We suggest that an informal version of a theorem will often be more memorable, that is, be more easily brought to mind and used. However, it may also be more difficult to prove, and given a proof, be more difficult to validate, than a formal version. This suggests the question: Can undergraduates who have taken a transition-to-proof course reliably unpack an informally stated theorem into its formal version? Our earlier paper (Selden & Selden, 1995) indicates that the answer to this question is often no. Because the inability to unpack an informally written theorem statement into a formal version can often prevent a student from constructing a proof, we think that the informal way that a theorem is stated can be a linguistic obstacle. Such an obstacle need not be a mistake or misconception (i.e., believing something that is false). Indeed, the obstacles mentioned in the earlier paper (Selden & Selden, 1995) are related to difficulties with unpacking the logic of informally worded mathematical statements.
Plant genome sciences, and plant biology as a whole, contribute signiicantly to human health, energy security, and environmental stewardship. The National Plant Genome Initiative (NPGI) has been funding and coordinating plant genome research among agencies successfully for nine years to understand how plants function and how to develop desirable plant characteristics. Research breakthroughs from NPGI andthe National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Arabidopsis 2010 Project, such as how the plant immune system controls pathogen defense, demonstrate that the plant genome science community is vibrant and capable of driving technological advancement. Therefore, these programs should continue in order to increase the contribution of plant science to vital areas of national interest.
A number of projects in the AFF Program have been successful in achieving its mission. The Alaska Field Station has conducted exemplary work through its focused research topics, clear goals, strong partnerships with those associated with the industries, and adequate resources to carry out research to reduce injury and fatality rates among commercial ishermen. Since the inception of the station, there has been a 51% decline in the annual death rate in Alaskan commercial ishermen, active interagency cooperation is occurring, and, perhaps most importantly, NIOSH has achieved buy-in and respect from the commercial ishermen themselves.
from deeper and operationally more dificult seams, a range of existing environmental issues and concerns will be exacerbated and new concerns are likely to arise, particularly related to greater disturbance of hydrologic systems, ground subsidence, and waste management at mines and processing plants. Research activities should focus on developing techniques to mitigate the alteration and collapse of rock layers overlying mined areas, to model the hydrological impacts of coal mining, to improve mine mapping and void detection, to increase stability of waste heaps on steep slopes, and to improve the construction and monitoring of coal waste impoundments. Research also offers considerable potential to mitigate the ef- fects of past mining practices, particularly acid mine drainage on abandoned mine lands.
Recent technological advances have made removing salt from seawater and groundwater a realistic option for increasing water supplies in some parts of the U.S., and desalination will likely have a niche in the nation’s future water management portfolio. However, the potential of desalination is constrained by inancial, social, and environmental factors. Substantial uncertainties remain about its environmental impacts, which have led to costly permitting delays. A coordinated, strategic research effort with steady funding is needed to better understand and minimize desalination’s environmental impacts—and to ind ways to further lower its costs and energy use.
The White House Ofice of Management and Budget issued a draft bulletin in January of 2006 seeking to improve the quality of federal agencies’ risk assessments by setting new standards for their conduct. OMB asked the National Research Council to review the bul- letin, and one year later, an NRC panel of experts determined it had technical shortcomings and recommended that it be withdrawn.
Committee to Assess the Scientiic Information for the Radiation Exposure Screening and Education Program: R. Julian Preston, Ph.D.* (Chair), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC; Thomas B. Borak, Ph.D., Health Sciences, Fort Collins, CO; Catherine Borbas, Ph.D., Healthcare Education andResearch Foundation, St. Paul, MN; A. Bertrand Brill, Ph.D., Vanderbilt University Medical Center School of Medicine, Nashville, TN; Thomas E. Buhl, Ph.D., Chp, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Santa Fe, NM; Patricia A. Fleming, Ph.D., Creighton University, Omaha, NE; Shirley A. Fry, M.D., Mph, Consultant, Radiation Health Effects; Radiation and Occupational Epidemiology, Indianapolis, IN; Richard Hornung, Dr.Ph, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH; Kathleen N. Lohr, M.Phil, Ph.D., RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC; Stephen G. Pauker, M.D., Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA; Isaf Al-Nabulsi, Ph.D. (Study Director), National Research Council.
Although the dairy sheep industry makes up a relatively small segment of the U.S. sheep industry, it has the potential to become an economically important agricultural industry. The United States is the world’s largest importer of sheep milk cheese, accounting for about half of the world’s sheep milk cheese in international commerce. The growth of the domestic industry is the result of production in high- quality cheeses, and promotion of sheep cheeses by both national and state organizations. A lack of local commercial processing factories has led many U.S. sheep producers to make cheese on their farms in small batches for direct marketing to individuals, food stores, and restaurants. For the dairy sheep industry to continued to develop, advancement in sheep genetics to improve the dairy sheep traits, researchand support for dairy production and sheep milk processing, and increased competitiveness with lower-priced sheep milk cheese imports need to be overcome.
IPY projects helped empower the next generation of polar scientists. The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS), an active peer network that aims to support early career scientists from around the world by providing opportunities for networking, holding seminars and workshops, and promoting education and outreach, got its start during IPY. In addition, IPY sought to build diversity into the polar research community by engaging more women, both in terms of project leadership and participation on project teams, increasing the number of female lead scientists from near zero during International Geophysical Year in 1957–1958 to around one-fourth during IPY. IPY also increased the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in polar science, for example by actively recruiting minority graduate and undergraduate students in science programs.
Building the Arctic Observing Network will require international cooperation and support. Because some areas of the Arctic have more de- veloped monitoring and information systems than others, it will be critical to engage all arctic nations from the outset. This report provides a broad vision for such a network andthe next step is for the inter- national community of scientists, operational andresearch government agencies, other governmental and nongovernmental groups, arctic residents, and industry to take what they ﬁ nd useful from this vision, reﬁ ne it, and implement the ideas. Because many potential components of the network already exist or are being planned, and because of the surge of activity during the International Polar Year, there is an immediate opportunity for major progress.
most Americans. Rather, NWS information is carried to different audiences through a complex com- munication chain that can include local television stations, cable tele- vision and radio, websites, weather apps for mobile phones, and social media channels such as Twitter and Facebook. These ever more diverse communication pathways underscore the need for social and behavioral sciences (SBS) research to better understand how differ- ent target populations receive and process weather information, and how people are affected by differing, sometimes conlict- ing information coming from these sources.
The committee identifies two areas that need urgent attention to make best use of the frame- work: the need for data collection (as well as devel- opment of validated metrics and methodologies), andthe need for increased human capacity. The committee recommends that Congress and federal agencies continue funding and supporting the col- lection (and improvement) of datasets that can be used for food system assessment studies, and con- sider the need for new data collection programs as priorities arise. The committee supports federal efforts to share data and recommends the develop- ment of public-private mechanisms for collaboration. Furthermore, there is a need to train scien- tists in academia, the private sector, and govern- ment agencies in all aspects of complex systems approaches—including systems research design, data collection, and analytical methodologies— andthe use of models. It is particularly important that federal agencies have the analytical capacity to undertake assessments using principles of the framework as they consider domestic and global consequences of proposed policy changes.
Most frameworks rely on traditional toxicology data streams—such as human epidemiologic data and ecotoxicity studies—to assess the human health and environmental hazards of chemical use. Evaluation of these data is often supported by classiication tools such as the Globally Harmonized System of Classiication and Labelling of Chemicals [GHS]. However, there have been many new developments in toxicity testing over the past 10 years. The 2007 National Research Council report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, in particular, spurred new approaches and thinking about chemical hazard assessment, and ongoing advances in chem- istry, material sciences, and toxicology contribute to this revolution. The current report demonstrates
Committee on Air Quality Management in the United States: William Chameides (Chair), Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Daniel Greenbaum (Vice-Chair), Health Effects Institute, Boston, MA, Carmen Benkovitz, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, Eula Bingham, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, Michael Bradley, M.J. Bradley & Associates, Concord, MA, Richard Burnett, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Dallas Burtraw, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, Laurence Caretto, California State University, Northridge, Costel Denson, University of Delaware, Newark, Charles Driscoll, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, Jane Hall, California State University, Fullerton, Philip Hopke, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, Arnold Howitt, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, C.S. Kiang, Peking University, Beijing, China, Beverly Law, Oregon State University, Corvallis, James Lents, University of California, Riverside, Denise Mauzerall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, Thomas McGarity, University of Texas School of Law, Austin, Jana Milford, University of Colorado, Boulder, Michael Morris, North Central Texas Council of Governments, Arlington, Spyros Pandis, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, P. Barry Ryan, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, Adel Saroim , University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Sverre Vedal, National Jewish Medical andResearch Center, Denver, CO, Lauren Zeise, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, Raymond Wassel (Study Director), Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.
Committee on the Health Risks of Phthalates: Deborah Cory-Slechta (Chair) , University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry; Edmund Crouch, Cambridge Environmental Inc.; Paul Foster, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Mary Fox, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Kevin Gaido, Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences; Maida Galvez, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Chris Gennings, Virginia Commonwealth University; J. Paul Gilman, Covanta Energy Corporation; Russ Hauser, Harvard School of Public Health; Andreas Kortenkamp, University of London School of Pharmacy; Jeffrey Peters, Pennsylvania State University; Donna Vorhees, The Science Collaborative; Mary Snow Wolff, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Ellen Mantus (Project Director), National Research Council.
for truck drivers, or collaborations with centers that work with immigrant workers. Resources could be made available in multiple languages and in multiple forms of media to address literacy and cultural issues. To increase outreach, outside resources such as community and small business groups and federal agencies could be enlisted to help translate report indings to their constituencies. Inluencing Policy andResearch. Although the Health Hazard Evaluation Program is not a regulatory agency, it has substantially impacted policies and regulations designed to protect
This reportbrief was prepared by the National Research Council based on the committee’s report. For more information, contact the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate at (202) 334-3512 or visit http://nationalacademies.org/basc. Copies of Observing Weather and Climate from the Ground Up: A National Network of Networks are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, D.C. 20001; (800) 624-6242; www.nap.edu. Support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, andthe Na- tional Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) .
GLOBAL LINKAGES: Melting sea ice affects more than just sea levels. When polar ice freezes, it exudes a salty brine that descends to the deep ocean. When polar ice melts, it releases relatively fresh water that remains in the ocean’s surface layers. This freeze-melt cycle not only alters the complexion of polar oceans, but it can also alter the circulation of water and heat through oceans around the world, affecting regional climates. Don Perovich and Bruce Elder of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Researchand Engineering Laboratory and Stephen Ackley of the University of Texas at San Antonio are setting up a system of buoys both in the Arctic Basin and in Antarctica’s Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas. The buoys will take year-long measurements of sea ice that will help scientists understand the changing dynamics of the polar freeze-melt cycle, and what they mean for the future of the world’s oceans.
To that end, thereport recommends that a nationally coordinated effort be established to foster support and systematic evaluation of existing models, andresearchand development of new modeling approaches, undertaken in collaboration with the broader meteorological community. The Ofice of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, which recently organized a review of U.S. dispersion modeling capabilities, could provide valuable input as to which agency is best suited to oversee this coordinated effort. This coordinated effort should also exploit the wealth of knowledge about meteorological and dispersion models that reside in universities, National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Ofices, and private sector facilities throughout the nation.
Committee on Toxicants and Pathogens in Biosolids Applied to Land : Thomas Burke (Chair), Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence R. Curtis, Oregon State University, Charles N. Haas, Drexel University, Ellen Z. Harrison, Cornell University, William E. Halperin, New Jersey Medical School, John B. Kaneene Michigan State University, Greg Kester, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Stephen P. McGrath, Institute for Arable Crops Research, Thomas E. McKone, University of California, Ian L. Pepper University of Arizona, Suresh D. Pillai, Texas A&M University, Frederick G. Pohland, University of Pittsburgh, Robert S. Reimers, Tulane Univer - sity, Rosalind A. Schoof, Gradient Corporation, Donald L. Sparks, University of Delaware, Robert C. Spear, University of California at Berkeley, Susan Martel (Study Director), the National Academies’ Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicolgy.