Tuberculosis (TB) is systemic infection cause by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex : M tuberculosis, M. Bovis, M. africanum, M. microti, and M. canetti. Tuberculosis infection occurs after inhalation of infective droplet nuclei containing M. tuberculosis. A reactive tuberculin skin test and the absence of clinical and radiographic manifestations are the hallmark of this stage. Tuberculosis disease occurs when sign and symptoms or radiographic changes becaome apparent. In the year 2001 prevalens rate of TB is 5,6/100.000 population, of these, 931 (6 % ) cases occurred in children < 15 year of age (rate 1,5/100.000 population). Transmission of M tuberculosis is person to person, usually by airborne mucus droplet nuclei, particles 1-5 µm in diameter that contain M tuberculosis. In the United States, most children are infected with M. tuberculosis in their home by adult patient tuberculosis close to them. The tubercle bacilli multiply initially within alveoli and alveolar duct. Most of bacilli are killed, but some survive within nonactivated macrophages, which carry them through lymphatic vessels to the regional lymph nodes. When the primary infection is the lung, the hilar lymph nodes ussualy are involved. The primary complex of tuberculosis includes local infection at the portal of entry ( primary focus) and the regional lymph nodes that drain the area. During the development of the primary complex, tubercle bacilli are carried to most tissues of thethe body through the blood and lymphatic vessels.Pulmonary tuberculosis that occurs more than a year4 after the primary infection is usually caused by endogenous regrowth of bacilli persisting in partially encapsulated lesions. The majority of children with tuberculosis infection develop no signs or symptoms at any time. Occasionally, infection is marked by low grade fever and mild cough, and rarely by high fever, cough, malaise, and flu like symptoms. Several drugs are used to effect a relatively rapid cure and prevent the emergence of secondary drug resistance during therapy. The standard therapy of intrathoracic tuberculosis (pulmonary disease and/or hilar lymphadenopathy) in children, recommended by the CDC and AAP, is 6 month regiment of isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF) supplemented in the first 2 month of treatment by pyrazinamide (PZA).
Administration of taurine to rat before CYP significantly reduced the increase in lung lipid peroxide compared to CYP group. This result is in agreement with Bhat et al., 1994; Gurujeyalakshmi et al., 2000 who found that the antineoplastic agent, bleomycin, forms an intracellular bleomycin Fe +2 complex that generates oxygen free radicals and produces pneumonitis and fibrotic lesions. Addition of taurine and niacin to the drinking water reduced the inflammatory response in animals treated with bleomycin . The protective effect was reflected in the degree of decrease of lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with taurine ameliorated CYP induced cystitis, as indicated by a significant decrease in lipid peroxides and a marked restoration of glutathione content (Abd-Allah et al., 2004). Taurine supplementation reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues of ethanol treated rats as evidenced by reduction in TBARS (Pushpakiran et al., 2004).
The gill organs were separated from the sample and then fixed in a 10% formalin solution followed by dehydration with stratified alcohols, clearing with xylol and embeded in paraffin. The tissue in paraffin blocks were cut with a thickness of 4 μm using a microtome, then placed on the object glass and stored in an incubator with a temperature of 40 o C for 24 hours. Samples were stained with Mayer's Hematoxylin Eosin (HE) for standard coloring to see the bungo fish structure. After staining, dehydration, cleansed in xylol, the samples were then mounting and ready for observation .
My never ending thankfulness is fully to my beloved father Surman Simanjuntak and my mother Marince for their everlasting love, hopeful prayers in his life, and the entire moral and the financial support that have enabled his to finish his study. His special thanks and admiration are also due to his sisters and brother, Sari Simanjuntak, Mery V Simanjuntak, Ira Simanjuntak, and the last Mario Simanjuntak. Thanks to all sisters and brothers in boarding house at Pardamean street 15C and all family, friends are also undeniable.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome atau RDS Adalah gangguan pernafasan yang sering terjadi pada bayi premature dengan tanda-tanda takipnue (>60 x/mnt), retraksi dada, sianosis pada udara kamar, yang menetap atau memburuk pada 48-96 jam kehidupan dengan x-ray thorak yang spesifik. Tanda-tanda klinik sesuai dengan besarnya bayi, berat penyakit, adanya infeksi dan ada tidaknya shunting darah melalui PDA (Stark 1986).
Chiappetta & Filman (2007) stated that in general science textbooks combines discussion about the nature of science, to engage students in activities to collect information and conduct laboratory investigations, outlining the relationship between science, technology and society. That science text book will be able to encourage the students to improve thinking ability and is not just understand terminology. Science text book should aid in development of learned societies in technology and science (Deani, 2013). It is not only contains about knowledge or science concepts but also develop science process and the link science to technology and society.
Many students even adults have misconceptions about respiration. In everyday life we say that we breathe with our lungs, fish breathe with gills and amphibians breathe through their skin. This process is not breathing but inspiration and expiration, exchange of the air. Inhaled air, high in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide, travels through therespiratory tract deep into the terminal portions of the lungs; this is inspiration. There, oxygen diffuses across the lung surface into the blood. From the lungs, oxygenated blood is carried to the heart and then, via the systemic circulatory system, to all part of the body. The real biologically accepted definition of breathing is, in fact, at the cellular level. Many investigations show that this topic is very difficult to understand (Bajd, 2010). Uzoamaka (2014) found that student’s error and misconceptions of respiration were partly contributed by the teacher’s and partly by students’ lack of understanding of the conceptual areas of respiration themselves. The result was discussed and its implication to biology education was given through the finding of the study showed that conceptual errors exist between students and their teachers.
If the bronchoscopy is done through the nose, numbing jelly will be placed into one nostril. Once you are numb, the tube will be inserted into the lungs. The doctor may send saline solution through the tube. This washes the lungs and allows the doctor to collect samples of lung cells, fluids, and other materials inside the air sacs. This part of the procedure is called a lavage.
This program purpose is for staf registration for any company to hire the best staf. Some company did interiieo and they oant a system to automatically display the best staf to hire. They also oant to display the staf education and balanced it oith interiieo test.
47. World Health Organization. Infeksi saluran pernapasan akut (ISPA) yang cenderung menjadi epidemi dan pandemi: pedoman ringkas. 2008; 48. Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Infeksi saluran pernafasan akut. 2012. 49. Monto AS. Epidemiology of Viral Respiratory Infections.
The prevalence of CRD was3.81% (95%CI: 3.43 to 4.18). In the bivariate analysis, gender, members of household, geographic locations, fuels used for cooking and smoking were significantly associated with CRD.However in the multiple logistic regression, the odds of having CRD was significantly higher among those who lived in urban areas (OR adj = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.71 to 2.83), female(OR adj = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.71 to 2.83),
This thesis wouldn’t be completed without supports, gudances, and suggestion from many division. First and foremost, my appreciation goes to the Dean of Mathematic and Science Faculty, Dr. Asrin Lubis, M.Pd, Coordinator of Bilingual Study Program, Dr. Iis Siti Jahro, M.Si, the Head of Biology Department , Dr. Hasruddin, M.Pd, and for thesis examiners, Prof. Dr. Herbert Sipahutar, M.S., M.Sc, Dr. Tumiur Gultom, S.P., M.P, Dra. Meida Nugrahalia, M.Sc and Drs. Tri Harsono, M.Si for their important comments and suggestions to make this thesis better.
Science education is one of essential major that is studied by students in school. Thus, the research about science learning in school becomes requisite in order to improve the development of science education. There is common situation in instructional process that the teacher stands in front of the class, lecturing and illustrating with the help of the black board and chalk. It generally happened in all major that be learned by students, included science. Those Traditional methods of teaching and learning cannot ensure the participation of every student. Students might be not interested to learn in the class.
Education is a fundamental human right and essential for developing students’ experiences. Education is a powerful tool by which economically and socially marginalized adults and children can lift themselves out of poverty and participate fully as citizens. The purpose of National Education stated in MPRS No. XXVI / MPRS / 1966 on religion, education and culture, is to educate the nation and develop Indonesian’s students who is faithful and devoted to God almighty and good in characters, having knowledge and skills, physical and spiritual health, steady and independent personality that has a sense of civic responsibility and nationality.
Tran, V. D. (2014) The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement and Knowledge Retention. International Journal of Higher Education . 3 (2), 131-140. [Online]. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v3n2p131 . [Accessed on September 17, 2014]
This descriptive research investigated the influence of the flap poster on students’ creativity in studying human respiratorysystem. Samples were 34 eight grade students in one of Private International Schools in Bogor, in which they were divided into experimental or control class, 17 students for each class. Qualitative data were obtained by using rubric and questionnaire. Results showed that experimental class students’ creativity was higher than control class students, in which this indicates that flap poster can facilitate students in developing their creativity. Furthermore, results also indicated that when the flap poster was implemented in learning Human Respiratory concept, experimental class achieved better results in every creativity dimension compared to control class.
This study is titled the impact of audio narrated animation on students’ understanding in learning human respiratorysystem based on gender. This study was conducted in eight grade of junior high school. This study aims to investigate the difference of students' understanding and learning environment at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratorysystem using audio narrated animation. Research method that is used is quassi experiment with matching pre-test post-test comparison group design. The procedure of study generally are: (1) preliminary study and learning habituation using audio narrated animation; (2) implementation of learning using audio narrated animation and taking data; (3) analysis and discussion. The result of analysis shows that there is significant difference on students’ understanding and learning environment at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratorysystem using audio narrated animation, both in general and specifically in achieving learning indicators. The discussion related to the impact of audio narrated animation, gender characteristics, and constructivist learning environment. It can be concluded that there is significant difference of students’ understanding at boys and girls classes in learning human respiratorysystem using audio narrated animation. Additionally, based on interpretation of students’ respond that there is the difference increment of agreement level in learning environment.
On the other hand, the teacher provides illustrative materials for students to study on their own. According to Ugwuanyi (1998), a learner is active in discovery leaning, and provides for individual differences as well as makes the process of learning to be self-sequenced, goal directed, with the goal perceived and the pace self-determined. So it means that discovery learning is expected can solve the problem of difficulties in learning Biology, mainly changing the role of teacher as the only resource science and also incr easing the students’ motivation that will increase the students’ cognitive learning outcome.
The findings of this study gives implication for students who want to improve their concept mastery, scientific attitude, and creative thinking ability, and for teachers who want to develop students skills when learning and teaching process takes place in the classroom. This study has examined two learning models i.e. Project Based Learning (PjBL) and Group Investigation (GI). They were applied to students in order to know which model of learning is more suitable for improving their concept mastery, scientific attitude, and creative thinking skills. Both to learning models is a constructivism approach which demand the students actively construct their knowledge.