The adjective clause whose windows looked over the moors at the back of the house translated into sentence. It is Dari jendela kamar itu nampak tanah berpaya-paya yang terbentang luas di belakang rumah. Based on the translation above, the translator separating the first sentence and the second become two sentences. The first sentence should be Anne was to sleep with Georgina in a samller room. Then the second are A smaller room whose windows looked over the moors at the back of the house. Both of the sentence are combine in one sentence by using relativizer whose to connect the sentences. The translation is quite clear but there is mistake in using berpaya-paya word. As the researcher talked before that the novel that use in analysis is include in children’s literature
Transposition, or shift as Catford calls it, reflects the grammatical change that occurs in translation from SL to TL. According to Newmark (1988) transposition consists of four types of grammatical changes. The first type concerns word's form and position. The second type of transposition is usually used when the TL does not have the equal grammatical structure of the SL. In this case, the translator looks for other options that help conveying the meaning of the ST.
1. Extent divided into Full and Partial translation. In a full translation, the whole text is submitted to the process of translation, each part of the SL text is substituted by text material. Catford stated that text is any stretch of language, spoken or written, which is under discussion and according to circumstances, a text may be a whole library of books, a chapter, a paragraph, a sentence, a clause, etc. in other side, a partial translation is some parts of the SL text are left untranslated. They are merely transferred to the target language text. In a literary translated, it is unusual for some SL lexical items to be treated that way.
Chapter II: Literature Review introduces the definition of translation, followed with the explanation of Skopos Theory, principles of translationand the Skopos Rules, process of translation , the unit of translation, the types of translation, the strategies of translation, problems of translation, the translation evaluation and the explanation regarding children storybook.
Given the importance of human roles in the relationship marketing strategy, the current study examines the effects of entrepreneurial human resource practices (EHRP) on relational capability (RC), market orientation (MO), and small firms’ business performance (BP). The study extends the literature, as the practices are seen as entrepreneurial phenomena. This study justifies the reason for integrating entrepreneurial concept into the practices carried out in small-sized firms. Measuring small firms’ success by incorporating human resource management has been strongly recommended by Huang & Wang (2011) because previous studies on the construct have focused on large firms. Accordingly, Smirnova, Naude, Mouzas, Kouchth, (2011) note that studies on the impact of this MO on BP through the development of RC are still insufficient. The authors also suggest that the links among the constructs are poorly understood in a non-Western context. Therefore, the current study was carried out in an Asian developing country, Indonesia, where small firms have made a great contribution to the national economic recovery (Wengel & Rodriguez, 2006). This study provides evidence by evaluating the effects in two different product categories, namely handicrafts and food/drink. Shedding light on the effects generate useful recommendations for
Nowadays, English becomes an important language for the whole world. In many countries in the world, people start to use English as a daily language although they have their own language already. So, people always learn how to make a good translation from English into their own language and from their own language into English. There are various reasons why people want to learn English. Some people need it so much to enlarge their business or another projects or jobs, some other people just want to know about English so they can understand the meaning anytime they watch an English movie or listen to an English song. However, some other people do it because they want to be an expert of English. Because of this reason also, there are so many people who wants to know how to make a good translation from English into their own languages and vice versa. About translation, Brislin (1976: 1) explained that, “Translation is a general term referring to the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one language to another, whether the language is in written or oral form, whether one or both languages are based on signs, as with signs of the deaf”. However, Larson (1984:3) states that:
Abstract: One of the many interests in translation studies is to study how meaning is rendered in the target language text (TLT). This is often ob- served in terms of ‘equivalence of meaning’ as it is meaning that is being transferred. Equivalence can occur at any level: word, group, sentence, text, and even pragmatic level. On working at the pragmatic level a translator of- ten has to refer to the (immediate) context in order that his/her translation can be understood by the TL readers. When the resulted translation is then analysed in terms of how the ‘pragmatic meaning’ has been rendered in the TLT, one of the analytical tools that can be used is the Gricean Maxims. In recent years, there have been renewed interests in the studies and researches related to the Gricean maxims. However, none has been concerned with In- donesian context. This article is, therefore, a preliminary inquiry into this area, particularly to see how the maxims can be problematic when we are faced with concepts of politeness.
There are conclusions pertaining to the three research questions. In relation to the first question, the skopos of the target texts is different from the skopos of the source texts. The analysis was based on Nord’s translation br ief (1997 in Munday, 2001). The skopos of the source texts obligates the news to be presented in depth or completely with the additional or related information. Prominently, it derives from the purpose of the BBC Internet service, which is to present comprehensive news website. Besides, the location where the source texts published, namely Middle East news column indicates priority. Meanwhile, the skopos of the target texts is to make informative text in the form of brief online news articles for Indonesian readers. Since the source texts were published in World news column where all of the news from around the world is published, the source texts become secondary news in which only main coverage is presented. Thus, the additional or related information are omitted. In addition, the translation brief reveals that the target texts should have the characteristics of the journalistic translation which are to give less-effort readability and immediate comprehension (Bani, 2006).
This research focused on techniques of adjustment used in Suzanna Collins ’s Novel ‘ Mockingjay ’ . The writer took the data in the forms of direct speech sentence. The research was conducted by using descriptive qualitative method. The data was collected from Suzanna Collins’s novel ‘ Mockingjay ’ in English and Indonesian. The research findings of the study show that there are 97 direct speech sentence which consist of three techniques of adjustment which is Addition (67), Subtraction (13), and Alteration (17). The most dominant type is Addition, which means the translator tried to make those lexical words are aimed at making something implicit in the source text became explicit one in the target text, to avoid ambiguity in the target language and to clarify the intended meaning of the author. Besides the additional information occurs because of the different culture between source and target text.
Upon completing the course students are expected to be able to (1) understand and use literatureand cultural studies tools (concepts and theories) to make out how meanings are produced, reproduced, and circulated, (2) use them to analyze and reveal the meanings hidden in cultural phenomena and practices and in literary works as cultural artifacts, and (3) critically scrutinize the social, cultural, and political significance of the revealed meanings to empower themselves and the people around them.
VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT was written especially for you. The program was designed to enrich your personal “word bank” with many hundreds of high-frequency and challenging words. There are six thematic books in the series—Everyday Living, Workplace and Careers, Science and Technology, Media and Marketplace, History and Geography, and Music, Art, andLiterature. Each worktext presents topic-related readings with key terms in context. Follow-up exercises provide a wide variety of practice activities to help you unlock the meanings of unfamiliar words. These strategies include the study of synonyms and antonyms; grammatical word forms; word roots, prefixes, and suffixes; connotations; and the efficient use of a dictionary and thesaurus. Thinking skills, such as drawing conclusions and completing analogies, are included as reinforcement.
The datum 232 shows that It was a great mistake is nominal sentence marked by noun phrase (a great mistake). In SL, the word it functions as subject, was (linking verb) functions as predicate, and followed by complement a great mistake (noun phrase). The linking itself is incomplete predicate, so a great mistake (noun phrase) can be called a predicate of complement, which is in the form of noun phrase.
Translation is the textual substance in one language (Source Language) that replaces to textual substance in another language (Target Language) by equivalent(Catford, 1969:20). Translation is not easy to do in transferring idea. In order to achieve a good translation, translators should have knowledge about the source and target language (SL and TL). Translators also enrich vocabularies and should know about culture, style, structure and etc in both languages. Translators have to understand those aspects to achieve natural translation, so the readers can read the translated books like the original one.
The emphasis of the structural approach to translation changes towards the end of the 1950s with the work of Vinay and Darbelnet. Vinay and Darbelnet in Venuti (2000:84) identify two procedures of translating, the first procedure id direct or literal translationand the second procedure is oblique translation. Literal translation occurs when there is an exact structural, lexical, and even morphological equivalence between to languages. According to Vinay and Darbelnet, this is only possible when the two languages are very close two each other. The literal translation (direct) procedures are borrowing, calque, and literal translation. While oblique translation occurs when word for word translation is impossible. The oblique procedures are transposition, modulation, equivalence and adaption.
Sitor Situmorang can be categorized as a writer of diaspora due to his writing that reaches France and other European countries although he finally returns to his country and still exists as an Indonesian writer. Unlike Situmorang, Sobron Aidit, that can also be categozed as a writer of diaspora, can reach France but he does not hold an Indonesian citizenship anymore. Such a writer is popularly called exile, which is also experienced by Utuy Tatang Sontani (Tempo, 25 February—3 March 2002). One of Sobron’s works is Memoar Sobron Aidit: Gajah di Pelupuk Matareviewed by Putu Oka Sukanta (Tempo, 22—28 April 2002). Some of Indonesian writers who have trans- national view are Goenawan Mohamad, Laksmi Pamuntjak, Dewi Anggraini, and Richard Oh.
missing in the clause, (b) verb missing in a clause, (c) subject and verb missing in a clause, (d) no subordinator or connector in a sentence, (e) incorrect subject-verb agreement, and (f) absence of plural nouns. These will be discussed in turn in the following. Note that this study examined the grammatical aspect of the students’ product of translation without looking at other language components such as vocabulary, spelling, punctuation, etc.
Nida (1964:64) defines ecology as the study of relations of living things to their surroundings. Ecological features such as flora, fauna, winds, plain and hills are not similar in different areas. Newmark (2003: 96) gives examples of e ologi al features i ter s of plai s; prairies , steppes , tu dras , pa pas , sa a ahs , lla os , ush , eld . Those e ologi al ords a e fou d i a text. In the literary text, ecological words can be found as the setting or in the fable story. In the other texts, it can be also found in the functional text, such as label. Label can be found in many products, i.e. food, drinks, cosmetics and so on. The researcher is very interested to analyze the cosmetics label.
Furthermore, test of literary appreciation instrument described the results of reader response, psycholiterature, and the formation of character. First, students can easily identify with the protagonist of a story character's behaviour. At least there are five good behaviour that can be identified. The behaviours are good, patient, and compassionate. Students from 16 study programs like the protagonist's behaviour. Various reasons were cited to realize the feelings of the characters were pleased to: (1) character is a woman, (2) mothers who survive bravely to change the behaviour of her daughter, (3) woman who worked hard to earn the needs and educate hers, ( 4) the woman who coveted each child for having turned her daughter to love her, (5) characters that must be owned by a mother, and (6) a great mom. Moreover, all students of Chemistry and Mathematics study program only found one character who they really hate “Tantyo” because he was not a good husband and good father to his wife and daughter. Meanwhile, 15 other study programs identified two characters Tantyo and Anindita (antagonists). Tantyo identified as the man who takes no responsibility and dereliction of duty as a husband and parent. The character is observed as a figure that has characterizations that are not felt by the respondents as follows: treason, less caring, gamblers, drunkards, grumpy, pleasure-loving, selfish, stubborn, ignorant, lazy, and likes to do mischief. And Anindita, she has always denied the words of her mother and drug abusers. The students did not like her because she was often rebellious, selfish, ignorant, lazy, stubborn, naughty, rude, and arrogant.
The findings of the study may lead to conclusion that students who used Translation Memory software did not do any better than those who did not and that generally students viewed the classroom use of this type of computer software in a positive manner; however, generalization cannot be made on the basis of what has been found in this study. This is particularly due to the fact that this study is context-specific and entails some limitations.
Vinay, J. P., & Darbelnet, J. (2000). Stylistique compare du francais et de Panglais. Paris: Didier. Retrieved from: Munday, J. (2001). Introducing Translation Studies; Theories and Applications. 270 Madison Ave, New York 10016: Routledge [8 th October 2015].