Curriculum development should, of course, include the development of appropri- ate assessment both for the classroom teacher to use, and for any external assess- ment that is used as a summative or external assessment. However, in my experience, many curriculum guides or policy directions are determined by one institution, learning materials (such as textbooks) by another and assessment (both classroom and external) by yet other individuals or examination boards. Among these various players, there may or may not be consistency of understanding or commitment concerning the curriculum and the assessments (by whomever given) may or may not have high validity. This consistency and validity (or their absence) form the central theme of this article, which takes science as its case in point. However, the central issue may be equally applicable to other subject areas also. The argument of the article begins with a brief contextual account of some of the changes that have been taking place in science curriculum during the past 50 years, at least in the English-speaking world. I shall argue that, while some of these have constituted what can be called ‘normal’ curriculum change, others—using the new Ontario science curriculum as a case in point—warrant the label of curriculum ‘revolutions’. Next, I examine the role of assessment during these periods of curriculum revolution and identify one corresponding revolution in this area. Finally, through reecting on these experiences, I shall argue that leadership in assessment in support of curriculum change must come through research and the professional development of teachers, rather than through large-scale international assessment projects.
There are a number of epistemological levels that are typical in students. The complexity of the levels may progress from simple realism to more advanced constructivism, but a student may retain a given level through time. Students who possess a realist epistemol- ogy believe that assertions are direct copies of some given external reality and this reality is directly know- able. The absolutist understands assertions as facts, either true or false, and they represent a reality that can be directly knowable. The multiplist believes that assertions are freely chosen opinions accountable only to the holder of the opinion, and therefore reality can- not be directly knowable. The evaluative epistemology believes that assertions are judgments that can be evaluated by criteria evaluating argument and evi- dence, suggesting that reality is not directly knowable. The objectivist epistemology contends that external reality can be objectively known and that objective and unconditional truth statements can be made about this reality. The conceptualization of science in this way is, then, a search for truths, and science is considered as a way of discovering the laws, principles and theories associated with reality (Lorsbach and Tobin 1992). Fi- nally, the constructivist epistemology is a “theory of mind that recognises the primacy of humans as knowl- edge constructors capable of generating a multiplicity of valid representations of reality” (Kuhn 1999, 22) where science is seen as the process that assists us in making sense of the world.
Kawasaki, K., Herrenkohl, L., & Yeary, S. (2004). Theory building and modeling in a sinking and floating unit: A case study of third and fourth grade students’ developing epistemologies of science. International Journal of ScienceEducation. 26, hlm. 1299-1324.
Lederman, N.G., Lederman, J. S., & Antink, A. (2013). Nature of science and scientific inquiry as contexs for the learning of science and achievement of scientific literacy. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 1(3), 138-147.
Akinoglu, Orhan and Ruhan, O. (2007). The Effects of Problem-Based Active Learning in ScienceEducation on Studen ts’ Academic Achievement, Attitude and Concept Learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 2007, 3(1), 71-81.
Penelitian ini merupakan salah satu kajian bibliometrika. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbandingan indeks subjek yang terdapat pada tiap artikel journaleducation for library and information science tahun 2011 dengan hasil indeks subjek menggunakan dalil Zipfs.
Bilgin, I., Şenocak, E., and Sözbilir, M. (2008). The Effects of Problem-Based Learning Instruction on University Students’ Performance of Conceptual and Quantitative Problems in Gas Concepts. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, volume 5, issue 2, pp. 153- 164.
Sasmaz- Oren, F. & Meric, G. (2014). Seventh grade students’ perceptions of using concept cartoons in science and technology course. International Journal of Education in Mathematics, Science and Technology, 2(2): 116- 137.
İ pec, H & Çalık, M. (2008). Combining Different Conceptual Change Methods within Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Model: A Sample Teaching of Series and Parallel Circuits. Iinternational Journal of Environmental & ScienceEducation Vol. 3, No. 3
Abdullah, S. and Shariff, A. (2008). “The Effects of Inquiry-Based Computer Simulation with Cooperative Learning on Scientific Thinking and Conceptual Understanding of Gas Law”. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education. volume 4. No.4. pp 387-398.
It is evident that a very small percentage of JTE researchers used a theoretical framework which would enable a substantial interpretation of, and critical insight into, their data (Table 7). The atheoretical nature of the JTE articles is reflected in the types of subjects and sites of research chosen, as indicated in the discussion of Tables 5 and 6. The data suggest a very minimal engagement with educational or social science theory and evident engagement is limited to a single author in places. For example, O’Riley’s (1996) work accounted for all uses of feminist, Foucauldian, and post-structural theory. Pannabecker’s (1995) work accounted for 13 of 14 references to social constructivism. Three of four of the references to Marx were in book reviews and the fourth reference was to a context of the 1930s. For all the studies that dealt with learning, there were few that drew on contemporary learning theory. While there were a few references to constructivist learning theory, only one conceptual article referred to situated learning, a more current theory (Wicklein, 1997). Learning theories such as constructivism and sociocultural theories like enactivism and situated cognition have been very useful in education and social science research circles, but are not used by the JTE researchers (Lewis, Petrina & Hill, in press). Zuga noted this problem in her sample of research practices (1995; 1997, pp. 210-212). We could reason that since there were not any studies that were ethnographic, hermeneutic, or phenomenological, there would be few studies where theories informing these methods would be used (Table 4). But this would be faulty reasoning as the relevance of critical ethnography has been demonstrated far beyond strict anthropologies (Anderson, 1989; Darrah, 1996; Lakes & Bettis, 1995). Neither are there references to critical pedagogy and its constituent theories, which are in no way specific to particular methods.
The development of National Education Philosophy based on Pancasila has to be rejuvenative. Rejuvenation means regeneration (“pemudaan kembali”) (Sukarno, 1990: 187-188). Rejuvenation in this paper refers to the National Education that has to consolidate new spirit, vision, invention and innovation as being sourced from rejuvenated values from Pancasila based on confidence and implementation of Philosophy of Pancasila National Education. The development of Philosophy of Pancasila National Education can be carried out through the approach of eclectic-incorporative-harmony-dynamic (“eklektik-inkorporatif-harmonis-dinamis”) (Notonagoro, 1973 who cited eclectic-incorporative (“eklektis-inkorporasi”) approach). Eclectic refers to the act of selecting the best approach from various sources (KBBI, 2012); Eugene Ehrlich, et.al, 1986: 272). Incorporated means to include as a part (Eugene Ehrlich, et al, 1986: 446) or to combine into a unified whole (Webster’s Dictionary, 1993: 238). The eclectic-incorporative approach is the development and enrichment of Philosophy of Pancasila National Education from various elements of foreign educational philosophy which is suitably appropriate and not contradicting with the national personality we are developing, which is released from the base of the flow system or philosophy is concerned, and further included in the structure of Philosophy of Pancasila National Education, or in other words the basics is replaced to found in Pancasila , and be made as related matters in the structure of Philosophy of Pancasila National Education. Harmony means forming a pleasing or consistent whole (Eugene Ehrlich, et al, 1986: 399) and dynamic means strength to produce a fast and fully enthusiastic movement. The process of eclectic-incorporative-harmony is done with dialectic-anticipative-reflective-rejuvenative so that the implementation of Philosophy of Pancasila National Education is always laden with novel creativity that would answer the challenges from time to time.
Akınoglu, O. dan Tandogan, R.O. (2006). Effects of Problem-Based Active Learning in ScienceEducation on Students’ Academic Achievement, Attitude and Concept Learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technologi Education, 2007. 3 (1), 71-81. Tersedia http: www.ejmdte.com. (Februari 2007)
AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science publishes articles in plant science such as agronomy, horticulture, plant breeding, soil-plant sciences and pest or disease-plant sciences. Published by Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Brawijaya Indonesia in collaboration with Indonesian Agronomy Association (PERAGI). AGRIVITA publishes three times in a year (February, June and October) AGRIVITA is accredited by Decree of The Directorate General of Higher Education The Ministry of Education and Culture, Republic of Indonesia No: 60/E/KPT/2016.
Liang, Y., & Cobern, W.W. (2013). Analysis of a Typical Chinese High School Biology Textbook Using the AAAS Textbook Standards. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, Vol 9(4), hlm 329-336.
Ajiboye, J. O., & Silo, N. (2008). Enhancing Botswana Children’s Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices through the School Civic Clubs. Dalam International Journal of Environmental & ScienceEducation [Online]. Vol. 3 (105-114). Tersedia : www.ijese.com/V3_N3_Ajiboye.pdf (14 Juli 2012)
Brossard, D., Lewenstein, B., & Bonney, Rick. (2005). “ Scientific Knowledge and Attitude Change: The Impact of a Citizen Science P roject”. International Journal of ScienceEducation 27 (9). [Online]. Tersedia: http://csss-science.preview.uen.org/ (Diakses 11 April 2012)
Aktamis, Hilal. The Effect of Scientific Process Skills Education on Students ’ Scientific Creativity, Science Attitudes and Academic Achievements , Turkey Journal of ScienceEducation Department. Volume 9 ((2008), p.2 Etherington, M.B., Investigative Primary Science: A Problem-based Learning
Ruhrig, J. & Hottecke, D. (2015). Components of science t eachers‟ professional competence and their orientational frameworks when dealing with uncertain evidence in science teaching. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, Special Issue .