manufacturing overhead, a spending variance for the fixed overhead component, an efficiency variance for the variable overhead, and a production-volume variance for the fixed overhead. When the firm uses a 3-variance approach, the fixed and variable spending variance is combined into a single variance, while the variable overhead efficiency is still shown separately and the fixed overhead production- volume variance is singled out. In the 2-variance method, the fixed and variable spending variances are combined into one amount along with the variable efficiency, and then the fixed production-volume is shown as a separate variance. The 1-variance method shows the difference between the actual costs incurred and the flexible-budget amount for the output level achieved.
A fundamental concept of basic accounting. In any one given accounting period, you should try to match the revenue you are reporting with the expenses it took to generate that revenue in the same time period, or over the periods in which you will be receiving benefits from that expenditure. A simple example is depreciation expense. If you buy a building that will last for many years, you don't write off the cost of that building all at once. Instead, you take depreciation deductions over the building's estimated useful life. Thus, you've "matched" the expense, or cost, of the building with the benefits it produces, over the course of the years it will be in service.
Stage 1 of a capital budgeting project is the identify projects stage in which a firm determines which types of capital investments are necessary to accomplish organization objectives and strategies. Stage 2 is the obtain information stage in which a firm gathers information from all parts of the value chain to analyze alternative projects. Stage 3 is the make predictions stage in which the firm forecasts all potential cash flows attributable to the alternative projects. Stage 4 is the make decisions by choosing among alternatives stage in which the firm determines which investment yields the greatest benefit and the least cost to the organization. Stage 5 is the implement the decision, evaluate performance, and learn stage that is further separated into two sub stages: (1) obtain funding and make the investments selected in the stage 4 process, and (2) track the realized cash flows, compare against the forecast numbers, and revise plans if necessary.
Direct manufacturing labor's unfavorable efficiency variance may have been caused by: (1) poor working conditions, (2) changes in the production process (learning something new initially takes longer), (3) different types of direct materials to work with, or (4) poor attitudes on behalf of the workers.
Predetermined overhead rates should be used for three reasons: (1) to assign overhead to Work in Process during the production cycle instead of at the end of the period; (2) to compensate for fluctuations in actual overhead costs that have no bearing on activity levels; and (3) to overcome problems of fluctuations in activity levels that have no impact on actual fixed overhead costs. DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2-2
2) Local Steel Construction Company produces two products, steel and wood beams. Steel beams have a unit contribution margin of $200, and wood beams have a unit contribution margin of $150. The demand for steel beams exceeds Local Steel Construction Company's production capacity, which is limited by available direct labor and machine-hours. The maximum demand for wood beams is 90 per week. Management desires that the product mix should maximize the weekly contribution toward fixed costs and profits.
28) Silver Company uses one raw material, silver ore, for all of its products. It spends considerable time getting the silver from the ore before it starts the actual processing of the finished products, rings, lockets, etc. Traditionally, the company made one product at a time and charged the product with all costs of production, from ore to final inspection. However, in recent months, the costaccounting reports have been somewhat disturbing to management. It seems that some of the finished products are costing more than they should, even to the point of approaching their retail value. It has been noted by the accounting manager that this problem began when the company started buying ore from different parts of the world, some of which require difficult extraction methods.
This definition has a number of strengths. It identifies that accounting information should include both financial and operational information. It stresses the increasing importance of supporting strategic decision making in the organisation as a result of a volatile and competitive business environment. It views Accounting as more than the technique of processing and measuring data. Behavioural and social responsibility aspects are recognised in the definition as attributes. This view is, however, restricted as it defines Accounting from a Management Accounting perspective and overlooks the financial reporting aspects. Another limitation is that it does not state specifically that in Accounting change and continuous improvement are measured, although it is implied. By facilitating change, the implication is that accounting information should include aspects such as flexibility and companies’ ability to adapt to change.
Budget Actual Variance Revenues $59,000 $60,000 $1,000 F Cost of goods sold 42,000 43,400 1,400 U Wages 6,700 7,000 300 U General 1,300 900 400 F Fixed costs 5,000 5,000 0 Operating income $ 4,000 $ 3,700 $ 300 U