENCES - Alim, M.A. 2005. Albumin and transferrin polymorphism in the in- digenous buffaloes of eastern and southern part of Bangladesh. M.S. Thesis, Bangladesh Agriculture University, Mymensingh. Amano, T., Namikawa, T., Okada. I., Hasnath, M.A., Faruque, M.O. Majid. M.A. 1987. Karyotypes and blood protein polymorphisms of native buffaloes in Bangladesh. In: (ed. I. Okada). Genetic studies on breed differentiation of na- tive livestock in Bangladesh. Part II. Hiroshima Univ. pp117-128. Amano, T., Kurogi, K., Tanaka, K., Namikawa, T., Yamamoto, Y., Loc, C.B., Son, H.V., Nam, N.H., Hoa, P.X. Binh. D.V. 1998. Constitution of genes controlling blood protein types of Vietnam native water buffaloes and their phylogenic study. Rep. Soc. Res. Native Livestock. 16: 33 - 48. Faruque, M.O. 2004. Buffalo genetic resources in Bangladesh. Buffalo Newsletter. 15:1-6. Faruque, M.O. 2004 Phylogenetic studies of Bangladeshi water buffaloes based on morphological variation, blood protein and mtDNA polymorphisms. Ph. D. Thesis, Tokyo Univ. Agriculture, Tokyo. Kikkawa, Y., Yonekawa, H., Suzuki, H. Amano, T. 1995. Analysis of genetic diversity of domestic water buffaloes and anoas based on variations in the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b. Anim. Genet. 28: 195-201.
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ANALISIS KEANEKARAGAMAN GENETIK MARKISA (Passiflora spp.) DI SUMATERA UTARA BERDASARKAN PENANDA RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) SKRIPSI

ANALISIS KEANEKARAGAMAN GENETIK MARKISA (Passiflora spp.) DI SUMATERA UTARA BERDASARKAN PENANDA RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) SKRIPSI

The research about Genetic diversity analysis of the passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) in north Sumatera based on RAPD markers has been done in Genetic Laboratory and Integrated Laboratory, University of North Sumatera. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity of Passiflora sp. collection by RAPD marker. RAPD analysis was done to 31 passion fruit (Passiflora sp.) accessions that collected from 4 regional is region HUMBAHAS, North Tapanuli, Simalungun, and Karo that represented 4 species (P. edulis, P. ligularis, P. quadrangularis, P. foetida) from genus of Passiflora using 4 random primers (selected from 7 random primers). The result of electrophoresis showed 73 reproducible polymorphic bands (98%) are ranging in size from 250 bp to 2500 bp. The genetic similarity showed coefficients ranged from 0,8 to 0,97 based on Unweight Pair- Group Method Aritchmatic and Numerical Taxonomy (UPGMA) and Multivariate System (NTSYS) version 2.11a computer program,. The result revealed high levels of variation within and among species. Cluster analysis showed that grouping of passion fruit occurs by area collecting of the sample. Geographical proximity and similarity of the area where passion fruit had been collecting and based on the color of the fruit do not guarantee the genetic relationship of passion fruit by RAPD.
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