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Using Water Balance to Analyze Water Availability for Communities ( A Case Study in Some Areas of Bengawan Solo Watershed)

Using Water Balance to Analyze Water Availability for Communities ( A Case Study in Some Areas of Bengawan Solo Watershed)

7KH ÀQDO UHVXOW RI ZDWHUVKHG·V JHQHUDO water balance was derived from the difference between precipitation and corrected EP, WKXV ZDWHU VXUSOXV RU ZDWHU GHÀFLW LQ WKH wet period could be determined. Negative value represented the precipitation level was incapable to add water potential of vegetated area. On the contrary, positive value depicted the water surplus was available during certain periods of the year to restore soil moisture and runoff. The differences between precipitation and monthly P-EP in the Upstream and Midstream of Bengawan Solo Watershed are presented in Table 3.
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WATER BALANCE SEBUAH ALTERNATIF MODEL PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA AIR (SDA): STUDI KASUS DI SUKOHARJO

WATER BALANCE SEBUAH ALTERNATIF MODEL PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA AIR (SDA): STUDI KASUS DI SUKOHARJO

Water balance yang dikenal juga Neraca Sumberdaya Air (NSDA) merupakan salah satu cara evaluasi SDA yang terdapat di suatu daerah. Walaupun era ini bukan merupakan era yang baru, tetapi ternyata masih dapat digunakan sebagai dasar pengelolaan SDA. Hal ini karena data yang digunakan adalah semua data uang terkait dengan variable hidrologi. Diantaranya tersebut adalah curah hujan (variable meteorology), topografi, penggunaan lahan, data hidrologi (variable fisik DAS), maupun berbagai penggunaan air. (variable output)

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ANALISIS WATER BALANCE DAS SERAYU BERDASARKAN DEBIT SUNGAI UTAMA  ANALISIS WATER BALANCE DAS SERAYU BERDASARKAN DEBIT SUNGAI UTAMA.

ANALISIS WATER BALANCE DAS SERAYU BERDASARKAN DEBIT SUNGAI UTAMA ANALISIS WATER BALANCE DAS SERAYU BERDASARKAN DEBIT SUNGAI UTAMA.

Berdasarkan analisis water balance DAS Serayu, hasil analisis menunjukkan adanya kekurangan air yang terjadi pada tahun 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2008 dan 2013. Hanya pada tahun 2005 dimana debit ketersediaan lebih besar daripada debit kebutuhan. Menggunakan kurva massa Ripple (1883), didapatkan kebutuhan volume tampungan sebesar 97.122.302 m 3 , sedangkan volume tampungan berupa waduk yang ada saat ini, yaitu Waduk Sudirman, hanya memiliki volume aktif sebesar 47.000.000 m 3 , dengan laju sedimentasi sebesar 3.740.740 m 3 per tahun, usia Waduk Sudirman kurang lebih tinggal 12 tahun lagi, sehingga tampungan berupa waduk yang baru harus sudah dimulai proses pembangunannya. Usia Waduk Sudirman dapat diperpanjang dengan membangun bendung pada Sungai Serayu agar terjadi pengendapan pada bendung tersebut dan endapan tersebut dapat digali sehingga tidak terjadi pengendapan pada Waduk Sudirman.
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18 Water Balance Yuna River Draft 2005

18 Water Balance Yuna River Draft 2005

In addition, we have only monthly average temperatures, rather than daily, maximum or minimum temperatures. We have no soil moisture storage information and here assume that this influence is negligible. Inaccuracies of temperature and precipitation collection also exist on steep terrain as is found in Quemados; the relatively flat areas in the lower Yuna create inaccuracies of flow. Finally, the Yuna watershed has more than half a dozen major dams, levies, dikes and channels. The lower Yuna is heavily used for agriculture, especially rice, for which water is diked, diverted, ponded and then drained at different times of the year. The influence of return flows is also likely more significant at El Limon that at other upstream and less managed sites.
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MEMPELAJARI NERACA AIR (WATER BALANCE) PADA LAHAN BUDIDAYA CABAI DI LABORATORIUM LAPANG TERPADU UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG

MEMPELAJARI NERACA AIR (WATER BALANCE) PADA LAHAN BUDIDAYA CABAI DI LABORATORIUM LAPANG TERPADU UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG

Hujan adalah salah satu sumber air utama di lahan kering. Sebaran hujan yang tidak selalu merata, baik menurut ruang ataupun waktu, menyebabkan kondisi ketersediaan air tanah berbeda pula pada setiap ruang dan waktunya (Purbawa dan Wiryajaya, 2009). Optimalisasi pemanfaatan sumber air tersebut dapat dilakukan jika diketahui jumlah ketersediaan air tanah yang dapat digunakan oleh tanaman sekaligus disediakan teknologi spesifik lokasi berupa pemanenan air hujan dan aliran permukaan (water harvesting).

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TINJAUAN PUSTAKA  ANALISIS WATER BALANCE DAS SERAYU BERDASARKAN DEBIT SUNGAI UTAMA.

TINJAUAN PUSTAKA ANALISIS WATER BALANCE DAS SERAYU BERDASARKAN DEBIT SUNGAI UTAMA.

Linsley dan Franzini (1979) menjelaskan bahwa presipitasi meliputi semua air yang jatuh dari atmosfir ke permukaan bumi. Presipitasi terjadi dalam berbagai bentuk yang menjadi perhatian ahli meteorologi, tetapi bagi ahli hidrologi yang penting hanyalah membedakannya dalam presipitasi cair (curah hujan) dan presipitasi beku (salju, batu es). Linsley dkk (1982) menyatakan bahwa dari seluruh jumlah presipitasi (hujan) yang jatuh ke daratan hanya seperempatnya yang kembali ke laut melalui aliran buangan air hujan atau aliran bawah tanah ( direct runoff dan ground water ).
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Impacts of El Niño Climate Anomaly on Irrigation Scheduling of Maize Crop Using Budget Models under Tropical Climate Conditions

Impacts of El Niño Climate Anomaly on Irrigation Scheduling of Maize Crop Using Budget Models under Tropical Climate Conditions

Hook et al., (2001), states that irrigation sched- uling is an important part in the preparation of water management strategies. Irrigation scheduling concerns on how much water is given and when it is given. Kumar et al. (2017) added that proper irrigation scheduling could create energy efficiency and support the green agriculture movement and green energy. The amount of water given is very dependent on the ability of the soil to store water and the ability of plants to absorb water in the plant zone. To be more effective and efficient in irrigation applications in dry land, micro irriga- tion technology is very appropriate (Imanudin et al., 1997). This micro irrigation applies irrigation given right in the plant’s roots zones. Method of water delivery can be applied through drip irriga- tion, drip, bulk (micro spray) and mini-sprinkler. Micro irrigation is a small water supply system for crops using low. In order to establish a micro irrigation system, it is necessary to get information about water source in the field and the distribu- tion technology to be provided for water to plant root zone. Water balance is an interaction between land components consisting of soil, water (climate and hydrology) and plants (Imanudin, 2001, Imanudin and Tambas, 2002). Thus, land variable is very important as a growing medium that will determine the amount of water that can be stored and distributed. In this context, the important physical properties of soil necessarily known are texture, porosity, permeability, weight of content, infiltration and soil moisture characteristic curve (Imanudin and Susanto 1995).
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Development of a New System Approach to Land Use Sustainability with Various Interfaces

Development of a New System Approach to Land Use Sustainability with Various Interfaces

Every day, and for each management strategy being run, all major components of the crop-soil-water model are executed. These components are management practices, water balance, soil organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorous dynamics, heat balance, plant growth and plant development. The water balance considers surface runoff, infiltration, surface evaporation, saturated and unsaturated soil water flow, drainage, root water uptake, soil evaporation and transpiration. The soil organic matter and nutrient model simulates organic matter decomposition, N mineralization and formation of ammonium and nitrate, N immobilization, gaseous N losses and three pools of phosphorous. The development and growth of plants considers the environmental conditions (particularly temperature and light) to calculate the potential rates of growth for the plant. This growth is then reduced based on water and nitrogen limitations.
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S TS 1101806 Abstract

S TS 1101806 Abstract

Analisis ketersediaan air daerah irigasi Leuwi Kuya menggunakan metode NRECA dan metode F.J.Mock dibandingkan langsung dengan pengamatan di lapangan. Kebutuhan air dilakukan beberapa alternatif pola tanam, awal tanam, dan sistem golongan dengan melihat water balance yang terbaik.

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KARAKTERISTIK LIMBAH DAN KELAYAKAN IMPLEMENTASI OPSI 3R (REDUCE, REUSE, AND RECYCLE) DI INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN IKAN BANDENG “BANDENG JUWANA” SEMARANG - Unika Repository

KARAKTERISTIK LIMBAH DAN KELAYAKAN IMPLEMENTASI OPSI 3R (REDUCE, REUSE, AND RECYCLE) DI INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN IKAN BANDENG “BANDENG JUWANA” SEMARANG - Unika Repository

Waste is an undesirable result of food industry activities. This milkfish processing industry yields two types of waste, solid waste and wastewater. If the waste of this food industry is not handled properly, it will cause environmental problems. This research aims to decide the 3R optional opportunities, (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) based on the characteristics of each waste, thus the resources optimum exploitation and the reduction of environmental contamination can be achieved. The following steps, which are performed in this study, are : the measurement of material, water, and mass balance of the bandeng presto, pepes bandeng and perkedel bandeng production process; and the estimation of the waste volume produced by each product. Based on the bandeng presto material balance on those three milkfish processing product, 32,3% effluent (output) mass product from 1058,14 kg milkfish raw material. According to bandeng presto water balance, it is acknowledged that there is only 0,4% wastewater in the form of coloring solution, which is left in the products and 99,6% expelled water as waste. The measurement of bandeng presto mass balance shows that from total material input, produces 4% biodegradable solid waste containing high organic materials. The characteristics of wastewater in milkfish processing industry are turbid and odorous. They also contains high organic materials (protein, fat, carbohydrate). Bandeng presto production also resulted in nonbiodegradable solid waste, which are cartons and plastic. The recommended waste handling based on the 3R options (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) are :
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment:Vol76.Issue2-3.Nov1999:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment:Vol76.Issue2-3.Nov1999:

A cascading soil water balance is used once canopy interception and surface runoff have been accounted for. Each soil layer is assumed to fill to field capacity and then pass on any remaining water to the layer below. Any water that passes beyond the bottom layer is assumed lost to deep percolation. Potential evap- otranspiration (PET) is calculated as a function of daily average air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, radiation and wind speed, adopting the internationally standardized FAO Penman–Monteith methodology (Smith et al., 1996). The two components of PET — potential evaporation and potential transpiration — are estimated from canopy cover. Actual transpiration is determined on a daily basis as the lesser of root wa- ter uptake or maximum loss rate. Total soil water potential is used to determine the amount of water available for crop transpiration in each soil layer. The osmotic effect on crop growth is simulated by adding osmotic potential to the matric and gravitational soil water potentials. Osmotic potential is calculated as a function of ionic concentration (Campbell, 1985). The daily dry matter increment (DM i ) is taken as the
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S TS 1006865 Abstract

S TS 1006865 Abstract

Cikapundung watershed is one of some watershed that located in the upstream of Citarum river. It flows the water from the upstream of Cikapundung river to the Citarum river as the downstream. Cikapundung watershed is a potential area that functioned as the main drainage and providing clean water for the inhabitant in Bandung City. The increasing of the developed terrain and the change of the terrain function in this area caused the open terrain as the absorption area is decreasing. It caused the Cikapundung river water availability decreasing. The high demand of the terrain providing caused by the high growth of the inhabitant causing the water needs increasing. To prevent this problem, the water balance with AWLR data calibration Cikapundung-pasirluyu river and the approachment of dependable discharge using F.J Mock method. The purpose of calculation is to knowing the number of water needs and the water availability in Cikapundung river. The purpose of the calculation is to find out the amount of water needs, the availability of water in Cikapundung river, and the water balance, so the amount of decreasing and increasing water can be predicted. From the result of the water balance calculation shows that in July, August, September, and November water deficit happened. Which in November is rainy season but the availability of water discharge is under of the number water needs in that month. If this problem has not been anticipated or the water availability is not balance for the fulfillment. Therefore preservation and usage of this resource must be done proportionally.
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Perancangan heat recovery boiler blowdown di PT. Nestle Indonesia kejayaan factory - ITS Repository

Perancangan heat recovery boiler blowdown di PT. Nestle Indonesia kejayaan factory - ITS Repository

Boiler blowdown is process water discharge from the boiler. The goal is to control the boiler water to the specified parameters, among others, to minimize the scale, corrosion, carryover, and other special problems. Blowdown is also used to remove sediment that is not required in the system as well as the excess pressure in the boiler controller. These deposits are usually caused by contamination of the feed water, internal chemical precipitates, or exceed the solubility limit of solubility of the salt. As a result some of the boiler water will be discharged (blowdown) and replaced with a new feed water.
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Policy Paper

Policy Paper

The Roadmap on Mainstreaming Climate Change into National Development Planning ( also referred to as: “Climate Change Roadmap”) for the water sector a follow-up of the RPJPN 2004-2025 that is related to climate change and the water sector. The contents of the climate change roadmap generally are adaptation strategies. However, several of them evolved into a combination of adaption strategies and mitigation strategies and can be a solution for issues of the cross-cutting issues. The objectives of building a Roadmap on climate change for the water sector are as : 1) To identify current condition and problems as well as the future challenge in water sector in connection with climate change; 2) To ind the vulnerabilities in the water sector against climate change based on the identiied threats. 3) To identify impacts or risks on water resources after their vulnerability has been identiied and developed strategic issues, including cross-sectoral issues. 4) To identify and build sector policies and measures to integrate adaptation in the water resource sector against climate change; and 5) Others necessary and signiicant aspects such as uncertainty factors, information validity level, and need of further research or lack of research.
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Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Agricultural Water Management:Vol45.Issue2.Jul2000:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:A:Agricultural Water Management:Vol45.Issue2.Jul2000:

The Rio Cobre Irrigation Scheme, Jamaica, supplies water to 5000 ha by allocating a ®xed unit discharge at each offtake. A computer water management model, IRMOS, was used to assess the scheme's performance during a typical operating year and to identify water management constraints to performance. An optimal water allocation policy was used as a benchmark against which the actual performance was evaluated. The comparison identi®ed constraints in the scheme which can be improved by a variety of measures which include modifying the water allocation policy, operational procedures and physical components of the scheme. Despite the fact that operating under an optimal water allocation policy requires more data, better monitoring and a higher calibre of staff, the analysis shows that the potential bene®ts far outweigh the additional costs.
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Integrated Watershed Management to Prevent Floods and Sustain Water Resources In Jakarta, Indonesia

Integrated Watershed Management to Prevent Floods and Sustain Water Resources In Jakarta, Indonesia

following activities: integrated and proper land use planning; implementation of conservation farming systems (strip cropping, multiple crops farming systems including fish and/or livestock); implementation of appropriate conservation techniques (mulching, terracing, contour planting, ridge and furrow planting); practicing appropriate soil management techniques (minimum or no tillage, contour tillage, contour planting); spring development; building of grass waterways, diversion ditch, drainage ditch, efficient irrigation systems and building of check dams/water retardance structures or situ (s) in appropriate site.
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S TS 1006865 Bibliography

S TS 1006865 Bibliography

Mock, F.J., 1973. Land Capability Appraisal Indonesia : Water Availability Appraisal. Basic Study Prepared for the FAO/UNDP Land Capability Appraisal Project, AGL: SF/INS/72/011 Basic Study I. Bogor: UNDP - FAO Of The United Nations.

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