Urban floods are caused by natural events and anthropogenic activities. In Indian cities flooding is becoming frequent due to both human factors and meteorological/hydrological factors, with the former factor being more predominant. some of the issues contributing to urban floods are listed below 1 :
Effects of heat wave exacerbate in urban areas owing to the density of population, closely spaced concrete structures, leading to a phenomenon called “Urban Heat Island” effect. Pollution and dust also play their role in trapping the heat in the urban areas. Incidence of heat strokes, dehydration and deaths are reported. Business hours shrink during these extreme heat waves. Areas devoid of trees or any shade become unbearably hot. Informal labour force like construction workers, rickshaw pullers, street vendors, hawkers and small shopkeepers become extremely vulnerable to heat strokes. Most deaths reported from cities are from these exposed and under privileged sections. Those living in slums and squatter settlements, unauthorized and congested residential areas where ventilation is
This approach is manifest in a push towards main-- streaming urban resilience. Many development ac-- tors and projects have now taken on board the call to mainstream resilience as a rallying cry. There is a certain logic to putting urban resilience at the heart of policy and planning. Yet calls for mainstreaming, and associ-- ated recommendations founded on policy champions and resilience planning, often fail to acknowledge the dynamics of urbanization or the core governance gaps. Much effort is directed towards the government rath-- er than processes of governance; towards policy and plans, rather than promoting processes of accountabil-- ity, transparency and public participation; towards in-- dividual government champions rather than networks of alliances of citizens, private and public sector. Talk of mainstreaming only further deflects attention from system failings and governance gaps (Friend, Jarvie et al. 2013). Such calls are at risk of promoting a one-sided view of resilience that is imposed from above, and that disempowers and disadvantages certain groups of ur-- ban people. It also fails to draw on the rich intellectual history of resilience thinking.
By using different climate models, various scientists have claimed that the earth’s climate is currently unstable and that human activities play an important role in climate change. Rapid development and population growth has led to an ecological crisis around the world with varying degrees of damage. During the last century, climate change has KDGDJUHDWLQÁXHQFHRQWKHQDWXUDOHFRV\VWHP and social economy aspect; for this reason, research into temperature changes is becoming very important and more and more studies are being carried out (Li, 2009). As a result of industrialisation and deforestation, the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has increased dramatically and changed the air composition of the atmosphere. Over the last 100 years, man-made GHG emissions, such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, have increased; these three major gases resulted from the burning of fossil fuels and changes in land use (IPCC, 2008). In the last 20 years, it has begun to be assumed that these two phenomena are related to one another. In other words, the cause of the increase in the global average temperature is likely to be considered to also be a cause of the rise of GHG emissions, which have occurred simultaneously with the increasing concentrations of GHGs in the atmosphere.
Landslides occur due to a number of complex factors. However, researchers believe that heavy rains are one of the major causal factors for landslide. The climate scientists and IPCC Working Group I reports that more extreme weather with heavy rainfall is expected in future. This implies that climate change will increase the number of landslide incidents.
The overall urbanclimate inance picture illustrated in section 2 is dominated by seven large CTF projects supporting urban transport investments. Their relative size is demonstrated by the fact that these projects account for 6% of the total climate inance approved for over 700 projects between 2010 and 2014. While some of these projects diverge from what might be considered the traditional model for a donor-supported infrastructure investment (e.g. the Fund’s US$ 200 million support to the Mexican Urban Transport Transformation Program will be channelled through a new national infrastructure fund to incentivise municipalities and local transport companies to invest in low-emission buses and has directly leveraged considerable domestic resources for complementary capacity building, project development and investment activities), it is not always convincing that the supported investments have been dependent on the climate inance components of their inancing structures and would not have gone ahead without them; the CTF has contributed 12% of total investment costs for these projects on average. It certainly seems contentious to claim in some cases that the large amounts of donor and national government co-inancing involved have been leveraged by the climate fund contribution, especially where that contribution is inancing what might be considered climate change-relevant enhancements to the core infrastructure investment funded by others. Innovative project ideas are by their nature less numerous and straightforward to implement, especially at scale, and climate funds are under pressure to spend the money entrusted to them. One might argue that these large investment projects have been seen as a pragmatic way to get money out the door, conident in the knowledge that they adhere to the standards of the MDBs implementing them.
Climate change is one of the foremost emerging global challenges, the impacts of which are increasingly manifesting themselves through highly erratic instances of weather deviations and induced extreme events. While both urban and rural areas are vulnerable to climate change, its impacts on cities and towns are of particular concern due to high concentrations of people and infrastructure in these areas (TERi 2014). While urban centres in india are the new engines of economic growth, they are still grappling with issues, such as infrastructure deficits, inadequate basic service provision, clubbed with multiple climate hazards. Recent climate calamities and the resulting loss and damage have caused for a deeper look at the preparedness and adaptive capacity of the regions that are vulnerable to climate-induced disasters and extreme events The damage assessment figures for Hudhud cyclone in 2014 indicate a total loss of iNR 90,000 crore ($20 billion) in visakhapatnam. Similarly, the floods in Jammu and Kashmir, in September 2014, caused a total damage of iNR 6,000 crore ($1 billion). The floods in Mumbai in the year 2015 caused a direct loss of about iNR 550 crore (about $100 million) (TERi 2015b). These calamities are grim reminders of the need to factor in extreme events that are predicted to increase as a result of climate change. With meticulous planning, taking into account considerations of climate resilience, urban planners, and policymakers can address some of the issues and improve living conditions of the people. in this context, the Asian Cities Climate Change Resilient Network (ACCCRN), a nine-year initiative (2008–16), supported by the Rockefeller Foundation, has been instrumental in bringing forth the urbanclimate change resilience agenda to cities in Asia. in india, with ACCCRN’s support, the cities of Surat, indore, Gorakhpur, Guwahati, Bhubaneswar, Panaji, and Shimla, have developed and demonstrated effective processes and practices for addressing urbanclimate vulnerabilities using participatory planning as well as implementing targeted intervention projects (ACCCRN 2013). Other cities are already replicating the process and have come up with their own City Resilience Strategies (CRS). The ACCCRN experience, however, has revealed that due to lack of an enabling policy environment, institutional and financial arrangements, and statutory backing, all these cities are facing challenges in implementing the City Resilience Strategy in a comprehensive manner. The policy synthesis report prepared by TERi in Phase i (TERi 2011) and the policy briefs prepared by the different national partner organizations (NPO) to ACCCRN in india also highlight the importance of mainstreaming the climate change resilience agenda in urban planning processes and practice (ACCCRN 2013).
Sasank Vemuri is Urban Resilience Specialist currently working as a staff consultant for the UrbanClimate Change Resilience Trust Fund (UCCRTF) at the Asian Development Bank (ADB). He is a climate change specialist with extensive experience across the Asia-Pacific Region in preparing policies, implementing projects and developing local capacities that support communities in building resilience to the impacts of climate change. His professional expertise lies at the nexus of community-oriented climate change project formulation and finance. Prior to joining ADB, Sasank worked for 8 years at the GIZ.
As the VA document suggests, solid waste and poor drinking water become the most visible problems for the city of Bandar Lampung over the last 10-20 years. During 2009-2011, there was no known project in the city that are earmarked related to urbanclimate adaptation. It was agreed by the City Team that all the pilot projects were implemented by NGOs because the local government's budget system does not allow flexibility for taping external resources. The first pilot project was implemented by an NGO namely Lampung Ikhlas. It piloted small scale waste management and clean water management project with the overall objective to improving community adaptation to reduce impacts of flood and water scarcity. The waste management was aiming at changing behavior of coastal communities through solid waste recycling (e.g plastics and paper waste recycling as well as turning organic waste into organic fertilizers. The water management project helped the local communities in Kangkung village (Kota Karang) to filter brackish water to become drinking water.
UrbanClimate Change Resilience (UCCR) building in Asia, like many development programmes, tries to influence policy and planning [7, 8]. “Policy” here has varying meanings; policy impact may arise from deriving new policy, spurring regulation to refocus existing policy, or encouraging effective implementation of policy that has become moribund. Challenges arise because the long-term needs required in preparing and implementing climate adaptation measures are not always aligned with the short- term expediencies driving the reality of governance in urbanizing Asia; it is rarely clear what UCCR is mainstreaming into .
Modern large cities are characterized by a high building concentration, little aeration and lack of green spaces. Such characteristics create an urbanclimate which is different from the climate outside of cities. An example of an urbanclimate effect is the so-called Urban Heat Island: cities tend to be warmer than the surrounding rural areas. The higher temperature results in an increase in energy consumption since people, especially in summer, use artificial means to cool themselves. Although means of mitigating the UHI effect exist, they are difficult to justify, as knowledge about urbanclimate is limited, and analysis tools are lacking. This paper presents the work carried during the 2010 MSc Geomatics Synthesis Project. A 3D spatial relational database has been implemented which is meant to act as starting point in the development of a 3D climate-enabled geographical information system. To this end, the database stores 3D geometries representing the built environment and its thematic properties. The database is also able to store measurements of climate parameters, in this case temperature, obtained through mobile sensors. Spatial analyses and queries are supported, allowing users to calculate areas, distances, buffers, add and remove geometries and thematic attributes. The database design is based on the CityGML information model which has been extended to allow the storage of climate parameters relevant to urbanclimate research.
To obtain the hour-by-hour energy consumption during the years, data for multiple climatic variables in the form of 8760 hourly records per variable (dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, global solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, and pressure) for each year were produced. Weather data is used not only to drive the hour-by-hour response of the building to the climate, but also to size the systems in model, thus affecting capacities, performance curves, and possibly the types of systems to use. All the effects have an impact on the predicted energy use in the model. Sixteen prototype buildings have been simulated with urbanclimate atlas from the centre of domain. Building energy usage was estimated by simulating sixteen prototypical buildings with the EnergyPlus model from U.S. Department of Energy (DC, 2010). EnergyPlus is the dynamic building energy simulation engine for modeling building; heating, cooling, lighting and ventilating EnergyPlus is a well-known and highly validated model that is the industry standard model. EnergyPlus model has been validated in numerous tests from ASHRAE. EnergyPlus is a highly detailed building thermal load simulation program that relies on detailed user inputs. EnergyPlus calculates heating and cooling loads, and energy consumption, using sophisticated calculations of heat gain and heat loss including transient heat conduction though building envelop elements. It also accounts for heat and mass transfer that impact sensible and latent thermal loads due to ventilation and infiltration. Additionally, the model has detailed calculations of heat transfer to or from the ground and comprehensive models of solar gain through the fenestration and opaque envelop components. Building features needed for implementation in EnergyPlus, were taking from the ASHRAE 90.1 Prototype Building Modeling Specifications. Outdoor ventilation air requirements and schedules are defined following the ASHRAE 90.1 Prototype Building Modeling Specifications; PNNL (2014)
Urban health is a very complex web as various stakeholders including representatives from state and national-level ministries, municipal government departments, civil society, academicians, industries and the private sector play a pivotal role to ensure accessibility and availability of urban health services. It is very essential to act in a coordinated mechanism on the nexus of health determinants to reduce health inequities in urban settings.
Human influence on the climate system is clear. This is evident from the increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, positive radiative forcing, observed warming, and understanding of the climate system. Urbanization also offers opportunity. Rural-urban migration, whether seasonal, temporary, or permanent, reflects the perception of greater opportunity and choice in the more productive and diverse environment of a city. For poor rural residents, especially those in vulnerable coastal areas or in marginally productive rain-fed agricultural zones, climate change will pose a challenge to their survival. Higher variability in rainfall, longer droughts, more severe floods, more intense storms and high tidal surges will all make rural livelihoods even riskier. Rather than face impoverishment in the countryside, many are likely to respond to greater climate risks by moving to the city.
1. It was stated several times that the city is demonstrating qualities of “effective inter- connectivity” and “culture of adaptability, cohesiveness and functionality”. Please elaborate further about these characteristics, especially considering that in the later part there was mention of the need to build an alliance with non-governmental actors and neighboring cities or areas. How do these characteristics apply - as well as assist in building the said alliance? An example (existing practices in other city) on this matter would be helpful, particularly an example in the ecosystem services-urban resilience context.