Answer: The four methods are: 1. Net Present Value (NPV); 2. Internal Rate of Return (IRR); 3. Payback; and 4. Accrual Accounting Rate of Return (AARR). NPV has advantages in that it uses discounted cash flows, and can deal with uneven cash flows, considers the inflows and outflows of the project. A disadvantage of NPV is that the results indicate if it achieves a particular cost of capital or not, but it does not indicate what the rate of return actually is. The IRR method generates an expected rate of return for the investment given the time of the project and the discounting of cash flows. A disadvantage of the IRR is that the results are expressed in the form of a percentage rather than in dollars and it is difficult to use when the project has uneven cash flows. The payback is simple to use, and adapts to both even and uneven cash flows. It also highlights the liquidity of a project. A disadvantage to the payback is that it does not consider either the time value of money, or the cash flows that occur after the payback time period. The AARR method uses the information that is most often found in financial statements including net income and depreciation. A drawback is that the method does not take into account the time value of money or the cash flows of the project.
14) The textbook discusses three levels of variances, Level 0, Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3. Briefly explain the meaning of each of those levels and provide an example of a variance at each of those levels. Answer: A Level 0 variance is simply the difference between actual operating income and planned operating income in the static budget.
manufacturing overhead, a spending variance for the fixed overhead component, an efficiency variance for the variable overhead, and a production-volume variance for the fixed overhead. When the firm uses a 3-variance approach, the fixed and variable spending variance is combined into a single variance, while the variable overhead efficiency is still shown separately and the fixed overhead production- volume variance is singled out. In the 2-variance method, the fixed and variable spending variances are combined into one amount along with the variable efficiency, and then the fixed production-volume is shown as a separate variance. The 1-variance method shows the difference between the actual costs incurred and the flexible-budget amount for the output level achieved.
Budget Actual Variance Revenues $59,000 $60,000 $1,000 F Cost of goods sold 42,000 43,400 1,400 U Wages 6,700 7,000 300 U General 1,300 900 400 F Fixed costs 5,000 5,000 0 Operating income $ 4,000 $ 3,700 $ 300 U
59) Paragon University operates an extensive and an expensive registration, testing, and counseling center, through which all students are required to pass through when they enter the university. The registration effort's costs (for the most part) are almost impossible to allocate based upon which students require time, effort, etc. The cost of this center is approximately 15% of the total costs of Paragon. This department engages in no other activities than the registration of students. Paragon is interested in determining the profitability of the three technical departments it operates. Paragon has the perception that some departments are more profitable than others, and it would like to determine an appropriate method of allocating the costs of this registration center.
18) Pat, a Pizzeria manager, replaced the convection oven just six months ago. Today, Turbo Ovens Manufacturing announced the availability of a new convection oven that cooks more quickly with lower operating expenses. Pat is considering the purchase of this faster, lower-operating cost convection oven to replace the existing one they recently purchased. Selected information about the two ovens is given below:
cost of a cost object) biaya yang terkait dengan suatu objek biaya tetapi tidak dapat dilacak ke objek biaya tersebut dengan cara yang layak secara ekonomi (efektif biaya). Biaya tidak langsung dialokasikan ke objek biaya dengan metode pengalokasian biaya.