Market value has the advantage of being an external measure of value. It is subject to manipulation by neither the internal buying nor selling segment. In addition, it captures the relevant opportunity costs because it is a measure of the price that the internal selling unit could receive for its production from another buyer and a measure of the cost that would be incurred by the internal buying segment to purchase from an alternative seller. The disadvantages of market price include the possibility that there may not be a comparable product in the marketplace. If demand for the product has declined,
13. Delightful Yogurt Company produces yogurt in two departments-Mixing and Finishing. In Mixing, all ingredients except fruit are added at the start of production. In Finishing, fruit is added and then the mixture is placed into containers. Adding the fruit to the basic yogurt mixture increases the volume transferred in by the number of gallons of fruit added. Any spoilage that occurs is in the Finishing Department. Spoilage is detected just before the yogurt is placed into containers or at the 98 percent completion point. All spoilage is abnormal.
18) Pat, a Pizzeria manager, replaced the convection oven just six months ago. Today, Turbo Ovens Manufacturing announced the availability of a new convection oven that cooks more quickly with lower operating expenses. Pat is considering the purchase of this faster, lower-operating cost convection oven to replace the existing one they recently purchased. Selected information about the two ovens is given below:
28) Silver Company uses one raw material, silver ore, for all of its products. It spends considerable time getting the silver from the ore before it starts the actual processing of the finished products, rings, lockets, etc. Traditionally, the company made one product at a time and charged the product with all costs of production, from ore to final inspection. However, in recent months, the costaccounting reports have been somewhat disturbing to management. It seems that some of the finished products are costing more than they should, even to the point of approaching their retail value. It has been noted by the accounting manager that this problem began when the company started buying ore from different parts of the world, some of which require difficult extraction methods.
Answer: The four methods are: 1. Net Present Value (NPV); 2. Internal Rate of Return (IRR); 3. Payback; and 4. Accrual Accounting Rate of Return (AARR). NPV has advantages in that it uses discounted cash flows, and can deal with uneven cash flows, considers the inflows and outflows of the project. A disadvantage of NPV is that the results indicate if it achieves a particular cost of capital or not, but it does not indicate what the rate of return actually is. The IRR method generates an expected rate of return for the investment given the time of the project and the discounting of cash flows. A disadvantage of the IRR is that the results are expressed in the form of a percentage rather than in dollars and it is difficult to use when the project has uneven cash flows. The payback is simple to use, and adapts to both even and uneven cash flows. It also highlights the liquidity of a project. A disadvantage to the payback is that it does not consider either the time value of money, or the cash flows that occur after the payback time period. The AARR method uses the information that is most often found in financial statements including net income and depreciation. A drawback is that the method does not take into account the time value of money or the cash flows of the project.
a. What was the cost of raw material put into production during the year? b. How much of the material from question 1 consisted of indirect material? c. How much of the factory labor cost for the year consisted of indirect labor? d. What was the cost of goods manufactured for the year?
30) McKenna Company manufactured 1,000 units during April with a total overhead budget of $12,400. However, while manufacturing the 1,000 units the microcomputer that contained the month's cost information broke down. With the computer out of commission, the accountant has been unable to complete the variance analysis report. The information missing from the report is lettered in the following set of data:
Budget Actual Variance Revenues $59,000 $60,000 $1,000 F Cost of goods sold 42,000 43,400 1,400 U Wages 6,700 7,000 300 U General 1,300 900 400 F Fixed costs 5,000 5,000 0 Operating income $ 4,000 $ 3,700 $ 300 U