Ketika seorang pemakai menggunakan komputer, dia harus belajar beberapa aspek dasar tentang sistem operasi dan konsep-konsep file serta struktur direktori. Hal ini mengakibatkan pemakai akan lebih terfokus pada bagaimana informasi akan disimpan, bukan pada informasi itu sendiri. Salah satu kebutuhan ubiquitouscomputing adalah bahwa komputer harus tersembunyi. Komputer harus dapat “memahami” kondisi pemakai. Sebagai contoh, melalui penggunaan voice recognition atau interface lainnya yang memungkinkan pemakai melakukan akses tanpa harus mengetahui nama file tertentu, lokasi atau format file tersebut.
Application migration, in any of its forms, requires addressing several issues due to differences between the original and target computing devices or environments. Gener- ally speaking, applications are developed for concrete computing devices/platforms and are thus bound to operating system, networking, data storage, configurations, etc., of the original computing environment. In our problem setting, additionally, we are interested to migrate not only the application itself but also its current state as well as the data associated with the application to enable team members to resume and follow up the collaborative work from within another computing devices and complete the migration process in real-time. For instance, we would like to migrate a project management sys- tem, which uses a calendar of events or milestones related to a project development and a contact team members lists. To achieve the application migration in real-time, we specify and develop a platform for application migration using WebRTC (Web Real Time Communication) technology , which is a recent technology to support real-time communications for a variety of applications such as video and audio streaming, tele- conferencing, application window sharing, etc. The advantages of using WebRTC are, on the one hand, that it adds real-time communication to the browser and thus solves the problem that native applications cannot be used across different platforms, and on the other, it has a focus on Peer-to-Peer communication. The later feature is particularly useful in the case of collaborative (peer-group) teamwork. Also, WebRTC can be used for data sharing by using computing resources on Web browsers, not server resources, through a Peer-to-Peer network .
We should bear in mind that we could not expect to be able to solve each and every problem at hand by using bio-analogies. In the artificial intelligence domain, exaggerated expectations nurtured during the first hype in the 1960’s led to a disenchantment that slowed down development considerably until recently. In order not to repeat this error, we have to approach bionics (within the UC context as well as beyond) with more realistic visions. By realistic, we mean that we can indeed expect to get the inspiration for more elegant and efficient solutions to some of our current and future problems. The emphasis of this statement is on the term efficient as almost all biological systems are optimized for a satisfactory performance with minimal complexity. Good examples are motion (where for example sharks have a skin structure that minimizes skin friction and thus can move through their environment with minimal effort. This effect was successfully transferred to cargo ships, thus lowering freight costs) and information handling (where biology uses the genetic minimal language as described in the section “bio-analog computing on the molecular level”). Thus bionics (and socionics) will be not the holy grail of UC, but they can nonetheless provide valuable ideas and impulses that help in implementing the UC vision.
The user mobility problem in UbiquitousComputing has significant challenges in developing Active Office, for example, developing infrastructure with a variety of wired and wireless sensors, fusing sensor data using a spatio-temporal database (see Section 8.4.1), and the use of machine learning (see Section 5.2) for a variety of user locations and user activities, the use of event-driven mobile middleware for a variety of user mobility. In developing context aware systems, it also challenges because of the use of already existing devices (old sensors and networks) and new embedded devices, to develop context-aware applications, which require toolkits designed to enable maximum capability of the devices/sensors. The toolkit design should follow the requirements of the context aware applications, which are:
Ubiquitouscomputing, or ubicomp, is the term given to the third era of modern computing. The first era was defined by the mainframe computer. Second, is the era of the PC, a personal computer used by one person and dedicated to them. The third era, ubiquitouscomputing, representative of present time, is characterized by explosion of small networked portable computer products in the form of smart phones, PDAs, and embedded computers built into many of the devices, Figure 1 (Krumm, 2010). Ubiquitouscomputing is the method of enhancing computer used by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user. One of the positive effects from ubiquitouscomputing is people who do not have skills use the computer and people with the physical lack (the defect) could continue to use the computer for all the needs. Ubiquitous technology means the ability to access to any services and gathering information in any location such as country, city, workplace and even home, any time, by anyone, by any device and in any network (LAN, Wireless etc.). In ubiquitous perspective every element of real world can communicate together.
It characterized by a growing spread of ubiquitouscomputing and communications and ad-hoc networks of sensors forming that has been termed as ambient intelligence . In this case, the robotic technologies combine with ubiquitous network and cloud-computing infrastructure that connects multiple robots, sensors, portable devices and data-center. It is an attractive model, since it allows the provision of resource retrieval and allocation. It is common that computational resources are allocated to distributed clients and resource allocation system is regarded as a mechanism that aims to fulfill any requirements of target applications.
Pada tahun 1988, Mark Weiser, seorang peneliti senior dari Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) yang merupakan “ the father of ubiquitouscomputing ” pada pertama kalinya mempublikasikan definisi istilah ubiquitouscomputing atau disebut juga ubicomp , yang dalam artikelnya disebutkan sebagai berikut: “Ubiquitouscomputing is the method of enhancing computer use by making many computers available throughout the physical environment, but making them effectively invisible to the user.”
Cloud computing adalah sebuah model komputasi / computing, dimana sumber daya seperti processor / computing power, storage, network, dan sotfware menjadi abstrak dan diberikan sebagai layanan di jaringan / internet menggunakan pola akses remote. Model billing dari layanan ini umumnya mirip dengan modern layanan publik. Ketersediaan on-demand sesuai kebutuhan, mudah untuk dikontrol, dinamik dan skalabilitas yang hampir tanpa limit adalah beberpa atribut penting dari cloud computing. 3 2.4 Proxmox VE
Cloud computing adalah sebuah bentuk komputasi berbasis internet yang menyediakan layanan pemrosesan komputer bersama dan data kepada komputer maupun perangkat lain seperti smartphone yang terhubung dengan internet. Pada saat ini cloud computing telah diimplementasikan dalam banyak hal, antara lain Google Drive, iCloud, Youtube, Amazon Web Service, dan sebagainya.
Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Utami yang melakukan penelitian mengenai Keputusan Pengadopsian cloud computing Oleh Usaha Kecil Menengah (UKM) Di Indonesia menggunakan Technological-organizational-environmental (TOE) Framework. Hasil pengujian dan analisis penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor-faktor yang terbukti berpengaruh terhadap keputusan pengadopsian cloud computing oleh UKM di Indonesia adalah biaya, kompatibiltas, risiko persepsian, pengetahuan TI, dan dukungan dari vendor TI. Namun tidak semua faktor dalam penelitian ini terbukti berpengaruh terhadap keputusan pengapdosial teknologi cloud computing. Hal ini kemungkinan disebabkan karena masih minimnya pelaku UKM yang mengetahui teknologi cloud computing . Sedangkan Hamzah melakukan penelitian Studi Kasus Penerapan Roadmap For Cloud Computing Adoption (ROCCA) Pada Usaha Mikro Kecil Dan Menengah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor pendorong adopsi adalah faktor biaya dan kemudahan pengelolaan aplikasi berbasis cloud computing.
Selain contoh diatas, tentu masih banyak lagi yang lain. Dalam perkembangannya, banyak perangkat lunak yang dulu hanya kita bisa nikmati dengan menginstall aplikasi tersebut di komputer kita (on-premise) mulai bisa kita nikmati lewat Cloud Computing. Keuntungan dari SaaS ini adalah kita tidak perlu membeli lisensi software lagi, kita tinggal berlangganan ke cloud provider dan tinggal bayar berdasarkan pemakaian.
be a rooted tree such that all vertices at the same level have the same number of children. Such a tree is shown in Figure 4. In computing the characteristic function as above, we note that the rational functions appearing at each level have the form of partial fractions:
Consider a geographic landscape modeled as a height function h : D → R over a two-dimensional domain D. This landscape is often visualized by a discrete set of iso-lines h − 1 (c) for constant height values c. A contour tree partially captures the topology of these iso-lines, and it has been constructed for the fast generation of iso-lines in the past (de Berg and van Kreveld, 1993; van Kreveld et al., 1997). Recently, Carr et al. (2000) gave a simple and elegant algorithm for computing contour trees in all dimensions. If h is differentiable, we may define the gradient field consisting of vectors in the direction of the steepest ascent. Researchers in visualization have studied this vector field for some time (Bajaj et al., 1998; de Leeuw and van Liere, 1999; Tricoche et al., 2000). The Morse-Smale complex captures the characteristics of this vector field by decomposing the manifold into cells of uniform flow. As such, the Morse-Smale complex represents a full analysis of the behavior of the vec- tor field. Moreover, the Morse-Smale complex is a richer structure than the contour tree, and we may extract the tree from the complex when needed.
Cluod use of computing are important in a data storage system. Where cloud computing allows for the user should use the resources (networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that exist in a cloud network (the Internet) that can be shared and used together. However, the advantages of cloud computing is also offset by several weaknesses, especially in terms of data storage security. Thus it is necessary to note the following: ensure reputation, history and sustainability of the service provider has to be available and the data can be tracked in the long term, assured handling of the provider in the face of the failure of backup or retrieval of information is guaranteed, time delay may occur when the return information after a crash or other incident, ensuring the protection of intellectual property and trade secrets on the information we store in the cloud storage media, performance provider in performing backups, incident response and recovery to be truly tested.