attractive ionic force to precipitate more solid lattice. Crysstaline ions have no attractive force into organic solvents, its solubility is smaller than those in water. In y chemical analysis, solubility difference could be used as basic of separation of many compounds. Example : mixed
A plot of the residuals should always be performed, usually versus the x-values. They can also be plotted versus other parameters such as the response calculated from the regression line or in serial order, to reveal instabilities or progressive shifts in the analytical conditions (provided that the various concentrations were analysed in a random order) . A visual evaluation of the pattern of the residuals is a very simple and straightforward, but nevertheless powerful, tool to detect deviations from the regression model [1b, 8]. If the linear, unweighted regression model is cor- rect, the residual plot must show random behaviour in a constant range, without systematic pattern or regularities (Fig. 2.4-3B). Non-linear behaviour will result in systematic or curved pattern of the residuals, heteroscedasticity in a wedge-shaped distribution, with increasing residuals (Fig. 2.4-3A). In order to investigate if the pattern is significant, replicate measurements are required, to provide information about the inherent variability of the response for each concentration (corresponding to the pure error’ in the statistical lack of fit test). This measurement variability is then compared to the (systematic) deviations of the residuals from zero. If the latter is much larger than the former, the linear model may be inappropriate. Of course, to use this approach, as well as the corresponding statistical tests (see below), requires a sufficient number of data. It is recommended to use eight or more con- centrations with duplicate determinations , or a three-point design with six to eight replications . Another (or additional) option is to define an acceptable dis- persion range of the residuals is increasing with the number of data and corre- sponds to about four to five times the (true) standard deviation. For this purpose, it is recommended that the residuals are normalised with respect to the calculated response. By defining an acceptable range, rejection of the linear model due to slight systematic deviations, which are of no practical relevance, can be avoided (Fig. 2.4-6).
However, among all the studies available, there were very few using input- output tables as their sources of data. Instead, data were collected through survey questionnaires. The researchers of this study will only use data from input-output table which is more suitable for national economic planning as the data representing values aggregated at national level. Moreover, this study will utilize the input output table of national economy in order to derive and analyze the input output table of electricity demand. There were several researches that considered the analysisof electricity demand through the derivation of input output model. Salimian et al (2010) utilized the extended price I-O model to simulate the effects of energy price rise on socio-economic subsector's price indices in different scenarios in Iran particularly in electricity demand. Similarly, Allan et al (2007) suggested that the need for careful disaggregation of the electricity generation sector and emphasize the economic distinctiveness of individual generation technologies through I-O analysis. In addition, this paper will utilized the method used of Mu et al (2010) in order to determine the I-O table of electricity demand in Indonesia.
H.F.Dodge has explained the power of sampling plan as above and how the sampling plan can help the production man to improve his performance. Sampling means a small part selected as a sample for inspection or analysis. Items or components are often delivered in lots or batches of a given number and it is often impossible or uneconomic to test every single item in the lot. With a practical sampling method, random samples are taking from the lot and test each item in the sample. Individual sampling plans are used to protect against irregular degradation of levels of quality in submitted lots below that considered permissible by the consumer. A good sampling plan will also protect the producer in the sense that lots produced at permissible levels of quality will have a good chance to be accepted by the plan.
Menurut Atkinson et al. (2009:3) akuntansi manajemen merupakan sistem akuntansi manajemen menyediakan informasi, baik keuangan maupun non keuangan, kepada manajer dan karyawan organisasi. Menurut Garrison dan Norren (2003:4) mendefinisikan bahwa : “Managerial accounting is concered with providing information to managers that is, people inside an organization who direct and control its operations.” Menurut Halim (2013:5) pengertian akuntansi manajemen adalah suatu kegiatan yang menjadi bagian integral dari fungsi (proses) manajerial yang dapat memberikan informasi keuangan dan nonkeuangan bagi manajemen untuk pengambilan keputusan strategik organisasi untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi.
Due to rich information of a full waveform of airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) data, the analysisof full waveform has been an active area in LiDAR application. It is possible to digitally sample and store the entire reflected waveform of small-footprint instead of only discrete point clouds. Decomposition of waveform data, a key step in waveform data analysis, can be categorized to two typical methods: 1) the Gaussian modelling method such as the Non-linear least-squares (NLS) algorithm and the maximum likelihood estimation using the Exception Maximization (EM) algorithm. 2) pulse detection method —— Average Square Difference Function (ASDF). However, the Gaussian modelling methods strongly rely on initial parameters, whereas the ASDF omits the importance of parameter information of the waveform. In this paper, we proposed a fast algorithm — — Progressive Waveform Decomposition (PWD) method to extract local maxims and fit the echo with Gaussian function, and calculate other parameters from the raw waveform data. On the one hand, experiments are implemented to evaluate the PWD method and the results demonstrate its robustness and efficiency. On the other hand, with the PWD parametric analysisof the full-waveform instead of a 3D point cloud, some special applications are investigated afterward.
In 1990, Nolan Norton Institute, a KPMG research agency in USA, led by David P. Norton as the CEO, Nolan Norton (President of Renaissance Solution, Inc.) together with Robert Kaplan as academic consultant (Accounting Professor Arthur Lowes Dickinson at Harvard Business School), sponsored a study on ”Measurement on Performance of Future Organizations”. This study was motivated by the consciousness that at that time, financial performance measurement used by all companies to measure the executives’ performances was no longer sufficient. The result of the study was published in an article titled “Balanced Scorecard – Measures That Drive Performance” in Harvard Business Review (January-February 1992). The results of the study concluded that to measure the executive performance in the future, a comprehensive measurement is needed using financial, customer, internal business process and learning and growth perspectives.
This Final Year Project (FYP) refers to technical work and report writing experience that is relevant to professional development prior to graduation. One of the Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka requirements for the award of Bachelor of Electronic Engineering (Wireless Communication) is that a student should complete his/her Final Year Project (FYP) and report. In order to that, my Final Year Project (FYP) titled “AnAnalysisof Dielectric Constant s ofPharmaceutical Medicines Using Microwave Radiation ”. Microwave is a form of energy exists in wave form which travels through free space. Dielectric constants is a reference of characteristic response of material that effect when applied alternating electric field. A pharmaceutical drug also knows as medicine or medication which drug comprise the other major subset of pharmaceuticals, with their source and manufacture being chemical in nature. The purpose of analyzing of dielectric constant ofpharmaceutical medicines using microwave radiation is to study the dielectric constant on pharmaceutical medicine at microwave frequency, develop experiment of dielectric constant using pharmaceutical medicine exposure and analyzing dielectric constant ofpharmaceutical medicine at microwave frequency. The open-ended coaxial probe was used as a method for complete this project. Then continue with the setup for pharmaceutical samples before do the experiment. There are five samples ofpharmaceutical used for this project which is Alucid, Paracetamol, Cloperastine and Chlopheniramine and all sample in a powder form. All the experiment result are recorded and the information will use in analyzing and investigation the effect on pharmaceutical medicines when exposure the microwave radiation.
detected as localized areas of concentrated ﬂuorescence, whereas the unbound ﬂuorphore, which comprises the background signal, is ignored. This instru- ment provides two emission channels centered at 685 nm to provide maximum emission separation between the two ﬂuorescent dyes, Cy5 and Cy5.5. This separation allows two-color analysis to be performed and thereby permits multiplexing of assays within a single well. Bead-based immunocapture assays have been reported using an antigen capture antibody attached to the bead and a second Cy5 antibody to quantify antigen capture. All assay reagents are incubated together, instead of sequentially with wash steps as in a tradi- tional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, a standard ELISA requires coating the entire well bottom with assay reagents, whereas in bead-based immunocapture, only beads with much less surface area are coated, resulting in a >100-fold reduction in reagent needs. The confocal imaging system also can detect ﬂuorescently labeled ligand binding to cell surface recep- tors, thereby eliminating the use of traditional radioligands in binding assays. The binding of a ﬂuorescent peptide ligand can be accomplished in a one-step, homogeneous format, eliminating the need to separate bound from free ligand. Speciﬁc binding has been demonstrated for Cy5 labeled Neuropeptide Y (NPY) bound to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells transfected with the Y1 and Y2 receptor subtypes, but not nontransfected cells. Because this scanning platform generates 1-mm 2 images of the well bottom, both 96- and 384-well homogeneous assays work equally well. Further instrument modiﬁcations are ongoing to make this technology suitable for 1536-well formats.
Nutrient use efficiency reflects the ability of the plants to absorb and produce dry grains for each gram of the absorbed nutrients. Results of the research showed interaction between doses treatment ofinorganic fertilizer and applicationof organic fertilizer on nutrients use efficiency of the maize plant (Table 3). The applicationof Bokashi and Sunn hemp, whether solely or in combination, under treatment of 100% inorganic fertilizer, resulted in the higher efficiency of N, P, and K nutrients than other treatments. This was due to the supplementation of organic matters, such as Bokashi, Sunn hemp, or combination of Bokashi + Sunn hemp would be able to increase the abilities in absorbing, exchanging, and buffering the nutrients in the soil, so that the supplementation of optimal fertilization would lead to optimal nutrient adsorption and produce high yield of grains. High value of nutrient use efficiency can eliminate potential nutrient loss and increase yield of the plants (Baligar et al., 2001).
Bla k s Law Di tio ar has proven its value through the years to the busy practitioner, judge and law student who requires quick and convenient access to the meanings of legal terms and phrases found in statutes or judicial opinions, as well as to the special legal meanings of standard English words — meanings which frequently cannot be found in the ordinary English language dictionaries.
Tan, K.C.D, dan Goh, N.K. (2005). “Development and Applicationof A Two-tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument to Assess High School Students Understanding ofInorganic Chemistry”. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35 (1), 89-103.
In recent years, the government has implemented a strict drunk-driving campaign, which can take up police time with respect to performing breathalyzer test on drivers. In fact, there has been a 76% increase in breathalyzer tests since 1988, and the 781,100 tests carried out by police in 1996 –1997 is the largest number of tests since breathalyzer tests were intro- duced in 1967 (source: Home Office). We would expect that, as more people have breatha- lyzer tests administered to them, serious road accidents would be likely to drop, thereby freeing up more police time for other activities. As mentioned above, we would also expect that increased administration of breathalyzer tests would act as a deterrent to drunk driving and, hence, should, ceteris paribus, ultimately reduce the level of per capita drunk-driving offenses. Following the methodology of Byrne et al. (1996), this action can be classified as a reactive approach to reducing car accidents, and so, the total number of breathalyzer tests constitutes our final output variable. The next section discusses the results from the DEA and MDA using the methodology outlined above.
likely that at the margin some of these resources are being transferred to the special category poor states, which do not get any significant external assistance. Eq. (4.1) also indicates that a rupee increase in state government’s spending financed by its own resources in the previous year leads to a 12 paise increase in central transfers in the following year. The latter link suggests some evidence of rewarding past revenue efforts of states. The regression reported in Eq. (4.3), development transfers on ACA, has similar results. In Eqs. (4.2) and (4.4) we control for two additional factors: foreign aid to other states and spending by other states. In both cases, the coefficient on ‘aid to other states’ is negative and statistically significant. It shows that a rupee increase in external aid for all other states is associated with a 39 paise reduction in central transfers. Moreover, the own foreign aid variable in the specification, which was previously significant, now becomes insignificant. Evidently, central transfers to the general category states are reduced with an overall increase in foreign assistance to states.
Firstly, for teachers, it is recommended to guide the students on how to write a good text. The teachers should give the example so that the students can get the idea of how a good text is. The teachers can give the design of schematic structure or the text made by other writers. Besides, the teachers are also recommended to apply drafting strategy in teaching writing. Drafting strategy is a strategy in which the students are asked to write the same topic on a particular text for several times, appropriately 5-6 times. During the process of drafting, the teachers give feedback on students’ writing. By applying this strategy, the students can learn from the mistakes they made and they try to correct the mistakes by themselves. It is hoped that the students have critical thinking so that they do not repeat the same mistakes. In addition, in giving feedback, the teachers should give the students understanding to the students about the importance of applying Theme system and thematic progression which affect the cohesion of their writing.