Answer: The managers can use the information to determine which proposal is best under the various alternatives. This may be accomplished by ranking each alternative. Also, the managers must determine the factors that are the most important to the company. For example, if short-run risk is high, a short payback period may be highly desirable. In this case, Proposal 1 is best. However, if total cash returned is critical to the company's operations, then Proposal 4 is probably best.
4. The Sweet Temptations Company has two processing departments, Cooking and Packaging. Ingredients are placed into production at the beginning of the process in Cooking, where they are formed into various shapes. When finished, they are transferred into Packaging, where the candy is placed into heart and tuxedo boxes and covered with foil. All material added in Packaging is considered as one material for convenience. Since the boxes contain a variety of candies, they are considered partially complete until filled with the appropriate assortment. The following information relates to the two departments for February 20X7:
Direct manufacturing labor's unfavorable efficiency variance may have been caused by: (1) poor working conditions, (2) changes in the production process (learning something new initially takes longer), (3) different types of direct materials to work with, or (4) poor attitudes on behalf of the workers.
Budget Actual Variance Revenues $59,000 $60,000 $1,000 F Cost of goods sold 42,000 43,400 1,400 U Wages 6,700 7,000 300 U General 1,300 900 400 F Fixed costs 5,000 5,000 0 Operating income $ 4,000 $ 3,700 $ 300 U
8) What are six reasons that joint costs should be allocated to individual products or services? Answer: The first reason joint costs should be allocated to compute inventoriable costs and cost of goods sold is for financial accounting purposes and for income tax reporting. The second reason the costs should be allocated to also allow for computing cost of goods sold and inventoriable costs for internal reporting purposes to compute division profits and to evaluate division managers. The third reason that joint costs need to be allocated is so that costs will be reimbursed under contracts using a cost plus system, often found in government contracts. A fourth reason for the cost allocation is to allow for proper valuation and settlement in insurance claims for damages. A fifth reason is that joint products may be regulated and proper costing is essential. The sixth reason for allocating joint costs is to support litigation where the joint product is a key input.
18) Pat, a Pizzeria manager, replaced the convection oven just six months ago. Today, Turbo Ovens Manufacturing announced the availability of a new convection oven that cooks more quickly with lower operating expenses. Pat is considering the purchase of this faster, lower-operating cost convection oven to replace the existing one they recently purchased. Selected information about the two ovens is given below:
a. Work in Process Inventory and a credit to Finished Goods Inventory. b. Finished Goods Inventory and a credit to Cost of Goods Sold. c. Cost of Goods Sold and a credit to Finished Goods Inventory. d. Finished Goods Inventory and a credit to Work in Process Inventory.
Answer: If variances are always written off to cost of goods sold, a company could set its standards to either increase (for financial reporting purposes) or decrease (for tax purposes) operating incomes. The proration method has the effect of approximating the allocation of fixed costs based on actual costs and actual output so it is not susceptible to the manipulation of operating income based on the choice of the denominator level.