Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, menyetujui untuk memberikan kepada UKSW hak bebas royalti non-eksklusif(non- exclusive royalty free right) atas karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul: DUKUNGAN KELUARGA DALAM MENURUNKAN KECEMASAN PASIEN PRA PEMASANGAN WATER-SEALEDDRAINAGE beserta perangkat yang ada (jika perlu).
Dari hasil penelitian dan hasil pembahasan dapat disimpulkan bahwa dukungan informasional, emosional dan instrumental keluarga mampu mempengaruhi segi psikologis partisipan dengan menurunkan kecemasan partisipan pra pemasangan WSD.Delapan puluh delapan persen atau tujuhpartisipan mengalami penurunan kecemasanhingga kondisi normal.Duabelas persen atau seorang partisipan mengalamipenurunan kecemasan dari berat ke tingkat ringan selama periode satu jam post pemasangan watersealeddrainage (WSD).
RSPAW Salatiga memiliki ruang perawatan yang diklasifikasikan menurut beberapa tingkatan, mulai dariyang paling rendah yakni ruang perawatan kelas tiga, kelas dua, hingga kelas satu danvery important personclass atau kelas VIP. Meskipun belum dilengkapi dengan ruang operasi, rumah sakit ini memiliki satu ruang tindakan yang khusus dirancang untuk melakukan beberapa tindakan invasif secara steril, penunjang program pengobatan medis. Tindakan invasif spesifik dikhususkan bagi pasien yang menderita gangguan akibat penyakit pada paru-paru, seperti tindakan broncoscopy, FNAB (fine needle aspiration biopsy), pungsi pleura dan water-sealeddrainage (WSD).
Pemasangan WSD bisa dilakukan, apabila pasien terlebih dahulu telah menandatangani formulir persetujuan tindakan medis (informed consent). Akan tetapi, dengan informed consent pasien harus terlebih dahulu mendapatkan penjelasan mengenai sifat, efek, untung/ruginya, prognosis, alternatif dan sebagainya mengenai water-sealed drainagesebelum diminta menandatangi informed consent. Dokter bertanggung jawab secara legal menjelaskan informasi tersebut agar pasien dan keluarga dapat mempertimbangkan dan mengambil keputusan yang disebut informed decision. Penandatanganan formulir persetujuan yang resmi merupakan bukti bahwa proses informed consent telah dilaksanakan dan pasien sudah sadar dan mengetahui isi dan konsep dari informed consent (Baradero, 2008)
Background: WaterSealedDrainage (WSD) is one of the therapies for pleural effusion, but there is a risk for Re-expansion Pulmonary Edema(REPE) development. It is suspected that drainage volume from WSD has a correlation with REPE.
Hematothorax terjadi karena adanya perdarahan pada thorax/trauma thorax. Sumber terjadi darah di dinding dada, parenkim paru, jantung atau pembuluh darah besar. Kondisi biasanya merupakan konsekuensi dari trauma benda tumpul atau benda tajam. Ini juga mungkin merupakan komplikasi dari beberapa penyakit (Pusponegoro, 1995). Pada kasus hematothorax di Rumah Sakit Dr. Saiful Anwar tepatnya ruang 13, banyak dijumpai pasien yang terpasang watersealeddrainage (WSD).
For Malawi, tied-ridging is one such technique that is being promoted to conserve rainwater in farmer's fields. Tied-ridging is known in other parts of the world as boxed- ridges, furrow dikes, furrow damming, basin listing, basin tillage and microbasin tillage (Jones and Stewart, 1990). In tied-ridging, ridge furrows are blocked with earth ties spaced a fixed distance apart to form a series of microcatchment basins in the field (Fig. 1). The created basins retain surface runoff within the field. Tied-ridging is not a new technology within Malawi and the rest of the SADC. It has been promoted in the 1960s and 1970s for surface runoff-induced erosion control since tied-ridges retain surface runoff within the field. Given erratic rainfall, the aim is no longer just erosion control but also rainwater harvesting. The aim in such cases is to `harvest' the limited rainwater and store it in the maize root zone for use during dryspell periods. Before tied-ridging can be promoted to subsistence farmers as a viable rainwater harvesting technique, there is need to evaluate the likely impact of tied-ridging on soil water status and maize yield. Subsistence farmers are not likely to take up tied- ridging unless it improves soil water status for the crop during dry or drought years and will not lead to waterlogging, ridge destruction and excessive nutrient leaching in a wet year.
responsible for capital works and they are handed over to the ULBs for operations and maintenance. In the cities, water is managed by multiple stakeholders spread across scales encompassing households, colonies, industries and commercial users. The multiple stakeholders ranging from households, resident welfare associations and ward level committees (where they exist) have no voice or responsibility over water management. A major shift from centralised utilities to multi-scale, multi-stakeholder led planning and management is necessary as the resources are contested between sectors and resource scarcity is increasingly experienced. Policies to give voice, choice and roles to the stakeholders to enable multi- stakeholder engagement and institutional platforms for engagement are necessary.
Main material used in this study were Landsat TM imagery (year 2004 coverage) for the whole observation area, Map of Consensus Forest land Use (TGHK) (scale 1 : 250.000, year 1999), Map of Land System and Land Suitability (scale 1 : 250.000, year1988), Topographic map (scale 1 : 250.000 year 1988), and Administration map (scale1 : 250.000, year 2004). Main equipments used in the digital analysis were computer (PC or work station) together with its accessories, software Erdas, Arcinfo, and Arc View for image processing. Data and information collected in this study were (1). Condition of vegetation, that comprise: plant species, number of individuals, diameter and height of tree; (2). Soil condition, that comprise physical and chemical properties of soil; (3). Water quality, that comprise physical, chemical and biological properties; (4). Oceanographic condition, that comprise bathymetry, wind, tide, sea current, and texture of marine sediment ; and (5). Community socioeconomic condition, that comprise characters of demography, infrastructure, perception and expectation (hope) of the people toward forest rehabilitation, and knowledge and skill of the people in rehabilitation of mangrove and coastal forest.
Harvesting operation for corn was conducted when corn plant was 3 months old, i.e. on 29 September 2014. Corn harvesting used manual labor with wage of Rp 60,000 per day per labor. Corn was harvested by manual picking and followed by threshing operation using corn thresher machine. After the threshing operation, corns were put into sack and transported by motor vehicle for the next step drying operation. Drying operation period was 2 days in bright sun condition and 4 days for cloudy condition. Harvest yield of corn for land area of 0.5 ha was 3.2 tons and similar to 6.4 t ha -1 corn production. While the results of the production of corn grown in dry land intercropping systems with green beans produce an average of 4.5 t ha -1 (Sabaruddin et al., 2011). It was also higher compared to the national maize production target of 5 t ha -1 . Therefore, by setting the proper water management in the wetland, the production would go well, and even higher than in dry land. However, it was still low compared to the results of Sutardjo et al., (2011) research which reported a maximum production of hybrid corn was 7.7 t ha -1 . Elmi et al., (2005) also found that the cultivation of corn in wetland with the control of water level through an underground irrigation system, where the water table maintained at depth of 0.6 m below soil surface was capable to produce yield between 8.4 to 8.6 t ha -1 . According to Antonelli et al. (2015), the sun flower showed that the plants are able to absorb water up to a depth of 2 m but this condition depends on the plant roots. In dry condition corn can grow normal when the depth of the roots could reach more even though the ground water table is at a depth 1.2 m below soil surface (Imanudin et al., 2010).
mempertahankan kepatenan sistem drainage, memantau drainage, dan water seal (segel air). Namun untuk perawatan yang mandiri seperti menganjurkan klien tarik nafas dalam belum dilakukan. Untuk pemeriksaan oksimetri tidak dilakukan, tetapi dilakukan pemeriksaan analisa gas darah apabila klien terasa sesak dan kondisi yang memburuk. Untuk itu peneliti tertarik untuk melakukan penelitian sejauh mana pengaruh nafas dalam terhadap saturasi oksigen pada klien terpasang WSD.
Trial application with 10 litres of AMD used 4 doses of experiment. Just like the application of CaO scale 10 litres of AMD, the application using biostimulant also used randomized design pattern with the result. Biostimulant with composition formula of I, II or III, was able to increase water pH reached standard quality on 4 th day, that was pH 6.01, 6.22, 6.23, respectively (Table 2). Initial TSS level of 183 mg/L was able to be decreased by all treatments. Result of the experiment showed that biostimulant applications were able to neutralize pH to reach standard quality on day 4 for dose of II, III and IV, but for dose of I got a same result at day 5 (Table 2). The biostimulant contains macro elements (N, P, K, Ca, S, Mg),
Hard red winter wheat (1.4 t) was loaded to within 5 cm of the top of each of six cylindrical, corrugated, bolted steel bins 1.4 m dia and 1.2 m tall (1.84 m 3 ) with wooden lids 2 cm thick. Each bin contained a sheet metal ¯oor and was ®tted with an aeration system consisting of a PVC tube placed vertically along the wall and connected to a perforated tube (15.2 cm dia) on the ¯oor. The bins were located indoors. Conditioned air was extracted from a controlled chamber and forced through the grain to achieve the desired grain temperature while maintaining the desired m.c. During the fumigations described below, the entrances to the aeration tubes remained open, and the bin tops were partially sealed with paper tape to provide a uniform open area of about 75 cm 2 for gas escape. In an attempt to document the degree of sealing, pressure was applied to the bins. No pressure was generated when the open area was provided as described above. When aeration ports were closed and the entire lid was taped, only 109 Pa could be generated, which returned to zero immediately when the pressure was withdrawn. Therefore, these bins are referred to as unsealed bins.
Remote sensing techniques in Archaeology are increasingly essential components of the methodologies used in archaeological and architectural researches. They allow uncovering unique forgotten data which are unobtainable using traditional excavation techniques, mainly because their precise location is lost. These data are still important since they can help to prevent flood effects inside the ancient building cellars and basements, as it happened periodically in El Escorial. Wide ancient drainage galleries run more than one hundred feet downhill outside the building, ensuring that rainwater and springs were adequately drained. Nowadays their plans are lost, and the lack of documents related both to the ancient water supply and drainage systems become an impediment to solve the stains of damp on the stone masonry walls and vaults, and even other occasional flooding effects. In this case, nondestructive techniques were needed to find the ancient underground passages in order to preserve the integrity of the building and its current activities. At a first stage oblique aerial infrared images taken from a helium barrage balloon helped to find easily, quickly and cheaply the buried masonry structures. Secondly, radar pulses were particularly interesting to image the subsurface as they were valuable means of assessing the presence and amount of both soil water and buried structures. The combination of both techniques proved to be an accurate and low-cost way to find the ancient drainage systems. Finally, results were produced by means of open source software.
The irrigation treatments were 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120% of calculated nonstressed evapotranspiration determined from the sprinkler line source experiment. The wpf was curvilinear because excess water was applied to the different irrigation levels in the experiment in order to keep the base plate of the onions wet so root growth would continue. The result was that part of the applied water went to deep drainage rather than to evapotranspiration. The wpf was corrected for the amount of irrigation water lost as deep drainage and expressed as evapotranspiration versus yield (Etpf) by using reference evapotranspiration measured at Las Cruces and season crop coef®cients for selected yield levels measured at Farmington, NM. Maximum onion yield at Las Cruces under the drip irrigation system was 20% higher than measured at Farmington using the sprinkler system. The results indicate that high onion yield are achievable using a drip system compared to a sprinkler system but a larger amount of applied water goes to deep drainage using a
To evaluate the weighting factors to be assign to data layer in accordance with the importance of each class governing the ground water resource, an expert opinion on ecological condition of ground water supplement were considered. So, a membership function as a value between 0 and 1 were assign to each class of every layer according to its effect on ground water supplement exploration. For instance, in the Geology layer regards to its characteristic such as lithology and texture, Quaternary formation consist of recent Alluvial Deposits that has efficient texture for infiltration, among the other formation the greatest value "1" assigned to it. Other formation and lithology evaluated based on their infiltration and get a value. This weighing methodology eases for all layers are presented in the table 1.