The study aimed to investigate the use of wood sawdust as a medium for growth and the optimum addition ratio of plantation wastes that can increase the yields and quality of whiteoystermushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisting of 7 levels of treatment ratio of wood sawdust and plantation wastes. The data analysis involved one way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s 5%. The results showed that the wood sawdust can be used as growing medium, and the addition of plantation wastes can increase the yields and the quality of whiteoystermushroom. The addition of cocoa and coffee wastes with a ratio 25% was the optimum ratio treatment which increased the number of fruiting bodies, caps diameter, production weight, Biologycal Eficiency Ratio (BER) and protein, fats, carbohydrates and fiber content in whiteoyster mushrooms. It is recommended to be applied because both treatments would increase the yield and quality of whiteoystermushroom. Keywords: cocoa and coffee pods wastes, wood
Amplified fragment length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was performed to study the genetic diversity of fifteen isolates of whiteoystermushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) originated from different places in Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Bali, and Kalimantan) and Thailand. The majority of studied isolates originated from commercial mushroom, and some of them were collected from nature. AFLP analysis revealed 202 loci of positive DNA bands. Heterozygosity value showed polymorphisms of the fifteen studied isolates. Correlation and cluster analyses of the isolates showed that isolate from Thailand (BNK isolate), isolate from Bogor (AMD isolate), and isolate from Purwokerto (USX isolate) were distinctly different from the other isolates indicated by positive bands with DNA size greater than 650 bp. Isolate from Kalimantan (BJM isolate) was distinctly different from Java island isolates. Generally there was no correlation of AFLP variability and geographic distribution of commercial strain isolates.
Whiteoystermushroom farmers widely cultivated in Indonesia because its adaptive to the environment, high productivity, rich in nutrients, and low in fat so it is very good for consumption. However, whiteoyster mushrooms have been harvested will be easily damaged due to the high water content is 86.6%. Therefore, it is necessary to act to extend the shelf life of whiteoystermushroom after harvest with oystermushroom processing into flour. One of the important stages in the manufacture of flour oystermushroom is the drying process. This research aims to know the effect of variations in temperature and long drying factor on the quality of flour whiteoystermushroom and what temperature and long drying is right to produce whiteoyster mushrooms flour with best quality. Known to the higher temperature and longer drying the yield, ash content, protein content, and the degree of white flour oystermushroom will increase, while the water content decreases. Vice versa. In addition, it is also known that the drying temperature 65 0 C and 5.5 hours long drying will produce best white
This study aims to analyze financial viability of oystermushroom farming and to arrange strategies of developing oystermushroom farming. This research is located in Sekincau District of West Lampung which is intentionally chosen with the consideration that it has good prospects in the field of horticulture, especially the oystermushroom. Respondents include three farmers cultivating oyster mushrooms. The research was conducted in February 2016. The first objective is analyzed quantitatively by using financial analysis (Net B / C, NPV, IRR, and Payback Period) with a compounding factor (CF) of 9 percent and the second goal is analyzed descriptively with SWOT analysis. The results showed that the oystermushroom farming in West Lampung was feasible and profitable to be pursued. Financially, the business is still viable because the NPV and Net B / C is higher than 1, and the value of IRR is higher than the interest rate. Strategy priority to develop oystermushroom farming consists of improving the quality of oystermushroom products in order to attain physical and non physical assistance from government, widening marketing networks, and improving the use of appropriate technology in farming.
Oystermushroom flour (Pleurotus oestreatus) is an alternative form of half end product from oystermushroom, due its durability in storage and can be applied in varous processed food such as cracker. This flour can be used for food crakers which contains high protein and fiber content since it contains. 17,50% of protein and 14,12% of fiber. This condition is suitable for producing crackers. The research was conducted to find out the best comparison of tapioca and oystermushroom flour to produce the best characteristics of oystermushroom flour crackers. The characteristics include expansion volume, sensory, and protein content. This research was designed in a Completely Randomized Block Design with 4 replication. The treatments had 6 levels comparison of tapioca and oystermushroom flour: L1 (0%: 100%), L2 (5%: 95%), L3 (10%: 90%), L4 (15%: 85% ), L5 (20%: 80%); L6 (25%: 75%). respectively data were analiyzed with Anova to find out the treatment effects, then the data were further analyzed with Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test on level of 5% to find the best comparison. The best comparison was L5 (20% oystermushroom flour and 80% tapioca) which resulted crackers, with expansion volume of 272.063%, and protein content 7.636% respectively. The crackers also had a crunchy texture and rather-typical of oystermushroom flour aroma. Keywords: crakers, oystermushroom flour, sensory
Oystermushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (L) Fries) is an alternative food source on par with meat and high in nutrients. Composition and nutritional content per 100 grams oyster mushrooms are: Protein 10.5% - 30.4%, 56.60% carbohydrate, fat 1.7% - 2.2%, and 7.5% fiber - 8.7%, In addition to having high nutrient content of oyster mushrooms is quite easy to be cultivated. In the process of growing medium cultivation is one of the factors that affect growth. Mushroom growing medium should have sufficient nutrition and free from the influence of microorganisms intruder. Thus, there should be a medium sterilization that can truly meet the nutritional needs of the fungus. This research uses descriptive quantitative method by comparing the needs of gas, energy efficiency and the results of sterilization using a steamer baglog the drum. From the results obtained by the rate of energy needs 45816.8 kcal / day, the mass of the gas used for 8 hours 2,5 kg, thermal efficiency compost 51.91% and the percentage growth in the sterilization baglog of 100%.
Jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) is one of the local plants that have not been widely applied in food. Jackbean use in food applications due to the high nutritional content. One of jackbean processing in the form of tempeh, which can then be processed more specifically into vegetarian nuggets. Process of tempeh because tempeh has high nutritional content and easily digested. Nugget is a processed food that comes from the meat through the milling process, the addition of fillers and seasoning, steaming, shaping, wet coating and dry coating using bread flour. Purpose of this study are determine acceptance level of vegetarian nuggets, determine the best formulation of substitution jackbean tempeh and addition of whiteoystermushroom, to know the physical and chemical characteristics of substitutions of jackbean tempeh and addition whiteoystermushroom. The method used in this research include making vegetarian nugget with addition of whiteoyster mushrooms, physical tests using a texture analyzer, chemical test (moisture, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrate) and sensory (taste, color, aroma, texture and overall) to determine the level of consumer acceptance. Results of testing the water content showed significantly different values between the formulations, which is between 57.49% -63.29%. The value of the nugget plant ash content ranged from 5.77% - 6.68%. The fat content of vegetarian nuggets of three formulations ranged between 3.45% - 3.9%. The protein content of the vegetarian nuggets have a value ranging between 10.29% - 12.99%. For the value of carbohydrate ranges from 15.743% - 20.315%. The results of physical analysis that the value of hardness decreased with the addition of whiteoyster mushrooms.
The formed of those two group is because of the contradiction of tudung shape. The first group have tudung shape of flabelliform and the second group have tudung shape of orbicular . The calculation with aggomerative method can be known the closeness between S. commune mushroom in Java, that is: S.commune Sidoarjo b and S. Commune Malang amounted 0,757; S.commune Semarang with S.commune Sidoarjo b amounted 0,716; S.commune Sidoarjo a with S.commune Yogyakarta amounted 0,703; S.commune Semarang with S.commune Kuningan amounted 0,649; S.commune Tangerang with S.commune Semarang amounted 0,520; S.commune Tangerang with S.commune Sidoarjo a amounted 0,381. The near closeness relationship (IS value 0,757) between S.commune Sidoarjo b and S. commune Semarang is caused of the similarity of flabelliform tudung shape and the size of tudung in mature phase that is 20 mm-24 mm. The formed of similarity value 0,703 between S.commune Sidoarjo a and S.commune Yogyakarta is caused of the similarity of orbicular tudung shape.
1968. However, Ford 1996 reported that a number of surveys, as well as occasional sampling by several laboratories, had never found conclusive evidence of the pathogen north of New Jersey before 1991. Ford concluded the parasite’s presence must have been scattered and sparse to have been missed by the survey work she reported in 1996. In early May 1992, very light infections were detected in 65–70% of oysters from Oyster Bay, located on the north shore of Long Island, NY and from the Connecticut shore of Long Island Sound. Known infection patterns indicate the pathogen must have been present in a substantial number of oysters the year before to have caused such a
There are 9 groups of women in the TRY Oyster Harvesting Association. These 9 groups were combined into 6 clusters, for training and information gathering purposes. These clusters are listed above and the following methodology was repeated at every site. A lattice rack was constructed at each cluster and from this support, oyster strings are
The biology of the oyster is amazing (see Figure 5). When oysters reach sexual maturity, they start as males, but as they get older, they become females. The male oyster cannot be determined from the female by just looking at the live oyster. However, local knowledge gathered from oyster women indicated a black spot on the inside of the lower valve of the female oyster which is not found on the male (Kanyi 2010). Bisexual gonads in the very closely related mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae are formed when the animal reaches the size of 7mm, 45 days after settlement (Nascimento et al. 1980). The Crassostrea tulipa mangrove oyster is similar in its development and is so prolific a species that it attains maturity within approximately 120 days after settling when it has a height of less than 20mm. The oysters are usually male when they are less than 20mm and change sex after 30mm to female (Yankson, 1996). These oysters have a reproductive cycle similar to many other marine creatures and invertebrates. Spawning occurs when females release eggs and the males release sperm into the water column where fertilization takes place. The fertilized eggs becomes larvae which are in a planktonic stage, which means they float longitudinally in the water before settling on hard surfaces such as mangrove prop roots or rocks and sticks or on sea grass. Once they settle on hard substrate, they are called spat – very small sized, baby oysters.
Based on what is known of oyster biology and past introductions of non-native species (both deliberate and accidental), the Suminoe oyster is likely to compete favorably with the Bay’s native oyster. However, it is dificult to predict whether or not a species will become invasive (spread rapidly and outcompete native species). The ecosystem and conditions under which a species is introduced can play a pivotal role in how it spreads. For example, the Pacific oyster C. gigas has been introduced in every continent but Antarctica and is now the principal oyster species harvested worldwide. In the U.S., Canada, and Europe, it is not invasive, but in Australia and northern New Zealand, C. gigas has spread rapidly, in some cases displacing the native rock oyster.